Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, "mind"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.1 Phrenology was first practiced by mystical groups that operated during the period of the Essenes.2 Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796,3 the discipline was very popular in the 19th century, especially from about 1810 until 1840. The principal British centre for phrenology was Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was established in 1820.
Although now regarded as an obsolete amalgamation of primitive neuroanatomy with moral philosophy, phrenological thinking has been influential in 19th-century psychiatry and modern neuroscience. Gall's assumption that character, thoughts, and emotions are located in localized parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology.45
Phrenologists believed that the human mind has a set of different mental faculties, with each particular faculty represented in a different area of the brain. For example, the faculty of "philoprogenitiveness", from the Greek for "love of offspring", was located centrally at the back of the head (see illustration of the chart from Webster's Academic Dictionary).
These areas were said to be proportional to a person's propensities. The importance of an organ was derived from relative size compared to other organs. It was believed that the cranial skull—like a glove to the hand—conformed in order to accommodate the different sizes of these particular areas of the brain in different individuals, so that a person's capacity for a given personality trait could be determined simply by measuring the area of the skull that overlies the corresponding area of the brain.
An older notion was that personality was determined by the four humors.
Phrenology is a process that involved the observing and-or feeling the skull to determine an individual's psychological attributes. Franz Joseph Gall first believed that the brain was made up of 27 individual organs that determined personality, with the first 19 of these 'organs' believed to exist in other animal species. Phrenologists would run their fingertips and palms over the skulls of their patients to feel for enlargements or indentations.6 The phrenologist would often take measurements with a tape measure of the overall head size and more rarely employ a craniometer, a special version of a caliper. In general, instruments to measure sizes of cranium were used after the main stream phrenology had ended. The phrenologists put emphasis on employing drawings of individuals with particular traits to determine the character of the person and thus many phrenology books have many pictures of subjects. From absolute and relative sizes the organ regions of the skull the phrenologist would assess the character and temperament of the patient.
Gall's list of the "brain organs" was specific. An enlarged organ meant that the patient used that particular "organ" extensively. The number and more detailed meanings of organs were added later by other phrenologists. The 27 areas were varied in function, from sense of color, to the likelihood of religiosity, to the potential to be combative or destructive. Each of the 27 "brain organs" was located in a specific area of the skull. As a phrenologist felt the skull, he would use his knowledge of the shapes of heads and organ positions to determine the overall natural strengths and weakness of an individual. Phrenologists believed the head revealed natural tendencies and not absolute limitations or strengths of a person's character.
Among the first to identify the brain as the major controlling center for the body were Hippocrates and his followers, inaugurating a major change in thinking from Egyptian, biblical and early Greek views, which based bodily primacy of control on the heart.7 This belief was supported by the Roman physician Galen, who concluded that mental actively occurred in the brain rather than the heart, contending that the brain, a cold, moist organ formed of sperm, was the seat of the animal soul—one of three "souls" found in the body, each associated with a principal organ.8
The German physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828) in 1796 began lecturing on organology, the isolation of mental faculties9 and later cranioscopy, which was the reading of the skull's shape as it pertained to the general individual. It would be Gall's collaborator Johann Gaspar Spurzheim who would popularize the term "phrenology".910
In 1809 Gall began writing his principal11 work "The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular, with Observations upon the possibility of ascertaining the several Intellectual and Moral Dispositions of Man and Animal, by the configuration of their Heads. It was not published until 1819. In the introduction to this main work, Gall makes the following statement in regard to his doctrinal principles, which comprise the intellectual basis of phrenology:12
Through careful observation and extensive experimentation, Gall believed he had established a relationship between aspects of character, called faculties, to precise organs in the brain.
Johann Spurzheim was Gall's most important collaborator. He worked as Gall's anatomist until 1813 when for unknown reasons they had a permanent falling out.9 Publishing under his own name Spurzheim successfully disseminated phrenology throughout the United Kingdom during his lecture tours through 1814 and 181513 and the United States in 1832 where he would eventually die of illness.14
Gall was more concerned with creating a physical science so it was through Spurzheim that phrenology was first spread throughout Europe and America.9 Phrenology, while not universally accepted, was hardly a fringe phenomenon of the era. George Combe would become the main promoter of phrenology throughout the English speaking world after he viewed a brain dissection by Spurzheim, convincing him of phrenology's merits.
The popularization of phrenology in the middle and working class was due to in part to the idea that scientific knowledge was important and an indication of sophistication and modernity.15 Cheap and plentiful pamphlets as well as the growing popularity of scientific lectures as entertainment also helped spread phrenology to the masses. Combe created a system of philosophy of the human mind16 that became popular with the masses because of its simplified principles and wide range of social applications that were in harmony with the liberal Victorian world view.13 George Combe's book On the Constitution of Man and its Relationship to External Objects sold over 200 000 copies through nine editions.17 Combe also devoted a large portion of his book to reconciling religion and phrenology, which had long been a sticking point of acceptance. Another reason for its popularity was that phrenology stood balanced between free will and determinism.18 A person's inherent faculties were clear, and no faculty was viewed as evil, but the abuse of a faculty was. Phrenology allowed for self-improvement and upward mobility, while providing fodder for attacks on aristocratic privilege.1819 Phrenology also had wide appeal because of being a reformist philosophy not a radical one.20 Phrenology was not limited to the common people and both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert invited George Combe to read the heads of their children.21
Phrenology came about at a time when scientific procedures and standards for acceptable evidence were still being codified.22 In the context of Victorian society phrenology was a respectable scientific theory. The Phrenological Society of Edinburgh founded by George and Andrew Combe was an example of the credibility of phrenology at the time, and included a number of extremely influential social reformers and intellectuals, including the publisher Robert Chambers, the astronomer John Pringle Nichol, the evolutionary environmentalist Hewett Cottrell Watson and asylum reformer William A.F. Browne. As well in 1826, out of the 120 members of the Edinburgh society an estimated one third were from a medical background23 and by the 1840s there were over twenty-eight phrenological societies in London with over 1000 members.17 Another important scholar was Luigi Ferrarese, the leading Italian phrenologist.24 He advocated for a government embrace of phrenology as a scientific means of conquering many social ills and his Memorie Risguardanti La Dottrina Frenologica (1836), is considered "one of the fundamental 19th century works in the field".24
Traditionally the mind had been studied through introspection. Phrenology provided an attractive, biological alternative that attempted to unite all mental phenomena and treat them with consistent biological terms.25 Ironically, Gall's approach provided a way to studying the mind that would lead to the downfall of his theories.26 Phrenology also contributed to development of physical anthropology, forensic medicine, understanding of brain, nervous system and brain anatomy as well as contributing to applied psychology.27
John Elliotson was a brilliant but erratic heart specialist became a phrenologist in the 1840s, he was also a mesmerist and combined the two into something he called phrenomesmerism or phrenomegnatism.23 The prospect of changing behaviour with mesmerism eventually won out in Elliotson's mesmeric hospital, putting phrenology in a subordinate role.22 Others amalgamated phrenology and mesmerism as well, such as the practical phrenologists Collyer and Joseph R. Buchanan. The benefits of combining mesmerism and phrenology was that the trance that the mesmeric trance a patient was placed in was supposed to allow for the manipulation of penchants and qualities.23 For example if the organ of self-esteem was touched the subject would take on a haughty expression.28
Phrenology had been mostly discredited as a scientific theory by the 1840s. This was only in part due to a growing amount of evidence against phrenology.23 Phrenologists had never been able to agree on the most basic underpinnings with mental organ numbers going from 27 to over 40,2930 and had also never been able to locate the mental organs. Instead phrenologists relied on cranioscopic readings of the skull to find organ locations.31 Jean Pierre Flourens experiments on the brains of pigeons indicated that the loss of parts of the brain either caused no loss of function, or the loss of a completely different function than what had been attributed to it by phrenology. Flourens experiment, while not perfect seemed to indicated that Gall's supposed organs were imaginary.2632 Scientists had also become disillusioned with phrenology since its popularization with the middle and working classes by entrepreneurs. The popularization had resulted in the simplification of phrenology and the mixing of principles with physiognomy, which had from the start been rejected by Gall as an indicator of personality.33 Phrenology from its inception was continuously followed by accusations of promoting materialism and atheism, and being destructive of morality. These were all factors which led to the downfall of phrenology.3134
During the early 20th century, a revival of interest in phrenology occurred on the fringe, partly because of studies of evolution, criminology and anthropology (as pursued by Cesare Lombroso). The most famous British phrenologist of the 20th century was the London psychiatrist Bernard Hollander (1864–1934). His main works, The Mental Function of the Brain (1901) and Scientific Phrenology (1902) are an appraisal of Gall's teachings. Hollander introduced a quantitative approach to the phrenological diagnosis, defining a method for measuring the skull, and comparing the measurements with statistical averages.35
In Belgium, Paul Bouts (1900–1999) began studying phrenology from a pedagogical background, using the phrenological analysis to define an individual pedagogy. Combining phrenology with typology and graphology, he coined a global approach known as psychognomy.
Bouts, a Roman Catholic priest, became the main promoter of renewed 20th-century interest in phrenology and psychognomy in Belgium. He was also active in Brazil and Canada, where he founded institutes for characterology. His works Psychognomie and Les Grandioses Destinées individuelle et humaine dans la lumière de la Caractérologie et de l'Evolution cérébro-cranienne are considered standard works in the field. In the latter work, which examines the subject of paleoanthropology, Bouts developed a teleological and orthogenetical view on a perfecting evolution, from the paleo-encephalical skull shapes of prehistoric man, which he considered still prevalent in criminals and savages, towards a higher form of mankind, thus perpetuating phrenology's problematic racializing of the human frame. Bouts died on March 7, 1999, after which his work has been continued by the Dutch foundation PPP (Per Pulchritudinem in Pulchritudine), operated by Anette Müller, one of Bouts' students.
In his booklet Phrenology and Other Sciences, C. W. Le Grand, President of the British Phrenological Society 1958 – 60 expressed his frustration with the misunderstandings and misrepresentations to which he felt Phrenology had been subjected: "So many mistaken notions and erroneous ideas exist concerning Phrenology, and so gross has been its misrepresentations, that many thoughtful people have rejected it out of hand."37
In 2007, the US State of Michigan included phrenology in a list of personal services subject to sales tax.38
Some people with causes used phrenology as justification for European superiority over other "lesser" races. By comparing skulls of different ethnic groups it supposedly allowed for ranking of races from least to most evolved. Broussais, a disciple of Gall, proclaimed that the Caucasians were the "most beautiful" while peoples like the New Hollander (Australian) and Maori would never become civilized since they had no cerebral organ for producing great artists.39 Surprisingly few phrenologists argued against the emancipation of the slaves. Instead they argued that through education and interbreeding the lesser peoples could improve.40 Another argument was that the natural inequality of people could be used to situate them in the most appropriate place in society. Gender stereotyping was also common with phrenology. Women whose heads were generally larger in the back with lower foreheads were thought to have underdeveloped organs necessary for success in the arts and sciences while having larger mental organs relating to the care of children and religion.41 While phrenologists did not contend the existence of talented women, this minority did not provide justification for citizenship or participation in politics.42
One of the considered practical applications of phrenology was education. Due to the nature of phrenology people were naturally considered unequal with very few people would have a naturally perfect balance between organs. Thus education would play an important role in creating a balance through rigorous exercise of beneficial organs while repressing baser ones. One of the best examples of this is Félix Voisin who for approximately ten years ran a reform school in Issy for the express purpose of correction of the mind of children who had suffered some hardship. Voisin focused on four categories of children for his reform school:43
- Slow learners
- Spoiled, neglected, or harshly treated children
- willful, disorderly children
- Children at high risk of inheriting mental disorders
Phrenology was one of the first to bring about the idea of rehabilitation of criminals instead of vindictive punishments that would not stop criminals, only with the reorganizing a disorganized brain would bring about change.44 Voisin believed along with others the accuracy of phrenology in diagnosing criminal tendencies. Diagnosis could point to the type of offender, the insane, an idiot or brute, and by knowing this an appropriate course of action could be taken.43 A strict system of reward and punishment, hard work and religious instruction, was thought to be able to correct those who had been abandoned and neglected with little education and moral ground works. Those who were considered mentally challenged could be put to work and housed collectively while only criminals of intellect and vicious intent needed to be confined and isolated.45 Phrenology also advocated variable prison sentences, the idea being that those who were only defective in education and lacking in morals would soon be released while those who were mentally deficient could be watched and the truly abhorrent criminals would never be released.204647 For other patients phrenology could help redirect impulses, one homicidal individual became a butcher to control his impulses, while another became a military chaplain so he could witness killings.48 Phrenology also provided reformist arguments for the lunatic asylums of the Victorian era. John Conolly, a physician interested in psychological aspects of disease, used phrenology on his patients in an attempt to use it as a diagnostic tool. While the success of this approach is debatable, Conolly, through phrenology, introduced a more humane way of dealing with the mentally ill.22
The American brothers Lorenzo Niles Fowler (1811–1896) and Orson Squire Fowler (1809–1887) were leading phrenologists of their time. Orson, together with associates Samuel Wells and Nelson Sizer, ran the phrenological business and publishing house Fowlers & Wells in New York City. Meanwhile, Lorenzo spent much of his life in England where he initiated the famous phrenological publishing house, L.N Fowler & Co., and gained considerable fame with his phrenology head (a china head showing the phrenological faculties), which has become a symbol of the discipline.49 Orson Fowler was known for his octagonal house.
In the Victorian age, phrenology as a psychology was taken seriously and permeated the literature and novels of the day. Many prominent public figures such as the Reverend Henry Ward Beecher (a college classmate and initial partner of Orson Fowler) promoted phrenology actively as a source of psychological insight and self-knowledge.50 Thousands of people consulted phrenologists for advice in various matters, such as hiring personnel or finding suitable marriage partners.51 As such, phrenology as a brain science waned but developed into the popular psychology of the 19th century.
Phrenology was introduced at a time when the old theological and philosophical understanding of the mind was being questioned and no longer seemed adequate in a society that was experiencing rapid social and demographic changes.52 Phrenology became one of the most popular movements of the Victorian Era. In part phrenology's success was due to George Combe tailoring phrenology for the middle class. Combe's book On the Constitution of Man and its Relationship to External Objects was one of the most popular of the time selling over two hundred thousand copies in a ten-year period. Phrenology's success was also due in part because it was introduced at a time when scientific lectures were becoming a form of middle class entertainment, exposing a large demographic of people to phrenological ideas who wouldn't have been exposed otherwise.53 As a result of the changing of the times, along with new avenues for exposure, and its multifaceted appeal phrenology flourished.54
While still not a fringe movement, there was not popular widespread support of phrenology in France. This was not only due to strong opposition of phrenology by French scholars but also once again accusations of promoting atheism, materialism and radical religious views. Politics in France also played a role in preventing rapid spread of phrenology.55 In Britain phrenology had provided another tool to be used for situating demographic changes, the difference was there was less fear of revolutionary upheaval in Britain compared with France. Given that most French supporters of phrenology were liberal, left-wing or socialist, it was an objective of the social elite of France who held a restrained vision of social change that phrenology remain on the fringes. Another objection was that phrenology seemed to provide a built in excuse for criminal behaviour, since in its original form it was essentially deterministic in nature.55
Phrenology arrived in Ireland in 1815, through Spurzheim.56 While Ireland largely mirrored British trends, with scientific lectures and demonstrations becoming a popular pastime of the age, by 1815 phrenology had already been ridiculed in some circles priming the audiences to its skeptical claims.57 Because of this the general public valued it more for its comic relief than anything else, however It did find an audience in the rational dissenters who found it an attractive alternative to explain human motivations without the attached superstitions of religion.58 The supporters of phrenology in Ireland were relegated to scientific subcultures because the Irish scholars neglected marginal movements like phrenology, denying it scientific support in Ireland.15 In 1830 George Combe came to Ireland, his self-promotion barely winning out against his lack of medical expertise, still only drew lukewarm crowds. This was due to not only the Vatican's decree that phrenology was subversive of religion and morality but also that based on phrenology the "Irish Catholics were sui generis a flawed and degenerate breed".59 Because of the lack of scientific support, along with religious and prejudicial reasons phrenology never found a wide audience in Ireland.
Through the teachings of Gall and Spurzheim phrenological teachings spread, and by the 1834 when Combe came to lecture in the United States phrenology had become a widespread popular movement.60 Sensing commercial possibilities men like the Fowlers became phrenologists and sought additional ways to bring phrenology to the masses.61 Though a popular movement, the intellectual elite of the United States found phrenology attractive because it provided a biological explanation of mental processes based on observation, yet it wasn't accepted uncritically. Some intellectuals accepted organology while questioning cranioscopy.62 Gradually though the popular success of phrenology undermined its scientific merits in the United States and elsewhere, along with its materialistic underpinnings, fostering radical religious views and increasing evidence to refute phrenological claims by the 1840s it had largely lost its credibility.51 In the United States, especially in the south, phrenology faced an additional obstacle in the antislavery movement. While phrenologists usually claimed the superiority of the European race, they were often sympathetic to liberal causes including the antislavery movement; this sowed skepticism over phrenology among those who were pro-slavery.63 The rise and surge in popularity in mesmerism, phrenomesmerism, also had a hand in the loss of interest in phrenology among intellectuals and the general public.28
Propensities do not form ideas; they solely produce propensities common to animals and man.
- Love of life
- Lower sentiments
These are common to man and animal.
- Love of Approbation
- Superior sentiments
These produce emotion or feeling lacking in animals.
- Wit or Mirthfulness
These are to know the external world and physical qualities
These produce ideas of relation or reflect they minister to the direction and gratification of all the other powers
- Several literary critics have noted the influence of phrenology65 (and physiognomy) in Edgar Allan Poe's fiction.66
- Phrenology is the fifth studio album by American hip hop band The Roots, released November 26, 2002, on Geffen Records and MCA Records. Recording sessions for the album took place during June 2000 to September 2002.67
- The 2012 western Django Unchained, set in pre-Civil War America, has its villain Calvin Candie use phrenology—and the skull of a dead slave—to suggest that black people are less creative and more submissive than white people.
- Fodor, Jerry A. (1983). Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-56025-9 p.14, 23, 131
- Furst, Jeffrey. (1968). "Edgar Cayce's Story of Jesus". New York, NY., Berkley. ISBN 0-425-10327-7 p. 137
- Graham, Patrick. (2001) Phrenology [videorecording (DVD)]: revealing the mysteries of the mind . Richmond Hill, Ont.: American Home Treasures. ISBN 0-7792-5135-0
- Fodor, JA. (1983) The Modularity of Mind. MIT Press. pp. 14, 23, 131
- Simpson, D. (2005) "Phrenology and the Neurosciences: Contributions of F. J. Gall and J. G. Spurzheim" ANZ Journal of Surgery. Oxford. Vol. 75.6; p. 475
- Parssinen 1974, p. 2.
- Finger, Stanley (2004). Minds Behind the Brain: A History of the Pioneers and Their Discoveries. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0195181824.
- "A History of the Brain". A History of the Body. Stanford University, Early Science Lab. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Staum 2003, p. 49.
- Lyons 2009, p. 56.
- 1833, The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Southern Society for Clinical Investigation
- Lyons 2009, p. 53.
- Parssinen 1974, p. 3.
- McCandless 1992, p. 199.
- Leaney 2006, p. 25.
- Combe 1851, p. 1.
- Staum 2003, p. 50.
- Parssinen 1974, p. 5.
- Staum 2003, p. 51.
- Parssinen 1974, p. 6.
- Parssinen 1974, p. 1.
- McGrew 1985, p. 261.
- McGrew 1985, p. 260.
- Yasgur's Homeopathic Dictionary, Jay Yasgur, 2003, p. 184.
- Lyons 2009, p. 83.
- Lyons 2009, p. 75.
- McGrew 1985, pp. 259–261.
- McCandless 1992, p. 213.
- McGrew 1985, p. 259.
- Staum 2003, p. 52.
- Staum 2003, p. 81.
- Staum 2003, p. 80.
- Staum 2003, p. 56.
- McCandless 1992, p. 211.
- Hollander, Bernard (1891). "A Contribution to a Scientific Phrenology". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 20: 227–234. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- Rea, Lisa. "Applying Restorative Justice to the Genocide in Rwanda". Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- C. W. Le Grand - Phrenology and Other Sciences - London, British Phrenological Society, Undated
- "Extended list of services affected by new tax". Mlive.com. Associated Press. 3 October 2007. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
- Staum 2003, p. 59.
- Staum 2003, p. 62.
- Staum 2003, p. 64.
- Staum 2003, p. 65.
- Staum 2003, p. 74.
- Lyons 2009, pp. 79–80.
- Staum 2003, p. 77.
- "Punishing Criminals". Phrenological Journal. Num 3 LII (Whole Number 386): 200–204. March 1871.
- Lyons 2009, p. 80.
- Staum 2003, p. 76.
- , Phrenological Head.
- McCandless 1992, p. 204.
- McCandless 1992, p. 210.
- Parssinen 1974, p. 14.
- Parssinen 1974, p. 2,9.
- Parssinen 1974, pp. 3–9.
- Staum 2003, p. 51–52.
- Leaney 2006, p. 30.
- Leaney 2006, p. 28.
- Leaney 2006, p. 28, 38.
- Leaney 2006, p. 35.
- McCandless 1992, pp. 205–208.
- McCandless 1992, p. 208.
- McCandless 1992, p. 206.
- McCandless 1992, p. 212.
- Combe 1851, pp. x–xi.
- Edward Hungerford. "Poe and Phrenology", American Literature 2 (1930): 209-31.
- Erik Grayson. "Weird Science, Weirder Unity: Phrenology and Physiognomy in Edgar Allan Poe" Mode 1 (2005): 56-77. Also online.
- Huey, Steve. "Phrenology – The Roots". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
- Parssinen, T. M. (Autumn 1974). "Popular Science and Society: The Phrenology Movement in Early Victorian Britain". Journal of Social History 8 (1). Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- Staum, Martin S. (2003). Labeling People: French Scholars on Society, Race and Empire, 1815-1848. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0773525801.
- McGrew, Roderick E. (1985). Encyclopedia of Medical History. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
- Lyons, Sherrie L. (2009). Species, Serpents, Spirits, and Skulls: Science at the Margins in the Victorian Age. Albany: New York Press. ISBN 978-1438427973.
- McCandless, Peter (1992). "Mesmerism and Phrenology in Antebellum Charleston: "Enough of the Marvellous"". The Journal of Southern History 58 (2). Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- Leaney, Enda (2006). "Phrenology in Nineteenth-Century Ireland". New Hibernia Review / Iris Éireannach Nua 10 (3). Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- Combe, George (1851). A System of Phrenology. Boston: Benjamin B. Mussey and Company.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phrenology.|
- Manual of Phrenology Open Content Alliance eBook Collection, Manual of phrenology: being an analytical summary of the system of Doctor Gall, on the faculties of man and the functions of the brain : translated from the 4th French ed
- New illustrated self-instructor in phrenology and physiology Open Content Alliance eBook Collection, Fowler, O. S. (Orson Squire) (1809–1887); Fowler, L. N. (Lorenzo Niles) (1811–1896)
- The History of Phrenology on the Web by John van Wyhe, PhD.
- Phrenology: an Overview includes The History of Phrenology by John van Wyhe, PhD.
- Examples of phrenological tools can be seen in The Museum of Questionable Medical Devices in Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S..
- Joseph Vimont: Traité de phrénologie humaine et comparée. (Paris, 1832-1835). Selected pages scanned from the original work. Historical Anatomies on the Web. US National Library of Medicine.
- Jean-Claude Vimont: Phrénologie à Rouen, les moulages du musée Flaubert d'histoire de la médecine
- Phrenology: History of a Classic Pseudoscience - by Steven Novella MD
- The Skeptic's Dictionary by Robert Todd Carroll