White power music
White power music is music that promotes white nationalism and expresses racism against non-whites. White power music adopts the musical conventions, rhythms and forms of non-racist music to advance extreme white racism in various music genres, including pop, rock, country, experimental music and folk.12 Specific white power music genres include Nazi punk, Rock Against Communism, hatecore and National Socialist black metal.2
Barbara Perry writes that contemporary white supremacist groups include "subcultural factions that are largely organized around the promotion and distribution of racist music."3 According to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission "racist music is principally derived from the far-right skinhead movement and, through the Internet, this music has become perhaps the most important tool of the international neo-Nazi movement to gain revenue and new recruits."45 An article in Popular Music and Society says "musicians believe not only that music could be a successful vehicle for their specific ideology but that is also could advance the movement by framing it in a positive manner."1
Dominic J. Pulera writes that the music is more pervasive in Europe than the United States, despite many European countries banning or curtailing distribution.2 European governments regularly deport "extremist aliens", ban white power bands and raid organizations that produce and distribute the music.2 In the United States, racist music is protected freedom of speech in the United States by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.6
Country music has spawned several subgenres, including white racist country music — also referred to as segregationist music — which came about in response to the American civil rights movement.17 The songs expressed resistance to the federal government and civil rights advocates who were challenging well-established white supremacist practices endemic in the American southern states.1 There were also changes in the music recording industry in the 1940s and 1950s that allowed regional recording companies to form across the United States, addressing small specialized markets.8 B.C. Malone writes: " the struggles waged by black Americans to attain economic dignity and racial justice provided one of the ugliest chapters in country music history, an outpouring of racist records on small labels, mostly from Crowley, Louisiana, which lauded the Ku Klux Klan and attacked blacks (generally called niggers and coons) in the most vicious of stereotypes terms."19
The artists often adopted pseudonyms, and some of their music was "highly confrontational, making explicit use of racial epithets, stereotypes and threats of violence against civil rights activists.1 Much of the music "featured blatantly racist stereotypes that dehumanized African Americans", equating them with animals or by "using cartoonish imagery associated with "Jigaboos"".10 Lyrics warned of "white violence" on African Americans if they insisted on being treated as equals.11 Other songs were more subtle, couching racist messages behind social critiques and political action calls.1 The lyrics, in the tradition of right-wing populism, questioned the legitimacy of the federal government and rallied whites to protect "Southern rights" and traditions.11 The song "Black Power" includes the lyrics:
The ones who shout "Black Power" / Would bury you and me. / Yeah, the ones who shout "Black Power" / Should let our country be... / White men stand together and register to vote. / Don’t let them take way our land. / We’ve still got lots of hope.1
In 1966, businessman Jay "J.D." Miller created a niche record label for his company, the defiantly segregationist Reb Rebel Records. It was arguably the most notable of the racist country music record labels.1812 Reb Rebel released 21 singles and For Segregationists Only, an album of its ten bestselling songs, four of which were Johnny Rebel's.1314 The label's first single, "Dear Mr. President" (referring to then-president Lyndon B. Johnson), by Happy Fats (Leroy Leblanc), sold more than 200,000 copies.1213 The song parodied Johnson's Great Society programs, which aimed to eliminate poverty and racial injustice.13 Other songs were primarily about civil rights or the Vietnam War, "but never really attacked black people."13 The studio's second release, "Flight NAACP 105" by "the Son of Mississippi" (Joe Norris), was the label's bestseller; the track was a "spontaneous skit in the vein of Amos 'n' Andy."13 It was the first in a series of "highly racist take-offs" of Amos n’ Andy.1 Few of Miller’s racist records were played on the radio in Louisiana. 115 By today's standards, people such as Matt Thaden argue there is no real market for such ramblings, rather done in the spirit pastime, for these come free with interaction with notably any racist, even a moderate or simply in the means of light humor.16
Johnny Rebel, the pseudonym that Cajun country musician Clifford Joseph Trahane used on racist recordings issued in the 1960s, became the "forefather of white power music."131417 Johnny Rebel's six singles (12 songs altogether), frequently use the racial epithet nigger, and often voiced sympathy for racial segregation and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), such as his first B-side "Kajun Ku Klux Klan", which was a "cautionary tale centered on the story of 'Levi Coon' who dared to demand that he be served in a café."11318 The songs were "vehemently anti-black, its pro-segregationist lyrics set to the twangs of the era's swampbilly craze."13
Because of bootlegged records and Internet interest, Johnny Rebel's career never ended; in the late 1990s he was rediscovered, and he re-released his music on CD and promoted it with his own website.13 The site, however, did not spark new interest outside his fanbase until September 11 attacks of 2001.13 Johnny Rebel recorded and released "Infidel Anthem", about "the whipping America should lay on Osama bin Laden," leading to an appearance on The Howard Stern Show, where his new compilation CD and the new song were promoted.13 At the time, Stern's show had a peak audience of around 20 million.192021
Nazi punk music is stylistically similar to most forms of punk rock, although it differs by having lyrics that express hatred of Jews, homosexuals, communists, anarchists, anti-racists and people who are not considered white, as opposed to the often left-wing lyrics of punk rock. In 1978 in Britain, the white nationalist National Front (NF) had a punk-oriented youth organization called the Punk Front.23 Although the Punk Front only lasted one year, it included a number of white power punk bands such as The Dentists, The Ventz, Tragic Minds and White Boss.2425 The Nazi punk subculture appeared in the United States by the early 1980s, during, the rise of the hardcore punk scene.2627
The Rock Against Communism movement originated in the United Kingdom in late 1978 with activists associated with the NF. The most notable RAC band was Skrewdriver, which started out as a non-political punk band but evolved into a white power skinhead band after the original lineup broke up and a new lineup was formed.28 They were the "most dominant white racial extremist band" and were idealized in the "emerging movement that arose in response to perceptions of political liberalism, diversity, and the loss of a power in the white community."1 Skrewdriver advocated on behalf of extreme right-wing and racist politics, and Donaldson self-identified as a British neo-Nazi.1 The group performed mainly for other white power skinheads and "asserted the need for extremist political violence."1 Bands that followed their lead also "fused racist ideology, heavy metal and hard rock styles", embracing "aggressive racism and ethnic nationalism".1
National Socialist black metal (NSBM) is black metal that promotes National Socialist (Nazi) beliefs through their lyrics and imagery. These beliefs often include: white supremacy, racial separatismdisambiguation needed, antisemitism, heterosexism, and Nazi interpretations of paganism or Satanism (Nazi mysticism). According to Mattias Gardell, NSBM musicians see "national socialism as a logical extension of the political and spiritual dissidence inherent in black metal.29 Bands whose members hold Nazi beliefs but do not express these through their lyrics are generally not considered NSBM by black metal musicians, but are labelled as such in media reports.30 Some black metal bands have made references to Nazi Germany purely for shock value, much like some punk rock and heavy metal bands. According to Christian Dornbusch and Hans-Peter Killguss, völkisch pagan metal and neo-Nazism are the current trends in the black metal scene, and are affecting the broader metal scene.31 Mattias Gardell, however, sees NSBM artists as a minority within black metal.29
- "Das Judenthum in der Musik" ("Jewishness in Music") - essay by composer Richard Wagner
- List of neo-Nazi bands
- List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as hate groups
- Louis and the Nazis - 2003 documentary about American neo-Nazis
- Nazi punk
- Stop murder music
- Messner, Beth A., Art Jipson, Paul J. Becker and Bryan Byers. 2007."The Hardest Hate: A Sociological Analysis of Country Hate Music: From Rebel Records to Prussian Blue: A History of White Racialist Music in the United States". Popular Music and Society. 30(4):513-531.
- Pulera, Dominic J.,Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America, pp. 309-311.
- Perry, Barbara, Hate Crimes (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2009) ISBN 0-275-99569-0, ISBN 978-0-275-99569-0, pp. 51-2.
- "Racist Music: Publication, Merchandising and Recruitment", Cyber racism ,Race Discrimination Unit, HREOC, October 2002.
- Rooney, Anne, Race Hate(Evans Brothers, 2006), ISBN 0-237-52717-0, ISBN 978-0-237-52717-4, p. 29.
- Eatwell, Roger and Cas Mudde, Western democracies and the new extreme right challenge (Psychology Press, 2004) ISBN 0-415-36971-1, ISBN 978-0-415-36971-8, pp. 54-5.
- Malone, 2000a, 2002b.
- Tucker, 1985.
- Malone (2002a), p. 317.
- Messner, Becker, Jipson, and Byers (2007)
- Messner, et al., 2007.
- Herman, 2006.
- Pittman, Nick, "Johnny Rebel Speaks: The true-to-life story of how a South Louisiana man with a guitar and a belief became a forefather of white power music.", in: Times of Acadiana, Lafayette, Louisiana, ca. 2000.
- Broven, John, South to Louisiana: The Music of the Cajun Bayous (Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican, 1983) p. 252.
- Malone (2002b) and Pittman (2003).
- Bernard, Shane K.,The Cajuns: Americanization of a People (Jackson, Miss: University Press of Mississippi, 2003) p. 63.
- Pittman, 2003; Johnny Rebel – Klassic Klan Kompositions.
- Condran, Ed (July 31, 1998). "Stern Producer Flourishes By The Skin Of His Teeth". The Morning Call.
- James, Renee A. (October 1, 2006). "Hmmm? Stern's critics are plugged into regular radio". The Morning Call.
- Sullivan, James (December 14, 2005). "Love him or hate him, Stern is a true pioneer". MSNBC.
- Wade, Michael, "Johnny Rebel and the Cajun Roots of Right-Wing Rock". Popular Music and Society(2007) 30(4), 493-512. doi:10.1080/03007760701546364.
- Reynolds, Simon. Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978-1984. Penguin (Non-Classics), 2006. p. 65
- Reynolds, Simon.Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978-1984. Penguin (Non-Classics), 2006. p. 65
- Sabin, Roger. Punk Rock: So What?: The Cultural Legacy of Punk. Routledge, 1999. pp. 207-208.
- Andersen, Mark. Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. Akashic Books, 2003. p. 159
- Flynn, Michael. Globalizing the Streets. Columbia University Press, 2008. p. 191
*"Skrewdriver- A Fan's View". Punk77.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2010..
"Skrewdriver- Press Cuttings". Punk77.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2010..
Diamond in the Dust - The Ian Stuart Biography
- Mattias Gardell, Gods of the Blood (2003), p.307
- Rechtes Neuheiden-Festival mit Nazi-Runen im "SO 36"
- Unheilige Allianzen, page 290
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- Fryer, P. (1986). "Punk and The New Wave of British Rock: Working Class Heroes and Art School Attitudes", Popular Music and Society, 10(4), 1-15.
- Grout, D.J. (1960). A History of Western Music, New York; W.W. Norton & Co.
- Hebdige, Dick. (1979). Subculture: The Meaning of Style; London, Methuen; Fletcher & Son ltd, 1979..
- Herman, M. (2006), J.D. Miller. Retrieved August 29, 2006.
- Johnny Rebel – Klassic Klan Kompositions. (2003). Retrieved February 1, 2006.
- Joseph, B.W. (2002). "'My Mind Split Open': Andy Warhol' Exploding Plastic Inevitability", Grey Room, 8 (Summer), 80-107.
- Lawler, J. (1996). Songs of life: The meaning of country music. Nashville, TN: Pogo Press.
- Leroy "Happy Fats" LaBlanc. (no date). Cajun French Music Association. Retrieved June 17, 2006.
- Mackay, J. (1993). Populist ideology and country music. In G. H. Lewis (Ed.), All that Glitters: Country Music in America (pp. 285–304). Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
- Malone, B. C. (2002a). Country Music, U.S.A. (2 nd ed,). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
- Malone, B. C. (2002b). Don’t Get Above Your Raisin’: Country Music and the Southern Working Class. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.
- Messner, B. A., Becker, P. J., Jipson, A., & Byers, B. (in press). The hardest hate: A sociological analysis of country hate music. Popular Music and Society.
- Pittman, N. (2003). Johnny Rebel Speaks. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from "Present at the Creation." (2001, Fall). Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report. Accessed November 1, 2006.
- Sample, T. (1996). White soul: Country music, the church, and working Americans. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
- Tucker, S. R. (1985). Louisiana folk and regional popular music traditions on records and the radio: An historical overview with suggestions for future research. Louisiana Folklife: A Guide to the State. 222-240.
- Shekhovtsov, Anton, and Jackson, Paul (eds) (2012), White Power Music: Scenes of Extreme-Right Cultural Resistance. Ilford: Searchlight and RNM Publications.
- Farmelo, Allen. "Another History of Bluegrass: The Segregation of American Popular Music, 1820-1900." Popular Music and Society, 25.1-2 (2001): 179-204.
- Hill, Jane H. (2008). The Everyday Language of White Racism. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.