Portugal in World War II
During World War II, the Portuguese Republic was an authoritarian political regime under António de Oliveira Salazar and the Estado Novo, often regarded as pro-fascist. Although Portugal was officially a neutral country, it exported goods to the Allies as well as Germany and other neutral countries.1 The most exported goods were sugar, tobacco, and tungsten.
The Treaty of Windsor (1386) between Portugal and England, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force today.citation needed Salazar chose not to break the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance.citation needed
On March 17, 1939, Portugal signed a treaty of friendship and non-aggression with Francoist Spain.citation needed In April 1939, Portugal refused the invitation of the Italian Ambassador to join the Anti-Comintern Pact, an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan.citation needed
On July 29, 1940, Spain and Portugal signed an additional protocol to the Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression also known as the Iberian Pact.citation needed This protocol was protested by Hitler.citation needed
Salazar's decision to stick with the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance allowed Madeira to help the Allies and in July 1940 around 2,000 Gibraltarian2 evacuees were shipped to Madeira; this was due to the high risk of Gibraltar being attacked by either Spain or Germany. The Gibraltarians are fondly remembered on the island where they were called Gibraltinos. Some married Madeirans and stayed after the war was over. Many of the children of these war-time evacuees are now moving to the island of Madeira to relive the WWII experience.
In 2010 a monument was commissioned in Gibraltar and shipped to Madeira where it was erected next to a small chapel at Santa Caterina park, Funchal. The monument was a gift and a symbol of ever-lasting appreciation from the people of Gibraltar to the people of Madeira.3
The Germans had planned an attack, codenamed Operation Felix, which was never initiated.
On November 12, 1940 Hitler issued Führer Directive No. 18. which outlined the plan to invade Portugal if British forces were to gain a footing there. "I also request that the problem of occupying Madeira and the Azores should be considered, together with the advantages and disadvantages which this would entail for our sea and air warfare.The results of these investigations are to be submitted to me as soon as possible.", Hitler added.4
In June 1941, Operation Isabella was a Nazi German plan to be put into effect after the collapse of the Soviet Union to secure bases in Spain and Portugal for the continuation of the strangulation of Great Britain. This concept was laid out by Hitler but was never executed.
In 1941, fearing a Japanese occupation of the island, Portuguese Timor (now East Timor) was briefly occupied by Australian and Dutch forces. On the night of February 19, 1942, the Japanese attacked Portuguese Timor with a force of around 20,000 men, and occupied the capital, Dili before spreading out across the rest of the colony. On September 26, 1945, control of the island was officially returned to Portugal by the Japanese. (See the Battle of Timor).
In July 1942, the first Portuguese Junkers Ju 52 aircraft, arrived to fly cargo missions.
Upon the declaration of war, the Portuguese Government announced that the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance remained intact, but since the British did not seek Portuguese assistance, Portugal would remain neutral. In an Aide-memoire of September 5, 1939, the British Government confirmed the understanding. From the British perspective, Portuguese non-belligerency was essential to keep Spain from entering the war on the side of the Axis."5
May 15, 1940, Salazar`s important role in the war was recognized by the British. Douglas Veale, Registrar of the University of Oxford informed Salazar that the University’s Hebdomadal Council had “unanimously decided at its meeting last Monday, to invite you [Salazar] to accept the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law”.
July 1940, Life Magazine called Salazar "the greatest Portuguese since Prince Henry the Navigator" and added that:"The Dictator has built the Nation. Most that has been built in Portugal can be credited to Dr. Salazar…he has balanced the budget, built roads and schools, torn down slums, cut the death rate and enormously raised Portugal self-esteem. Unambitious Salazar took the dictatorship by army request and holds it by popular will. The Salazar dictatorship is easygoing and paternalistic, with wide freedom of speech allowed to his enemies….Friends of democracy may deplore Salazar the dictator but they cannot deny that under the republic Portugal made an unholy mess of itself and Salazar pulled it out."
July 1940 Salazar's decision to stick with the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance allowed the Portuguese Island of Madeira to come to the aid of the Allies, and in July 1940 around 2,500 evacuees from Gibraltar were shipped to Madeira.
September 1940, Winston Churchill wrote to Salazar congratulating him on his ability to keep Portugal out of the war, asserting that “as so often before during the many centuries of the Anglo-Portuguese alliance, British and Portuguese interests are identical on this vital question.”
In 1942 Lajes Field on the Azores was assigned the name Air Base No. 5 and the Portuguese government expanded the runway and sent troops and equipment to Lajes, including Gloster Gladiator fighters. Military activity in the Azores grew as the Gladiators' role progressed into flying cover for Allied convoys, reconnaissance missions, and meteorological flights.
In 1943, the British and American armed forces were allowed basing rights in the Azores; the Royal Air Force called Lajes RAF Lages. The Azores permitted British and American airplanes to protect Allied shipping in the mid-Atlantic.6
November 1943, the British Ambassador in Lisbon, Sir Ronald Campbell, Portugal’s wrote that "strict neutrality was the price the allies paid for strategic benefits accruing from Portugal's neutrality and that if her neutrality instead of being strict had been more benevolent in allies favour Spain would inevitably have thrown herself body and soul into the arms of Germany. If this had happened the Peninsula would have been occupied and then North Africa, with the result that the whole course of the war would have been altered to the advantage of the Axis.".5
A similar opinion is shared by Carlton Hayes, the American Ambassador in Spain during world war II days, who writes of Salazar in his book, Wartime Mission in Spain : Salazar “didn't look like a regular dictator. Rather, he appeared a modest, quiet, and highly intelligent gentleman and scholar…literally dragged from a professorial chair of political economy in the venerable University of Coimbra a dozen years previously in order to straighten out Portugal's finances, and that his almost miraculous success in this respect had led to the thrusting upon him of other major functions, including those of Foreign Minister and constitution-maker. Hayes his very appreciative of Portugal’s constant endeavors to draw Spain with Portugal into a really neutral Peninsular bloc, an immeasurably contribution, at a time when the British and the United Stated had much less influence, toward counteracting the propaganda and pleas of the Axis. Later in the same book, Mr. Carlton Hayes writes of Portugal’s role in favour of the thousands of French military refugees who were trying in 1943 to get from Spain to North Africa in order there to join the Allied forces.7
In June 1943, a commercial airliner carrying the actor Leslie Howard was shot down over the Bay of Biscay by the Luftwaffe after taking off from Lisbon, possibly because German spies in Lisbon believed that Prime Minister Winston Churchill was aboard.
In August 1939, Portugal signed a military co-operation agreement with Britain, accepting direct British support in the rearmament and modernization of the Portuguese Armed Forces. The agreement, however, was not implemented until September 1943. In August 1943, Portugal signed the Luso-British agreement, which leased bases in the Azores to the British. The occupation of these facilities until October 12, 1943 was codenamed Operation Alacrity by the Allies.8 This was a key turning point in the Battle of the Atlantic, allowing the Allies to provide aerial coverage in the Mid-Atlantic gap; helping them to hunt U-boats and protect convoys. Churchill surprised Members of Parliament (MPs) when he said he would use a 14th-century treaty, many MPs had not known that Portugal and England had the oldest operational alliance in the world, the Treaty of Windsor.
On December 1, 1943, British and U.S. military representatives at RAF Lages signed a joint agreement outlining the roles and responsibilities for the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) and United States Navy (USN) at Lages Field. The agreement established guidelines and limitations for the US to ferry and transport aircraft to Europe via Lages Field. In return, the US agreed to assist the British in improving and extending existing facilities at Lages. Air Transport Command transport planes began landing at Lages Field immediately after the agreement was signed.
On May 28, 1944 the first repatriation party left Madeira for Gibraltar and by the end of 1944 only 520 non-priority evacuees remained on the island.9
By the end of June 1944, more than 1,900 American airplanes had passed through Lajes Air Base. Using Lajes, the flying time relative to the usual transatlantic route between Brazil and West Africa was nearly cut in half from 70 to 40 hours.
Lajes also served as one of two main stopover and refueling bases for the first transatlantic crossing of non-rigid airships (blimps) in 1944. The USN sent six Goodyear-built K-ships from Naval Air Station South Weymouth in Massachusetts to their first stopover base at Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland and then on to Lages Field in the Azores before flying to their final destination at Port Lyautey, French Morocco.10 From their base with Fleet Air Wing 15 at Port Lyautey, the blimps of USN Blimp Squadron ZP-14 (Blimpron 14) conducted nighttime anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surveillance of German U-boats around the Straits of Gibraltar using magnetic anomaly detection (MAD). In 1945, two ZP-14 replacement blimps were sent from Weeksville, North Carolina to the Bermudas and Lajes Air Base before going on to Port Lyautey.11
In 1945, a new air base was constructed in the Azores on the island of Terceira and is currently known as Lajes Field. This base is in an area called Lajes, a broad, flat sea terrace that had been a farm. Lajes Field is a plateau rising out of the sea on the northeast corner of the island. This Air Force base is a joint American and Portuguese venture. Lajes Field continues to support United States and Portuguese military operations. During the Cold War, the United States Navy P-3 Orion anti-submarine squadrons patrolled the North Atlantic for Soviet submarines and surface spy vessels.
Several American reports called Lisbon "The Capital of Espionage". However, the PVDE (Portuguese secret police) always maintained a neutral stance towards foreign espionage activity, as long as no one intervened in Portuguese internal policies. Writers such as Ian Fleming (the creator of James Bond) were based there,12 while other prominent people such as the Duke of Windsor and the Spanish Royal Family were exiled in Estoril. German spies attempted to buy information on trans-Atlantic shipping to help their submarines fight the Battle of the Atlantic. The Spaniard Juan Pujol Garcia, better known as Codename Garbo, passed on misinformation to the Germans, hoping it would hasten the end of the Franco regime, he was recruited by the British as a double agent while in Lisbon. Conversely, William Colepaugh, an American traitor, was recruited as an agent by the Germans while his ship was in port in Lisbon - he was subsequently landed by U-boat U-1230 in Maine before being captured.
- http://lisboasos.blogspot.com/2010/04/lisboa-dos-espioes.html (Portuguese)
- Cadiz News (accessed 13 December 2010)
- www.love-madeira.com (accessed 13 December 2010)
- Directive No. 18 (accessed 14 December 2010)
- Leite, Joaquim da Costa. "Neutrality by Agreement: Portugal and the British Alliance in World War II." American University International Law Review 14, no. 1 (1998): 185-199
- "Factsheets: Lajes Field History - The U.S. Enters the Azores". United States Air Force. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- Wartime mission in Spain, 1942-1945 / by Carlton J.H. Hayes, Historian and late American ambassador to Spain
- Garcia, pp. 20
- www.warwingsart.com (accessed 23 December 2010)
- www.dailymail.co.uk (accessed 23 December 2010)
- Macintyre, Ben (2013). Double Cross: The True Story of the D-Day Spies. Broadway Books. ISBN 978-0307888778.