- For the city, capital of Gazakh Rayon, see Gazakh (city)
|• executive head||Ayaz Asgarov|
|• Total||700 km2 (300 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AZT (UTC+4)|
|• Summer (DST)||AZT (UTC+5)|
Gazakh (Azerbaijani: Qazax; also known as Kazakh or Qazakh) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. It has two exclaves inside Armenia, Yukhari Askipara and Barkhudarli, both of which came under Armenian control during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
In antiquity, this rayon was part of the province of Utik. The region was conquered by a succession of neighbouring powers or invaders, including Sassanid Persians, the Byzantine Empire, the Arabs, the Seljuq Turks, the Georgians, the Mongols, the Timurids, the Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu Turkoman tribes, and finally Safavid Iran. It was also ruled by Ottoman Empire between 1578 and 1607 and again 1722 and 1735.
After the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813), the Russian Empire gained control of the area by virtue of the Treaty of Gulistan. Under Russian rule, it was part of Tiflis Governorate before forming the northeastern part of the Kazakh uyezd of the Elisabethpol Governorate in 1868. A contemporary military historian noted the following ethnographic detail: "Abbas Mirza's route lay through the country of the great tribe of the Casaks, which is extremely strong and thickly wooded." He further notes that: "These have no connection with the Russian Cossacks. They are descended from men of the Kirgis Casaks, left by Genghis Khan, and are Mahomedans of the Soonnie [Sunni Muslims] sect. They are frequently called Kara Papaks, from wearing black sheep-skin caps."2
When the South Caucasus came under British occupation, Sir John Oliver Wardrop, British Chief Commissioner in the South Caucasus, decided that assigning the Erivan Governorate and the Kars Oblast to Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and the Elisabethpol and Baku Governorates to the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) would solve the region's outstanding disputes. However, this proposal was rejected by both Armenians (who did not wish to give up their claims to Kazakh, Zangezur (today Syunik), and Nagorno-Karabakh) and Azerbaijanis (who found it unacceptable to give up their claims to Nakhichevan). As conflict broke out between the two groups, the British left the region in mid-1919.
There are 112 protected monuments in the region of Qazakh, of which 54 are archaeological, 46 are architectural, 7 are historical, and 5 are of artistic significance. Historic and tourist sites in this region include:
- The House of the Poet Samad Vurgun in Yukhari Salahli village, since 1976.
- The Museum of History and Ethnography, since 1984.
- The Qazakh State Picture Gallery by the Ministry of Culture of Azerbaijan, since 1986.
- The Memorial museum of Molla Panah Vagif and Molla Vali Vidadi, since 1970.
- The House of Teachers Seminary of Qazakh, built in 1910, functioned between 1918 and 1959.
- The Bath House of Israfil Agha, built in the first decade of the 20th century by Israfil Agha Kerbelayev from the village of Kasaman.
- The Damjili Caves, in the village of Dash Salahli, south-east of the mount Avey, cover an area of 360 km2 and refer to Middle and Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic eras.
- Sining Korpu (The Broken Bridge) (Azerbaijani: Sınıq körpü), 12th-century bridge built over the Ehram (Khram) river in the village Ikinji Shikhli.
- Didevan Castle (Azerbaijani: Didəvan qalası), a 6th-7th century monument in the village of Khanliglar.
- Mount Goyazan (Azerbaijani: Göyəzən dağı), a rare archaeological monument in the village of Abbasbeyli, rises 857.9 metres above sea level.
- The Baba Dervish Habitation, an archaeological site in the village Demirchiler.
- The Kazim Bridge in the village of Yukhari Askipara, allegedly built during the reign of Shamsi Khan.
- The Juma Mosque of Qazakh, built in 1902 by Akhund Haji Zeynalabdin Mahammadli Oglu from the village of Kasaman.
- The Aslanbeyli Mosque built in 1909 by Hamid Efendi, the native of village Aslanbeyli.
- Santepe, an archaeological site dating to the 9th-8th centuries B.C. and the Iron Age.
- The Qazakhbeyli Hills, an archaeological site daiting from the 8th-6th centuries B.C. near the village of Qazakhbeyli.
- The Shikhli Human Camp, an archaeological site near the village of Birinji Shikhli.
- Shakargala, in the Qazakh region.
- Sabir Azeri (1938-2010) - Writer, author of best selling books.
- Ali-Agha Shikhlinski - (1865–1943) general-lieutenant of the artillery, known as "God of Russian artillery".
- Farrukh Gayibov - (1889–1916) the first Azerbaijani pilot, was awarded the 4th class order of "Saint Georgi".
- Ibrahim aga Vakilov - (1853–1934) general, the first Azerbaijani military topographer.
- Javad bey Shikhlinski - (1876–1940) general-mayor, the commander of the division.
- Ibrahim bey Usubov - (1872–1920) general-mayor, the commander of the division.
- Mirza Huseyn afandi Gayibov - (1830–1917) the Chair of the Ecclesiastical Department of Transcaucasia.
- Molla Vali Vidadi - (1707–1809) prominent poet of Azerbaijan.
- Molla Panah Vagif - (1717–1797) prominent poet of Azerbaijan and social figure.
- Mukhtar Hajiyev - (1876–1938) the first chairman of Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee in 1921
- Samad Vurgun - (1906–1956) National Poet of Azerbaijan (the first who deserved this title)
- Vidadi Babanli - (1927-) National Writer of Azerbaijjan
- Osman Sarivelli - (1905–1990) national poet of Azerbaijan.
- Mehdi Huseyn - (1909–1964) National Writer of Azerbaijan. Prominent writer-dramatist, critic.
- Mirvarid Dilbazi - (1912–2001) national poet of Azerbaijan
- Amina Dilbazi - (1919–2010) ballet-master. National Artist of Azerbaijan.
- Elazan Bayjan (Haji Hasanzadeh) - (1913–1989) poet-doctor. Set up private medical clinics in Freyburg, Germany.
- Ismayil Shykhly - (1919–1995) National Writer of Azerbaijan, scientist- pedagogue, social-political figure.
- Elmira Huseynova - (1933–1995) sculptor.
- Fatma Vakilova - (1912–1987) professor, doctor of geology-mineralogy sciences.
- Sayad Zeynalov - (1886–1942) deserved 4th class "Saint Georgi" order
- Teymur Bunyadov - (1928) academician, historian-ethnographer.
- Tahir Isayev, a.k.a. Serafino - (1922–2001) national hero of Italy.
- Ali Mustafayev - (1952–1991) National Hero of Azerbaijan.
|Name of Villages||Name of Villages||Name of Villages|
|1-I Shikhli||16-Khanliqlar||31-Ashaghi Askipara|
|2-II Shikhli||17-Jafarli||32-Yukhari Askipara|
|3-Yukhari Salahli||18-Bala Jafarli||33-Aghkoynak|
|13-Dash Salahli||28-Gushchu Ayrim|
- The state statistical committee of the Azerbaijan Republic
- Lt-Gen. William Monteith, Kars and Erzeroum: With the Campaigns of Prince Paskiewitch, in 1828 and 1829; and an Account of the conquests of Russia beyond the Caucasus, from the time of Peter the Great to the Treaty of Turcoman Chie and Adrianople, London: Longman, 1856, p. 60