|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2013)|
City of Porterville
Sierra View District Hospital
|Nickname(s): All America City,P-town, P'ville, the Orange Belt, Band Town USA, Gateway to the Sequoia National Monument|
|Motto: "In God We Trust"citation needed|
Location in Tulare County and the state of California
|Incorporated||May 7, 1902|
|• City Manager||John Lollis|
|• Mayor||Virginia R. Gurrola|
|• Vice Mayor||Pete V. McCracken|
|• Total||17.679 sq mi (45.790 km2)|
|• Land||17.607 sq mi (45.603 km2)|
|• Water||0.072 sq mi (0.188 km2) 0.41%|
|Elevation||456 ft (139 m)|
|• Density||3,076.33/sq mi (1,187.75/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (PST) (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|ZIP codes||93257, 93258, 93267, 93270, 93207, 93265, 93218|
|Area code(s)||559 661 760|
|GNIS feature ID||1652779|
|Website||Official website of the City of Porterville|
Porterville is a city in the San Joaquin Valley, in Tulare County, California, United States. Porterville's population was 55,023 at the 2012 census. The city's population grew dramatically as the city annexed many properties and unincorporated areas in and around Porterville. Not included in the city's population is East Porterville. The Census found another 7,331 more residents living in East Porterville, giving the Porterville Urban Area a total of 62,354 residents. Porterville is considered part of the Census Bureau's designation of the Visalia-Porterville metropolitan statistical area. Porterville serves as a gateway to a vast mountain wonderland and recreational area of the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.
- 1 History
- 2 The Tule River Indian War of 1856
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government
- 6 Economy
- 7 Local trivia
- 8 Notable people
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Media
- 11 Attractions
- 12 Education
- 12.1 Schools in the Porterville Unified School District
- 12.2 Schools in the Burton School District
- 12.3 School Districts of the Greater Porterville area
- 13 Higher education
- 14 Courts
- 15 Shopping centers
- 16 Churches
- 17 Parks
- 18 Sister cities
- 19 References
- 20 External links
During California's Spanish period, the San Joaquin Valley was considered a remote region of little value. Emigrants skirted the eastern foothills in the vicinity of Porterville as early as 1826. Swamps stretched out into the Valley floor lush with tall rushes or "tulares" as the Indians called them.
Gold discovered in 1848 brought a tremendous migration to California, and prairie schooners rolled through Porterville between 1849 and 1852. Wagon trains of gold seekers passed through the village, but other travelers found the land rich and remained to establish farms. A store was set up in 1856 to sell goods to miners and the Indians, who lived in tribal lands along the rivers. From 1858 to 1861 it was the location of the Tule River Station of the Butterfield Overland Mail.
Royal Porter Putnam came to the village in 1860 to raise cattle, horses and hogs. He bought 40 acres of land and built a two-story store and a hotel on the highest point of the swampy property, which is now the corner of Oak and Main. The town took its name from the founder's given name because another Putnam family lived south of town.
In 1862, 20.8 inches of rain fell in the area causing the change of course of the Tule River. Putnam's acres drained, and he had his property surveyed, staking out lot lines and establishing streets. Settlers were offered a free lot for every one purchased. Needs of a burgeoning California population for food gave the impetus which led to permanent development of the east side southern San Joaquin Valley. The long, dry, hot summer prompted irrigation of the lands.
In 1888, the Southern Pacific Railway brought in the branch line from Fresno. The Pioneer Hotel and Bank were built by businessmen from San Francisco. The town incorporated in 1902, as miners moved into the area to extract magnetite ore, and the Chamber of Commerce was formed in 1907. A City Manager-Council form of government was adopted in 1926, and a Charter was adopted. The City has grown from a community of 5,000 persons in 1920. Agriculture supplemented by the Central Valley Water Project has been the major source of economic growth in the area. The City is the center of a large farming area noted especially for citrus and livestock.
Industry has become a significant factor in the development of the community. The Wal-Mart Distribution Center, National Vitamin, Beckman Instruments, Standard Register, Sierra Pacific Apparel, Royalty Carpeting, and other small companies have facilities in Porterville. Several large public facilities are also located here. These include the Porterville Developmental Center, Sequoia National Forest Headquarters, the Army Corps of Engineers Lake Success Facility, and the Porterville College campus of the Kern Community College District. 1854 Peter Goodhue operated a stopping place on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road on the bank of the Tule River until the river changed its course in 1862. It was also the site of the Tule River Stage Station for the Butterfield Overland Mail, from 1858 to 1861. R. Porter Putnam, bought out Goodhue in 1860, turning the station into a popular stopping place and hotel called Porter Station. The town of Porterville was founded there in 1864.2
An inﬂux of some six thousand people came to Tulare County at the ﬁrst news of a gold strike along the Kern River in 1855 and 1856. Stage coach service began between the seaport of San Pedro and Ft. Tejon via Los Angeles. As the population swelled, a brief but emotionally charged battle occurred between American settlers and Indians from the Four Creeks and Tule River.
As Historian Annie Mitchell later wrote in the Tulare County Historical Society bulletin (Los Tulares No. 68, March 1966): "Over the years it has been assumed that the Tule River War was a spontaneous, comic opera affair. It was not and if the Indians had been armed with guns instead of bows and a few pistols they would have run the white men out of the valley." "Early in March," Mitchell continued, "an unnamed cow county Paul Revere dashed into Visalia yelling that 500 head of cattle had been stolen in Yokohl Valley. The men who went to investigate found that a rancher in Frasier Valley had had a calf stolen."
This should have ended the affair but then a ﬁre in a sawmill east of Visalia was also attributed to Indians, a militia was raised, the Indians fortiﬁed themselves at present day Battle Mountain above Porterville, and the militia attacked them. Destruction of the Indians' food caches in the mountains, where the women and children were hidden, and use of a cannon broke down the Indians' ability to resist. General Beale enforced a unilateral treaty upon the various tribes who participated in the resistance, although the Yaudanches living near the South Fork of the Tule River never signed the treaty. Tule River Farm or Madden Farm established in 1858. In 1858, a farm attached to the Tejon Agency was established on the site of a former Koyeti village at the base of the foothills near the present town of Porterville. The farm was established on 1,280 acres on the South Fork of Tule River in sections 32, 33, 34, T. 21 S - R.28 E., later the site of the Alta Vista School. Increasingly the Indians in Tulare County were prevented from hunting and gathering their food. The settlers' domestic pigs, allowed to run wild, depleted the black acorn harvests that were the year-round staple of the Indian diet. The Yokuts baskets so prized by collectors today, and costing thousands of dollars on the international art market, were the result of an economy that needed containers to collect and transport raw acorns, winnow or sift acorn meal, and cook the soup or porridge using ﬁre-heated rocks placed inside.
Now the Indians were expected to become farmers. The Tule River Reservation consistently produced the highest crop yields of the four reservations established in California during this period. But the Tule River Indians soon became suspicious and reluctant to contribute more than was needed for their personal subsistence. The problem was documented yearly in reports to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Washington D.C., but without remedy
Porterville is located at 3(36.068550, -119.027536).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.7 square miles (46 km2), of which, 17.6 square miles (46 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (0.41%) is water.
Porterville is located on the Tule River at the base of the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada and eastern most section of California's Central Valley. In the foothills above Porterville is the man-made Lake Success.
Porterville, lying along the foothills of the Sierras at an elevation of 455 feet, is located on State Highway 65, 165 miles north of Los Angeles, 171 miles east of the Pacific Coast. The City has a strategic central location to major markets and a ready access to major transportation routes
Porterville is subject to earthquakes and aftershocks due to its proximity to the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability produces numerous fault lines both above and below ground, which altogether cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes every year. One of the major fault lines is the San Andreas Fault. A few major earthquakes have hit the Porterville area like the Kern County Earthquake of 1952 and the Bakersfield Earthquake of 1952 causing serious aftershocks and earthquakes in the area. All but a few quakes are of low intensity and are not felt. Most of the city are also vulnerable to floods. The San Joaquin Valley and metropolitan areas are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes.
Porterville, CA, gets almost 13 inches of rain per year. The US average is 37. Snowfall is 0.01 inches. The average US city gets 25 inches of snow per year. The number of days with any measurable precipitation is 46.
On average, there are 271 sunny days per year in Porterville, CA. The July high is around 100.5 degrees. The January low is 35.6. Our comfort index, which is based on humidity during the hot months, is a 54 out of 100, where higher is more comfortable. The US average on the comfort index is 44.
|Climate data for Porterville, California|
|Average high °F (°C)||57.9
|Average low °F (°C)||35.6
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.17
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.2||6.9||6.3||2.8||1.6||0.4||0.3||0.3||1.7||1.7||3.9||5.4||38.5|
|Source: NOAA 4|
Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and agriculture, Porterville suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Porterville area and the rest of the San Joaquin Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, agriculture, manufacturing, and other sources. Unlike other cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Porterville gets only 13.00 inches (330.20 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Porterville and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low emission vehicles. Smog levels are only high during summers because it is dry and warm. In the winter, storms help to clear the smog and it is not as much of a problem. Smog should continue to drop in the coming years due to aggressive steps to reduce it, electric and hybrid cars, and other pollution-reducing measures taken.5
As a result, pollution levels have dropped in recent decades. The number of Stage 1 smog alerts has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 annual report of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the 11th most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.6 In 2007 the annual report of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the 4th most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.7 In 2008, the city was ranked the third most polluted and again fourth for highest year-round particulate pollution.8
The 2010 United States Census9 reported that Porterville had a population of 54,165. The population density was 3,076.3 people per square mile (1,187.77/km²). The racial makeup of Porterville was 31,847 (58.8%) White, 673 (1.2%) African American, 1,007 (1.9%) Native American, 2,521 (4.7%) Asian, 64 (0.1%) Pacific Is lander, 15,482 (28.6%) from other races, and 2,571 (4.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33,549 persons (61.9%).
The Census reported that 53,018 people (97.9% of the population) lived in households, 207 (0.4%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 940 (1.7%) were institutionalized.
There were 15,644 households, out of which 8,177 (52.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 8,032 (51.3%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,962 (18.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,315 (8.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,424 (9.1%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 115 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,679 households (17.1%) were made up of individuals and 1,193 (7.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.39. There were 12,309 families (78.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.78.
The population was spread out with 18,154 people (33.5%) under the age of 18, 5,879 people (10.9%) aged 18 to 24, 14,266 people (26.3%) aged 25 to 44, 10,773 people (19.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 5,093 people (9.4%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.8 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males.
There were 16,734 housing units at an average density of 946.5 per square mile (365.4/km²), of which 8,966 (57.3%) were owner-occupied, and 6,678 (42.7%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.3%. 30,016 people (55.4% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 23,002 people (42.5%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census10 of 2000, there were 39,615 people, 11,884 households, and 9,174 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,828.4 people per square mile (1,091.8/km²). There were 12,691 housing units at an average density of 906.1 per square mile (349.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 49.8% White, 1.3% African American, 1.7% Native American, 4.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 32.7% from other races, and 4.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 54.5% of the population.
There were 11,884 households out of which 47.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.8% were non-families. 19.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.62.
In the city the population was spread out with 34.3% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,046, and the median income for a family was $35,136. Males had a median income of $31,171 versus $23,737 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,745. About 20.3% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.7% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.
Under the California State Constitution, there is a difference in powers granted to cities. A "General Law City" is one, which operates exclusively under State law. The City Charter, in accordance with the State Constitution, provides the City with authority for "Home Rule" whereby the City is given the power to make and enforce within its own boundaries any law, which does not conflict with the State or Federal Government. The State Constitution gives this right of "Home Rule" to any city.
Porterville has operated as a Charter City since 1926, but the Charter has been changed by the voters several times since then.
In the state legislature Porterville is located in the 18th Senate District, represented by Republican Jean Fuller, and in the 34th Assembly District, represented by Republican Connie Conway. Federally, Porterville is located in California's 21st congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +1311 and is represented by Republican Devin Nunes.
During the November 2008 Prop 8 election campaign, Porterville's City Council was the only City Council in all of California that passed a Resolution in favor of Prop 8. The Resolution urged voters to act on behalf of the Council's personal, religious, and political interests. Local gay rights activists, such as Porterville LGBTQ, protested City Council meetings for 11 months, getting the attention of local media. Prop 8 amended California's constitution to remove existing marriage rights for same-sex couples. Porterville, Tulare County voters voted over 75% in favor of Prop 8, among the highest levels in the State of California, during the election. On August 4, 2010, Prop 8 was ruled unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution. In June 2013, the mayor declared that month to be LGBT pride month, but that proclamation was subsequently rescinded by the city council. The City Council subsequently removed the Mayor responsible for introducing the proclamation, Virginia Gurrola.
The United States Postal Service operates the Main Post Office on 65 W Mill St, the Town & Country Post Office on 1316 W Olive Ave, the Doyle Colony Post Office on 1391 E Springville Ave, and the Poplar Post Office on 14653 Road 192. The Main Post Office is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,12 the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of employees|
|1||Porterville Developmental Center||1,560|
|2||Porterville Unified School District||1,475|
|4||Sierra View District Hospital||888|
|5||Eagle Mountain Casino||512|
|6||City of Porterville||504|
|8||Burton School District||436|
|9||United States Forest Service - Sequoia National Forest||371|
- The sheriff in Big Top Pee-wee (1988) received a report from Porterville about a windstorm approaching Pee-wee Herman's local town.
- It received the All-America City Award in 1994.13
- In the science fiction novel Lucifer's Hammer, this city is destroyed by the collapse of the dam at Lake Success.
- Porterville is the home of the Persian Lime
- Porterville has three structures that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP);
The First Congregational Church, US Post Office- Porterville Main, The Zalud House Museum.
- Dylan Ryder - pornographic actress
- Marv Acton - NASCAR driver
- Barbara Baxley - Film, stage and television actress
- Dick Brooks - NASCAR driver
- Brant Brown - Fresno State and Major League Baseball Outfielder (Chicago Cubs, Pittsburgh Pirates, and Florida Marlins)
- Tex Clevenger - Fresno State and Major League Baseball pitcher (Boston Red Sox, Washington Senators, Los Angeles Angels, and New York Yankees)
- Steve Cox - Major League Baseball Firstbaseman (Tampa Bay Devil Rays)
- Allen Drury - Novelist and 1960 Pulitzer Prize Winner
- Margaret Hamilton - Actress (The Wizard of Oz)
- Wayne Hardin - College Football Hall of Famer, former head football coach at Porterville College 1952 and 1953
- Sim Iness - Oklahoma-born Olympic gold medalist in discus throw
- Monte Moore - Longtime Major League Baseball and Oakland Athletics broadcaster
- Rance Mulliniks - Major League Baseball Infielder (California Angels, Kansas City Royals, and Toronto Blue Jays)
- Rick Owens - Fashion designer
- Bear Pascoe - Fresno State and NFL player for the New York Giants
- Helen M. Roberts - writer
- James Sanders - Fresno State and NFL Safety for the Atlanta Falcons
- Bill Sharman - NBA Hall of Fame player and coach
- Joe Soto - American professional mixed martial arts
- Kirsten Vangsness - Actress (Criminal Minds)
- Tim Vanni - Two-time Olympic Wrestler
California State Route 65, known as The All American City Highway or Porterville Freeway, is a major north-south freeway that heads north to Lindsay and south to Bakersfield. California State Route 190, is a major east west freeway in Porterville that heads west to California State Route 99 and east bypassing East Porterville to Springville.
- (CR J15) – Porterville
- (CR J26) – Porterville
- (CR J27) – Porterville
- (CR J28) – Porterville
- (CR J29) – Porterville
- (CR J37) – Porterville
- (CR J42) – East Porterville
The Porterville Transit operates environmentally-friendly and convenient public transportation to Porterville and the surrounding communities. Porterville COLT Paratranit service designed for transit riders with disabilities that prevent them from using regular bus services. Porterville Transit and COLT services are provided within the city limits and to designated unincorporated urban areas of the county, including "county islands" within the city limits.
The Tulare County Area Transit (TCaT) provides the public transit services between Porterville and smaller communities throughout the greater Porterville Area. Service includes Fixed Route and Demand Responsive services that are offered Monday through Saturday
- (IATA: FAT, ICAO: KFAT, FAA LID: FAT) Fresno Yosemite International Airport, owned by the City of Fresno; serves the San Joaquin Valley.
- (IATA: BFL, ICAO: KBFL, FAA LID: BFL) Meadows Field Airport, also known as Kern County Airport #1, serves the South Valley and the Greater Metropolitan Bakersfield.
- Porterville Municipal Golf Course
- River Island Country Club
- Eagle Mountain Casino
- Porterville Historical Museum
- Zalud House
- Porterville off- Highway Vehicle Park
- Rocky Hill Speedway
- Barn Theatre
- Frank “Buck” Shaffer Auditorium (Porterville Memorial Auditorium)
- Deenie's Dance Workshop
- The Porterville Marketplace
- Riverwalk Marketplace
- Band-O-Rama (November 11)
- Iris Festival (April)
- Porterville Fair (May 15–19)
- Porterville Celebrates Reading Fair (April)
- Springville Apple Festival
- Annual Veterans Day Parade (November 11)
- Pioneer Days & Rib Cook-Off (October)
- Porterville Municipal Pool
- Sequoia National Forest
- Sequoia National Monument
- Tule River Indian Reservation
- Lake Success
- Golden Trout Wilderness Pack Train
- Balch Park Pack Station
- Tule River
- Bartlett Park
Most of Porterville is served by the Porterville Unified School District, while portions of the western section of the city are zoned to the Burton Unified School District
- Alta Vista Elementary School District
- Burton School District
- Citrus South Tule Elementary School District
- Ducor Elementary School District
- Hope Elementary School District
- Hot Springs School District
- Lindsay Unified School District
- Pleasant View Elementary School District
- Porterville Unified School District
- Rockford Elementary School District
- Saucelito Elementary School District
- Springville Union Elementary School District
- Strathmore Union Elementary School District
- Sunnyside Union Elementary School District
- Terra Bella Elementary School District
- Woodville Union Elementary School District
- There is one community college in Porterville, Porterville College (PC), and National University maintains a learning center within Porterville College.
- Tulare County - District Attorney- Office - 87 East Morton Avenue
- Social Security Administration - Office - 890 West Morton Avenue
The new nine-courtroom, 96,000-square-foot courthouse will replace the current overcrowded Porterville Courthouse. Scheduled for completion in fall 2013, the $93 million courthouse — which is being built by Sundt Construction Inc. and designed by CO Architects — will provide the necessary space for expansion and enhanced security, enabling the court to greatly improve access and services.
The current facility was designed when just 20,000 people depended on it; the area’s population has since more than doubled. The current courthouse has no holding cells and in-custody defendants must be held in the adjacent Sheriff’s substation, and it lacks the ideal secure circulation for in-custody defendants, staff, and the public, explained officials from Sundt and the AOC. The new courthouse will enhanced security, separate hallways for the public, staff, and in-custody defendants, expanded space for clerk service counters including exterior service windows that will enable court users to pay fees and fines without having to pass through security, adequate space for jury assembly, self-help and other services, and staff functions, and adequate parking, the current courthouse has only 20 spaces.
The facility will feature chambers, courtroom holdings, jury deliberations rooms, support services, clerks offices and work areas, public walk-up windows and queuing, holding and below-grade sally port. The approximately eight-acre site includes parking and circulation and a featured courtyard scheme.
The courthouse is designed to achieve a LEED Silver certification by the U.S. Green Building Council. The building includes high-performance glass, window-shading devices to prevent direct sunlight, and better insulated walls and roof, and a rain screen system.
It will have more energy-efficient mechanical units, which incorporate the partial use of chilled beam passive cooling and radiant heat. The lighting will be high-efficient fluorescent and LED fixtures.
Other sustainable features include: low-use water fixtures and landscape, green roofs, recycling construction materials, the use of regional material and renewable materials as well as certified wood and natural light.
The center was funded under the Trial Court Facilities Act of 2002, made the state of California responsible for court facilities and court construction statewide, and designated a portion of court-user fees and penalties collected to fund the project.
- Porterville Seventh Day Adventist Church
- Hillside Community Church
- First Missionary Baptist Church
- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- Believer's Church
- First Christian Church
- Gospel Lighthouse Church
- Grace Fundamental Church
- Life Tabernacle-Apostolic Church of Porterville
- Emanuel Evangelical Church
- Trinity Lutheran Church
- Encounter Him Ministries
- Living Word Fellowship Church
- Faith Tabernacle of Porterville
- Family Christian Center
- Church of God
- Masjid Porterville
- Calvary Assembly of God
- St. Anne's Catholic Church
- Holy Cross Catholic Church
- Westfield Christian Churcn
- Porterville Church of the Nazarene
- Iglesia Del Nazareno
- Porterville Church of Christ
- Porterville Church of Religious Science
- First United Methodist Church
- Grand Avenue United Methodist Church
- First Baptist Church
- Mountain View Baptist Church
- Porterville Seventh Day Adventist Church
- Jehovah's Witnesses
- Henderson Avenue Baptist Church
Porterville has two sister cities,
- U.S. Census
- Mildred Brooke Hoover, Douglas E. Kyle, Historic spots in California, Stanford University Press, 2002, p.543
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-02-15.
- Driveclean from the California Government web sitedead link
- People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Short-Term Particle Pollution. American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007.
- People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Year-Round Particle Pollution. American Lung Association. Retrieved on January 5, 2007.
- "Pittsburgh and Los Angeles the most polluted US cities".
- All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest?". Campaign Legal Center Blog. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- "City of Porterville CAFR". Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- All-America City: Past Winners