Polytechnic University of the Philippines
|Polytechnic University of the Philippines|
|Politeknikong Unibersidad ng Pilipinas|
Seal of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines
|Motto||Tanglaw ng Bayan|
|Motto in English||Light of the Nation|
|Established||October 19, 1904|
|Endowment||₱948.7 million (US$21 million) (2014)1|
|President||Emanuel de Guzman|
|Doctoral students||144 (2012)4|
|Other students||4,290 (2012)4|
Maroon and Gold
|Sports||Archery, Badminton, Basketball, Chess, Combat, Football, Flying disc games, Swimming, Tennis, Track and Field, Ultimate, Volleyball, Water Polo|
|Nickname||PUP Mighty Maroons|
|Affiliations||State Colleges and Universities Athletic Association
National Athletic Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities
Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning
Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines
International Association of Universities
Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges
The Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP) is a coeducational, research state university located in Manila, Philippines. It was founded on October 19, 1904, as the Manila Business School, then the city's business school.3 The university operates on three campuses located throughout Manila. PUP is the largest university in the Philippines by enrollment with more than 60,000 students.235 PUP's mission is to be an avenue for the development of the citizenry and for the enhancement of nation building through meaningful growth and transformation. PUP also puts an emphasis on the alleviation of the plight of the poor. In accordance with its mission, PUP is also notable for charging the lowest tuition among all universities in the Philippines at 12 pesos (US$0.29) per academic unit, a rate that has unchanged since 1979.6
PUP awards bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees, and is broadly organized into 15 colleges and institutes spread across twenty-one campuses located throughout the Philippines. All campuses are accredited as a single institution by the Commission on Higher Education. Some of the degrees have been recognized as Centers of Development.78
PUP's athletic team competes in the National Capital Region Conference of the State Colleges and Universities Athletic Association (SCUAA) and are collectively known as the Mighty Maroons. They are also members of the National Athletic Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (NAASCU). Along with multiple athletic clubs and recreational facilities, PUP is also home to over 100 registered student organizations across all of its campuses, reflecting the diversity of the student body.
- 1 History
- 2 Campuses and locations
- 3 Organization and administration
- 4 Academics, ranking and research
- 5 Student life
- 6 Insignia and other representations
- 7 Notable people
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The institution started as the Manila Business School (MBS), founded on October 19, 1904,2 as part of the city school system of Manila under the superintendence of C.A. O’Reilley. The school was established to meet the demands of needed businessmen and businesswomen for government service and private employment.9 It was renamed as Philippine School of Commerce (PSC) on 19082 and became a National school.9 In 1911, the school was again placed under the administration of the city school system but still kept its status as a National school.9
In 1933, PSC merged with the Philippine Normal School (PNS)2 and the Philippine School of Arts and Trades. The resulting merger placed PSC under the administration of PNS9 and PSC students who completed their courses were considered graduates of the PNS.9 President Manuel L. Quezon promised a new building for the school through his graduation address in 1940.9 This was supported by Congressman Manuel A. Alazarte and PSC's Department Head Luis F. Reyes, who formulated a bill to this effect and present it to the Congress in 1942. Unfortunately, the plan was not carried out because of the Pacific War.9
In 1946, efforts for the school's re-establishment and rehabilitation was intensified. The Bureau of Public Works released more than ₱8,000 for the repairs and maintenance of public buildings of which the school is a beneficiary. The ruins of PNS's Normal Hall was reconstructed and the college resumed its operations. Afterwards, the Normal Hall was converted as a dormitory, forcing PSC to continue its operations on its former campus before the merge with PNS and PSAT.9 However, its campus size is inadequate to serve its ever-growing student population and therefore the school authorities sought to acquire a bigger lot to establish a new campus. A new campus lot was acquired and PSC moved to its new campus on July 1947 which is located at S. H. Loyola Street in Sampaloc, Manila.9 It continued its operations there until 1971.
PSC became the Philippine College of Commerce (PCC) on 1952 by virtue of Republic Act 778, which broadened the school's course offerings. Reyes continued to served the school, becoming its first president.10 Expansion and establishment of satellite campuses throughout the country started on the late 1960s. It was also at this time that the school acquired a large lot located at Santa Mesa, Manila. PSC moved there and it became the school's flagship campus.10
PCC became a chartered state university which was accordingly renamed as the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP), through Presidential Decree (PD) 1341 in 1978 with Mateo serving as the first president of the university.11 Mateo was succeeded by Dr. Nemesio E. Prudente12 who was known for his educational reforms and his contribution to the university. A plaza was erected in the center of the campus in honor of Prudente and his achievements.
On 2004, PUP celebrated its centennial anniversary. To highlight the signing of the Declaration of Peace to be put before the United Nations, PUP held the record for the world's largest human rainbow13 consisting of 30,365 students, faculty, staff and alumni.14
Dante G. Guevarra assumed presidency on 2005, and his administration faced numerous issues including allegations of graft and corruption, the assassination of the then-Vice President for Administration Augustus Cezar,15151617 and robust university academic and infrastructure development. Because of the issues tied to Guevarra and his administration, he failed to obtain an outstanding rating as the president of the university and therefore his term was not renewed.1819 Students also expressed outrage and dissatisfaction against Guevarra's administration.20
Guevarra was replaced by Edicio G. dela Torre, followed by Estelita Wi-Dela Rosa,18 both of whom became the Officers-in-Charge of PUP for a while as the Board of Regents searched for a new university president,19 although this move did not fare well among the faculty and students and several protests occurred.21 Emanuel de Guzman was appointed as the new president of the university on March 2012.2223
On 2014, PUP participated in a successful attempt to set a world record for most organ donation pledges, a project spearheaded by the Department of Health. It broke the record for most organ donation pledges in one hour. 3,548 people signed up in the span of 30 minutes, beating India's 2,755 pledged organ donors.2425
The flagship campus of PUP is located at Santa Mesa, Manila. PUP is a multi-campus university in which each campus in Manila is academically focused on certain aspects. The Mabini Campus is the main campus which in which most of the colleges resides and holds all the offices of the administration. Nearby the Mabini Campus, two sub-branch campuses was established as an extension of the Mabini Campus in order to accommodate its ever-growing student population: the National Development Corporation Compound (NDCC) Campus and the M. H. Del Pilar Campus. Of the two extension campuses, NDC Campus is the nearer to the Mabini Campus. The three campuses are considered as a single institution.
The Mabini Campus is the flagship campus of the university located at the banks of Pasig River. It holds the administration and executive offices.26 Most of the colleges of PUP resides in this campus. A ferry station located inside the Mabini Campus.
Mabini Campus is named in honor of Apolinario Mabini, a Filipino revolutionary during the Spanish colonial times. A house where the Mabini lived can be found inside the campus and next to it is a museum dedicated to him. The Mabini Circle, a roundabout inside the campus is now the location of a towering obelisk dedicated to the history and people of PUP, with a bust of Apolinario Mabini located at its foot.
NDC Campus is where the College of Architecture and Fine Arts, College of Communication, College of Engineering, and the Institute of Technology resides.26 The area in which the campus lies was formerly where the National Development Corporation once stood. Further away from the Mabini Campus is the M. H. Del Pilar Campus, where the graduate school and the College of Tourism, Hospitality, and Transportation Management resides.26
Each administration that serves PUP puts an emphasis and dedication to campus development, including upgrading its facilities to modern standards. Currently, the PUP Main Building, which imposes as the largest building constructed on the campus is being rehabilitated. The Aklatang Bayan ng PUP Building which is better known as the Ninoy Aquino Learning Resources Center is the main library of PUP and has state-of-the-art facilities.
Among the legal issues of PUP's campus is the purchase of two GSIS condotel-hostel buildings on NDC Campus in 2007, dubbed by the Commission on Audit as "waste of government funds" because the buildings are in dilapidated condition and costs 575.7 million. Only two floors of one of the buildings is currently in use up until today and its rehabilitation cost already amounted to P101.3 million. The overall cost for the buildings was pegged at P677.1 million and may balloon higher as rehabilitation continues.27
PUP's Board of Regents is the governing body of the university. Members of the board include University President, the Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education, and the Chairpersons of the Committees of Higher Education of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Board of Regents appoints and elects the president of the university, who is considered the chief executive officer of the institution. The Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) serves as the Chief Chairperson while the president of the university serves as the Co-Chairperson. The Chairpersons of the Committees of Higher Education of the Senate and the House of Representatives functions as committee chairpersons.
|QS Asian University Rankings (2012)28||401|
|PRC Top Universities (2009)29||15|
|PRC Top Accountancy Schools (2010)30||3|
|CHED Top Law Schools (2009)31||17|
The university is composed of 15 colleges. It has largest student body in the Philippines with a population of 61,253 students.45 Aside from its degree-granting units, PUP also has a distance education unit, a graduate school, and a laboratory high school. 58 programs of PUP are in the list of accreditation by the Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines (AACCUP) (4 Level III accredited programs, 15 qualified for Level III accreditation with 9 programs undergoing assessment, 14 Level II accredited programs, 11 Level I accredited programs, and 5 programs in the list as candidate for accreditation).32
In 2009, PUP was ranked fifteenth by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), placing in as one of the top 20 higher learning institutions in the Philippines.29 The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, which rank universities according to web presence, visibility, and access placed the university at 10,610 (worldwide) and 48 (national), respectively.33 According to the QS Asian University Rankings, PUP ranked at 401 out of 424 Asian institutions.28
PUP currently admits all students, including internationals, on a need-blind basis. Admission in PUP mainly requires passing the PUPCET, the university's entrance test. Other criteria for admission are: a general weighted average in high school which is 82% and above,34 and the enrollee's good moral character. A graduate of PUP Laboratory High School is exempted to take the entrance test, unless they opt to take it for scholarship purposes. Also exempted from taking the test are entrance scholars (e.g. valedictorian, salutatorian, journalist, athlete, etc.).35 Of an estimated 50,000 annual entrance test examinees, only 8,000 will be accepted due to the university's limited budget.36 In 2014, the national government subsidy amounts to ₱16,000.00 per student.1
PUP charges the lowest tuition fees for undergraduates among all the universities in the Philippines at ₱12.00 ($0.29) per academic unit2 which it has been charging this rate since 1979.6 Tuition fees for the Institute of Technology, Graduate School, and the Open University are higher.
PUP's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in late June and ending in late March. Graduating students with a final grade of 1.19-1.00 are awarded degrees summa cum laude, students graduating with a final grade of 1.44-1.20 are awarded magna cum laude, and the students graduating with a grade of 1.75-1.45 are awarded cum laude.37
PUP employs a total of 2,190 faculty members, with 1,483 serving as full-time and part-time with a few of the full-time faculty holding administrative positions.23 There are 707 casual and regular administrative employees serving the university.3
|College of Accountancy and Finance||1960|
|College of Architecture and Fine Arts||1987|
|College of Arts and Letters||2012|
|College of Business Administration||1904|
|College of Communication||1974|
|College of Computer and
|College of Education||2009|
|College of Engineering||1986|
|College of Human Kinetics||1978|
|Laboratory High School*||1954|
|College of Law||2001|
|College of Political Science
and Public Administration
|College of Science||1969|
|College of Social Sciences
|College of Tourism, Hospitality,
and Transportation Management
|Institute of Technology|
|*—Laboratory high school for the PUP College of Education.|
The College of Accountancy and Finance (CAF) started in 1960 as a bachelor program in Commerce with major in Accounting.
The College of Architecture and Fine Arts (CAFA) started as a course in Architecture in 1987.
In 2012, the College of Arts and Letters (CAL) was formed when College of Arts and College of Languages and Linguistics was merged in 2012. The Filipino program is recognized as a Center of Development by Commission on Higher Education.38
The College of Communication (COC), which started as a Bachelor of Arts program in Mass communication in 1974, was established in 2001 when the Department of Mass Communications was separated from the College of Languages and Mass Communications. The Journalism program is recognized as Centers of Development by Commission on Higher Education. 40
The College of Computer and Information Sciences (CCIS), started in 1969 as an Electronic Data Process course offered by the College of Accountancy. Its Information Technology program is recognized as a Center for Development by the Commission on Higher Education (from 2000 up to 2006) and as a Virtual Center for Technology Innovation in Information Technology by the Department of Science and Technology. 39 It is affiliated with Cisco since 2012.
The College of Education (COED), the normal school of the university, is the oldest college of PUP and was the predecessor of all the university's degree-granting units. Formerly the College of Office Administration and Business Teacher Education, CoEd began with the offering of business education courses in 1904 which later became BBTE. It was awarded by the Business Writers Association of the Philippines the title of "Business College of the Year” in 1955. The Bachelor in Business Teacher Education and Doctor in Educational Management programs are recognized as a Center of Development in Teacher Education.41
The College of Engineering (CE) is the engineering school of the university. It was established on 1986 when the former Institute of Technology was renamed as the College of Engineering and Architecture (CEA). The architecture department would secede and became the College of Architecture and Fine Arts in 2001. All of its Bachelor of Science programs are accredited to Level III status by AACCUP.42
The College of Human Kinectics (CHK) began as the College of Physical Education and Sports in 1978. It was established to improve the culture of sports and athleticism in the university.43
The College of Law (CL) is the law school of the university. It was formed in 2001 when the proposal to elevate the status of the Law department to a college was approved. The college was ranked 17th in the Commission on Higher Education's Top Law Schools in 2009.
In 2012, the College of Political Science and Public Administration (CPSPA) was formed when College of Economics, Finance, and Politics was abolished.44
The College of Science (CS) was formed when College of Arts and Sciences was abolished in 1969. The College of Nutrition and Food Science was merged with CS in 2012. It specializes in pure and applied sciences.45
In 2012, the College of Social Sciences and Development (CSSD) was formed when College of Cooperatives and Social Development and the departments of Economics, History, Psychology, and Sociology were merged. Short specialized courses and certificate programs are offered by the college. It also conducts in-house studies and provides research and information services to various clients especially the cooperative sector.43
The College of Tourism, Hospitality, and Transportation Management (CTHTM) was established in 2001 when the Hospitality Management (former Hotel and Restaurant Management) program and Tourism program were separated from College of Hotel and Restaurant Management and Food Technology and College of Business.39
The Institute of Technology (ITECH) is the technical school of the university. Formerly the College of Technology, it focuses on the integration of technology and skills development to its students.46
The Office of the Vice President for Research, Planning, Extension, and Development (OVPRPED) is the official research and planning agency of the university. It oversees the implementation of the research thrusts as defined by the Commission on Higher Education. It is composed of two offices and six research and development centers that caters the needs for the production of information to contribute to the development of science and technology, as well as on health, humanities and economics. It also supervises the Research and Extension Management Department, the primary department responsible for the research undertakings of the university. The department is a member of the De La Salle University–Commission on Higher Education Zonal Research Center.47
PUP is the host of the International Research Conference in Higher Education (IRCHE) (2013).48
The university's Central Student Council is the official governing student body and acts as the regulatory body for all student campus organizations. It approves the registration and oversees implementation of university-wide activities, such as annual freshmen welcoming. These include religious and cultural groups, academic and athletic clubs and groups. Numerous fraternities and sororities have established chapters inside the university.
The university is also notable for its performing arts. The PUPLHS Chorale, which has won several awards from different local and international choir competitions, and the PUP Coro Obcento (former Bagong Himig Serenata) are some of the chorale groups in the university. The Banda Kawayan, a bamboo orchestra group organized in 1973, is an internationally recognized music group which received several accolades and was notable for its promotion of the country's cultural heritage.49 Aside from music groups, PUP is also represented by different dance groups from its different colleges: the Power Impact Dancers, POSH and Delta Force to name a few, and the award-winning Maharlika Dance Troupe. Numerous sports group are also present in PUP.
The university's alumni association, the Federation of Alumni Associations in PUP, Inc. (FEDAAPI), oversees various activities such as class reunions, local gatherings, alumni travel, and career services. The PUP Tahanan ng Alumni Building was established through the cooperation of the university's alumni.
The PUP Mighty Maroons are the representative athletic teams of PUP and are members of the State Colleges and Universities Athletic Association (SCUAA) 50 and National Athletic Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (NAASCU) 51 Other athletic groups also represents PUP in sever inter-collegiate athletic competitions. The university also promotes the culture of sports and athletics through its College of Human Kinetics.
The university is well known for its student activism.52 Activists have played significant role throughout the university. Staged demonstrations and rallies within the campus are frequent, although only a number of people are known to participate, but the total figure swells up on the event of a larger uprising. Vandalism in the campus is also frequent, and often student activists are responsible for all these. PUP also has many student groups focused on political reform. The university also has a variety of partisan groups ranging from liberal to conservative, and several third party organizations. Given the university's proximity to the Malacañan Palace, activists often stage rallies or demonstrations at the palace grounds, especially at Mendiola Street.
"Tanglaw ng Bayan" is the official motto of the university, translated in English as "Light of the Nation". The university song is called as "Imno ng PUP", which is sung in Tagalog and has been the university's song ever since Prudente restructured the university's philosophy in the 1980s. An English translation of Imno ng PUP was published at the university's website, although it notes that it is not to be sung.53
|Polytechnic University of the Philippines Official Seal|
|Armiger||Polytechnic University of the Philippines|
|Use||Official documents, publications and markers.|
The university's seal is the official scheme used by the university in official documents and official publications.
The star in the logo stands for the perfection of the human person as well as the search for truth, while the five concentric circles depict infinite wisdom. The five-pointed star and the five concentric circles stand for quintessence, meaning the highest form of quality or the most perfect example of creation. These five concentric circles are white because it symbolizes purity. The colors used in the seal represents PUP's traditional color.54
Other symbols that represents PUP are the Pylon, the Obelisk, the Mural, and The Transformation, which are collectively known as "University Symbols".54
The Pylon is a triad pillars of marble erected at the main entrance of the Mabini Campus. It was constructed in the 1970s. The Pylon originally stood for the true, the good and the beautiful. However since 1987, it became to symbolize truth, excellence and wisdom. The Pylon may also stand for wisdom, strength and beauty.54
Another symbol of PUP is the Obelisk, constructed on the site called the Mabini Circle. It was intended to be a toned-down replica of the Washington Monument. A bust of Apolinario Mabini was erected at its front. The obelisk was meant to symbolize the "strength" of the university as "an institution of higher learning". On the top of it was the university seal, which can be illuminated at night. The university seal being placed on top of the obelisk symbolizes PUP as the "Light of the Nation" – the university's official motto.54
Aside from the Pylon and the Obelisk, two artworks also came to stand as representation for the university. In 1974, the Mural was built by national artist Eduardo Castrillo. The mural illustrates the social, economic, industrial, technological, and cultural aspect of life with which man blends himself to develop an environment necessary to the progress of the nation. The mural was placed at the main entrance of Mabini Campus. Meanwhile, The Transformation, a masterpiece built by architect Lor Calma in 2000 depicts the "dynamic transformation" of PUP as it "embraces the power of Information and Communications Technology".54 The Transformation is displayed at the lobby of Ninoy Aquino Learning Resources Center.
Persons affiliated to the university, either as students, faculty members, or administrators, are known as "PUPians", an unofficial term coined by the PUP community. Individually, students at the university are known as "Iskolar ng Bayan" which translates in English as (the) Scholar(s) of the Nation.55 Throughout the university's history, faculty, alumni, and the students have played prominent roles in many different fields.
PUP has produced alumni distinguished in their respective fields. Among the well-known people who have attended the university are Filipino political leaders Satur Ocampo, Ted Failon, and numerous other people in the Congress. Businessman such as Ed Teovisio56 and Fernando Martinez also attended the university. Prominent educators who have attended the university are Galcoso Alburo, University of the East founder Francisco Dalupan, Sr., and the University of Santo Tomas Rector Magnificus Rev. Fr. Herminio Dagohoy.57
Notable people who have served as faculty of the university are Jesus Is Lord Church founder, evangelist and political leader Eddie Villanueva,5 former Senator Blas Ople and former Supreme Court Associate Justice Dante Tiñga.
In film, entertainment, television, PUP is represented by 2006 Binibining Pilipinas-International titleholder Denille Lou Valmonte, actors Bayani Agbayani,58 Richard Gomez, Tado Jimenez and the comic duo brothers James Ronald and Rodfil Obeso, better known as Moymoy Palaboy.
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- Christine S. Bautista (March 2012). "PUP Holds Turnover Ceremony for Newly Elected President". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
- "PH sets new world record on organ donation pledges". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "PHL breaks world record for most number of organ donor sign-ups in 1 hour". GMA News and Public Affairs. February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
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- "Audit: PUP ‘wasted’ P575m on 2 buildings". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- "QS University Rankings: Asia – 2012". QS World University Rankings. 2012. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Top 20 Universities in the Philippines for 2009". Professional Regulation Commission. August 10, 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "Top Accountancy Schools First Half of 2010". Professional Regulation Commission. 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "6 law schools to be closed -- CHED". Philippine Daily Inquirer. September 23, 2009. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "Accredited Programs - Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP)". Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
- "Philippines ǀ Ranking Web of Universities". Webometrics Ranking of World Universities. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "Second batch of PUPCET 2013 slated on February 17". GMA Network. January 29, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Incoming Freshmen". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Thousands take PUP entrance exam". GMA News and Public Affairs. January 30, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "The PUP Student Handbook". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "PUP College of Languages and Linguistics History". PUP College of Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "PUP College of Business Website". PUP College of Business. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "PUP College of Communication History". PUP College of Communication. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "PUP College of Education History". PUP College of Education. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "PUP College of Engineering History". PUP College of Engineering. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "BOR Approves New Organizational Structure". PUP Observer. August 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
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- "Polytechnic University of the Philippines Profile: History (1972-1985)". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "PUP Institute of Technology History". PUP Institute of Technology. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Member HEIs". Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "PUP convenes International Research Conference in Higher Education". GMA News and Public Affairs. September 13, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Filipino music highlights ‘Heritage Festival’ at SM - Business Insight Malaya". malaya.com.ph. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "PhilSCA ready to host SCUAA-NCR in 2014". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. January 13, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Welcome RTU, PUP To NAASCU". Servinio's Sports Et Cetera. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- ""High-risk" Institutions". Bulatlat. November 10–16, 2002. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "PUP Hymn". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Logos and Symbols". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- "About PUP". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- Augusto Sandino Cardenas and Rolando P. Quiñones, Jr. (October 2012). "PUP Alumnus Hailed One of Ten Metrobank Foundation's Outstanding Teachers for 2012". PUP Observer. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "PUP empowers the poor through quality education". GMA Network. November 1, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- Bong Godinez (October 2, 2008). "Bayani Agbayani relates with "My MVP" contestants' life struggles". PEP. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
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