Portal:Discrimination

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Discrimination

Disclogo1.svg Discrimination within sociology is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their membership in a certain group or category. Examples of categories on which discrimination is seen include race and ethnicity, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, weight, disability, employment circumstances, and age.

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Ketuanan Melayu (Malay for "Malay supremacy") is the system of constitutionally guaranteed special rights to ethnic Malays, and other indigenous ethnic groups collectively known as bumiputra, in Malaysia. These special privileges are set out in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. This quid pro quo arrangement is usually referred to as the Malaysian social contract. The concept of ketuanan Melayu is usually referenced by politicians, particularly those from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the most influential political party in Malaysia. Although the idea itself predates Malaysian independence, the phrase ketuanan Melayu did not come into vogue until the early 2000s.

The idea of Malay supremacy gained attention in the 1940s, when the Malays organized themselves to protest the Malayan Union's establishment (and later fought for independence). The Union intended to grant Malaysian citizenship to all existing residents, which included a predominant number of recently-immigrated Singaporeans who had gained significant wealth during Malaysia's industrialization. The system of "special rights" were geared to ensure Malay influence over the country of Malaysia.

The portions of the Constitution related to ketuanan Melayu were "entrenched" after the racial riots of May 13, 1969. This period also saw the rise of "ultras" who advocated a one-party government led by UMNO, and an increased emphasis on the Malays being the "definitive people" of Malaysia.

The most vocal opposition towards the concept has come from non-Malay-based parties, such as the Democratic Action Party (DAP); although pre-independence, the Straits Chinese also agitated against it. During the 2000s politicians began stressing ketuanan Melayu again, and publicly chastised government ministers who questioned the social contract.

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1943 Colored Waiting Room Sign.jpg

A sign points the way to a "Colored Waiting Room", outside a Greyhound bus station in Rome, Georgia, United States, in 1943. The sign refers to a room where blacks were allowed to wait for the bus; "colored" was the common euphemism for African Americans at the time, especially in the Southern United States, though the term is now considered offensive.

The provision of separate facilities for white people and black people was the result of a series of state laws, collectively nicknamed Jim Crow laws, making racial segregation the rule of law in many Southern states beginning in 1876. While these laws decreed that such provisions were to be "separate but equal", in practice facilities provided for whites were assuredly of better quality and maintenance than those for blacks. Various Jim Crow laws remained in effect until they were made illegal throughout the U.S. by the Civil Rights Act of 1965.

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