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The term "Quran desecration" is defined as insulting the Quran - what Muslims believe to be the literal word of God, in its original Arabic form - by defiling or defacing copies. Intentionally insulting the Quran is regarded by Muslims as blasphemous.
Most traditional schools of Islamic law require wudu (ritual handwashing) before a Muslim may touch the Holy Quran. Muslims must always treat the printed book with reverence, which may even extend to excerpts of text.1
Disposal of worn copies is also of concern to Muslims. Because the Quran contains no specifics on how to dispose of a worn or defective text, different and conflicting methods of disposal have been adopted in different regions by different sects. According to Islamic historian Michael Cook the Quran should be wrapped in cloth and buried on holy ground where it is unlikely to be trampled on or "safely" placed where it is unlikely to come into contact with impurity.1 According to Arab News, Muslims are forbidden to recycle, pulp, or shred worn-out copies of the text; instead, burning or burying the worn-out copies in a respectful manner is required.2
Respect for the written text of the Holy Quran is an important element of religious faith in Islam. Desecrating a copy of the Quran is punishable by imprisonment in some countries (life imprisonment in Pakistan, according to Article 295-B of the Penal Code) and has been punishable by death in Afghanistan, Somalia and Pakistan.34
In mid-2005, allegations of deliberate desecration of the Quran3 in front of Muslim prisoners at the United States military Guantanamo Bay detention camp, Cuba fueled widespread controversy and led to ensuing Muslim riots. A US military investigation confirmed four instances of Quran desecration by US personnel (two of which were described as "unintentional"), and fifteen instances of desecration by Muslim prisoners.5 According to CBC News, "The statement did not provide any explanation about why the detainees might have abused their own Holy books."6 In May 2005, a report in Newsweek, claiming that it was U.S. interrogators who desecrated the Quran at the Guantanamo Bay base, further sparking Muslim unrest.3
In 2010, Christian pastor Terry Jones of the Dove World Outreach Center, a church in Gainesville, Florida, provoked international condemnation after announcing plans to burn a Quran on the anniversary of the Islamic terrorist September 11 attacks on the USA.8 He later cancelled the plans;9 however, on March 20, 2011, he oversaw the burning of a Quran. In response, Muslims in Afghanistan rioted and 12 people were killed.10
In the 2011 Louis Theroux documentary America's Most Hated Family in Crisis, Megan Phelps of the Westboro Baptist Church explained in an interview that they deliberately and publicly burned a copy of the Quran.11
In February 2012, protests broke out in various parts of Afghanistan over the improper disposal of Qurans at the US military Bagram Air Base.12 Protesters shouted "Death to America" and burned US flags. At least 30 people were killed and hundreds injured. Also 6 U.S. soldiers were killed after members of the Afghan National Security Forces turned their weapons on them and the Afghan protesters.131415
On September 29, an Islamic mob estimated at 25,000 vandalized and torched Buddhist temples, shrines, and houses, along with Hindu temples as incited by an alleged Facebook Buddhist posting of an image depicting the desecration of a Quran. The violence started in Ramu Upazila in Cox's Bazar District and later spread to other areas of Bangladesh.
In March 2013, the al Qaeda English-language magazine Inspire published a poster stating "Wanted dead or alive for crimes against Islam" with a prominent image of Terry Jones, known for public Quran burning events.18 Iran's news agency, Press TV, reported on April 8, 2013, that Terry Jones plans another Quran burning event on September 11, 2013.19 On April 11, Press TV published statements from an Iranian MP who said the West must stop the event and warned that "the blasphemous move will spark an uncontrollable wave of outrage among over 1.6 billion people across the globe who follow Islam." 19 In Pakistan, protesters set the American flag and effigy of the US pastor Terry Jones on fire, condemning the 9/11 plan, according to an April 14, 2013 article in The Nation.20
- Myrvold, Kristina (2010). The Death of Sacred Texts: Ritual Disposal and Renovation of Texts in World. Farnham Surrey England: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 31–57. ISBN 9780754669180.
- Disposing of the sheets of Quran, ourdialogue.com, reprint from Our Dialogue Q&A series, Adil Salahi, Arab News, Jeddah
- "Newsweek says Koran desecration report is wrong", David Morgan, Reuters (Washington, DC), 15 May 2005.
- "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Riots over US Koran 'desecration'", BBC.com, 11 May 2005, webpage: BBC-491.
- Pentagon Details Abuse Of Koran
- U.S. admits abuses to Quran in Guantanamo.
- "Nigeria teacher dies 'over Koran'". BBC News. 21 March 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
- "Indonesian Muslims Protest Plans to Burn Quran on September 11". Voice of America news. 5 September 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
- "US pastor Terry Jones cancels Koran burning". BBC News. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- Mcdonald, Mark. The New York Times http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/j/terry_jones_pastor/index.html
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- America's Most Hated Family in Crisis
- , Reuters, February 21, 2012, retrieved February 21, 2012
- "Most Popular E-mail Newsletter". USA Today. 25 February 2012.
- King, Laura (23 February 2012). "Afghan soldier kills 2 U.S. troops over Quran burning". The Seattle Times.
- Dissing the Koran, The Weekly Standard, May 30, 2005, retrieved Feb 7 2012
- "Six Christians killed in Pakistan over Koran 'insult' ", Persecutionbd.org, August 2009, webpage: Persec-insult (compute-bound).
- Afghan protest over 'burnt Koran', BBC, 25 October 2009.