Red Deer, Alberta
|City of Red Deer|
Aerial view of Downtown Red Deer
|Motto: Education, Industry and Progress|
|Established||1882 as a trading post|
May 31, 1894
| - Town
|June 12, 1901
March 25, 1913
|• Mayor||Tara Veer|
|• Governing body|
|• City Manager||Craig Curtis|
|• MP||Earl Dreeshen (Cons)|
|• MLAs||Cal Dallas (P.C.),
Mary Anne Jablonski (P.C.)
|• City||104.29 km2 (40.27 sq mi)|
|Elevation4||855 m (2,805 ft)|
|• Density||868.4/km2 (2,249/sq mi)|
|Ranked 44th largest metro
area in Canada in 2006
|Time zone||MST (UTC−7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC−6)|
|Postal code span||T4N to T4R|
|Area code(s)||403 587|
|Highways||Queen Elizabeth II Highway
David Thompson Highway
|Waterways||Red Deer River|
Red Deer is a city in Central Alberta, Canada. It is located near the midpoint of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor and is surrounded by Red Deer County. It is Alberta's third-most-populous city – after Calgary and Edmonton. The city is located in aspen parkland, a region of rolling hills that is subject to oil, grain, and cattle production. It is a centre for oil and agriculture distribution, and the surrounding region is a major centre for petrochemical production. According to its 2013 municipal census, the City of Red Deer's population is now 97,109, with a immediate regional population of 152,546 as of 2011.7
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Arts and culture
- 5 Attractions
- 6 Sports
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Education
- 9 Media
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by aboriginal tribes including the Blackfoot, Plains Cree and Stoney. European fur traders began passing through the area in the late eighteenth century. Into this ethnic mix, the Métis peoples also emerged.
A native trail ran from Montana in the south across the Bow River near Calgary and on to Fort Edmonton. About halfway between Calgary and Edmonton, the trail crossed the Red Deer River at a wide, stony shallow used by First Nations peoples and bison, commonly known as buffalo, since ancient times. The shallows, now known as the Old Red Deer Crossing, are about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) upstream from the present City of Red Deer.
With the establishment of Fort Calgary by the North-West Mounted Police in 1875, traffic increased along what was by then known as the Calgary and Edmonton Trail.8 After the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in Calgary, traffic along the "C & E" trail increased substantially. A trading post and stopping house were built at the Crossing in 1882 and a permanent settlement began to develop around it.
During the 1885 Riel Rebellion (also known as the North-West Rebellion), the Canadian militia constructed Fort Normandeau at the Crossing. The fort was later taken over by the North-West Mounted Police who used it until 1893.
With the decimation of the bison by hunters, the aboriginal tribes who relied on them for food, clothing and shelter were also in decline. The fertile lands around the Red Deer River were attractive to farmers and ranchers. One early settler, the Reverend Leonard Gaetz, gave a half-share of 1,240 acres (5.0 km2) he had acquired to the Calgary and Edmonton Railway to develop a bridge over the river and a townsite. As a result, the Crossing was gradually abandoned. The first train from Calgary to Edmonton passed through Red Deer in 1891.
The Cree peoples called the river on which Red Deer now stands, Waskasoo Seepee, which translates to "Elk River". With British traders frequently identifying elk as European red deer, the Cree name of the river was translated as "Red Deer River". Now a city, Red Deer's early settlers named the community after the river.9
Leonard Gaetz acted as the local land agent for the Saskatchewan Colonization Company and purchased parts of three other sections from his employers. By 1890, the Gaetz family owned vast land holdings along the south bank of the Red Deer River around the mouth of the Waskasoo Creek. The holdings included parts of Sections 16, 17, 20 and 21. Leonard Gaetz's increasing wealth allowed his family to play a central role in the growth of Red Deer.
In 1895, Gaetz returned to the active ministry in Manitoba. Once again, this proved detrimental to his health. He retired back to Red Deer in 1901, and resided here for the remainder of his life. He was a strong promoter of the area, founding the Westerner showgrounds and annual "Westerner Days", akin to the Calgary Stampede. He died in Red Deer in 1907.
Red Deer saw a massive influx of settlers in the early 1900s.
In 1901, when Red Deer was incorporated as a town, the population stood at 343. Through its location midway between Edmonton and Calgary and the fertile land that supported profitable mixed farming, Red Deer developed primarily as an agricultural service and distribution centre. A further boost came in 1907 when it was chosen as a major divisional point for the Canadian Pacific Railway. Two other railways, the Alberta Central Railway and the Canadian Northern Railway, entered the community in 1911. Red Deer underwent a large land boom.
On March 25, 1913, Red Deer was incorporated as a city and the population had jumped to nearly 2,800.
World War I brought a sharp end to the boom. Red Deer emerged as a small, quiet, but prosperous, prairie city. In 1922, the provincial institution for the care of the mentally handicapped, currently known as the Michener Centre, was established in the city. Prospects looked good for modest but sustainable growth.
The Great Depression of the 1930s was a major setback for city, though it fared better than some communities. Central Alberta was not hit by severe drought. The city was virtually debt-free and profited from its ownership of the local public utilities.
Growth returned to the city with the outbreak of World War II. Red Deer was chosen as the location of a large military training camp (the A-20 Camp which was located where Cormack Armoury, The Memorial Centre and Lindsay Thurber High School are now located). The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan built two air bases to the south of the city at Penhold and Bowden.
In the late 1950s, Red Deer claimed to be the fastest-growing city in Canada.
By roughly 1991 the Canadian Pacific Railway had been removed from the inner city; the track currently runs parallel to the city outskirts. The most prominent landmark of the railway remaining is the CPR bridge spanning the Red Deer River, converted to a walking trail shortly after the track removal.
The city is now a major centre for oil and natural gas extraction and related industries and also for agriculture and agricultural services. It is also a regional centre for administration with a courthouse and provincial building. It is also well served with all major stores in malls such as Bower Place, Southpointe Common, Parkland Mall and many other locations.
Red Deer is also noted for its number of restaurants, economic resilience and youth demographic.
Red Deer is located on the Red Deer River after which it was named.
Red Deer has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), with somewhat of a semi-arid influence. The hottest recorded temperature was 36 °C (96.8 °F) on August 24, 1992.12 The coldest recorded temperature was −43.3 °C (−45.9 °F) on December 9, 1977.12
|Climate data for Red Deer (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.5
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−10.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−41.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||22.2
|Rainfall mm (inches)||0.10
|Snowfall cm (inches)||22.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||7.9||5.7||6.4||5.8||11.1||15.4||14.2||13.0||11.1||6.6||6.7||6.0||110.0|
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||0.08||0.15||0.54||4.0||10.6||15.4||14.2||13.0||10.9||4.9||0.96||0.19||74.9|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||7.9||5.5||6.0||2.4||1.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.38||2.1||6.0||5.9||37.1|
|Source: Environment Canada12|
Red Deer is divided into the following neighbourhoods.13
|Source: Statistics Canada
|Population by ethnic group, 2006|
|Mixed visible minority||155||0.2%|
|Other visible minority||40||0%|
In the 2011 Census, the City of Red Deer had a population of 90,564 living in 36,346 of its 38,789 total dwellings, a 8.9% change from its 2006 adjusted population of 83,154. With a land area of 104.29 km2 (40.27 sq mi), it had a population density of 868.4/km2 (2,249.1/sq mi) in 2011.3
In 2006, Red Deer had a population of 82,772 living in 33,894 dwellings, a 22.0% increase from 2001. The city has a land area of 69.23 km2 (26.73 sq mi) and a population density of 1,195.6 /km2 (3,097 /sq mi).38
Nearly ninety percent of residents spoke English as a first language while 1.7 percent spoke Spanish and 1.6% spoke French. The next most common languages were Tagalog (Filipino) at 1.1 percent, German at 1.0 percent, and Chinese at 0.8 percent, followed by Dutch at 0.6%, Ukrainian at 0.4 percent, and Vietnamese at 0.3 percent.39
About 4.4 percent of residents identified as aboriginal at the time of the 2006 census.40
Red Deer is home to almost 1,800 recent immigrants (arriving between 2001 and 2006) who now make up just more than two percent of the population. About sixteen percent of these immigrants came from the Philippines, while about 14% came from Colombia, 8% came from India, seven percent came from the United States, and about five percent from each of South Africa and the United Kingdom, and about four percent from El Salvador.41
Almost seventy-two percent of the residents are identified as Christian and over twenty-six percent said they had no religious affiliation for the 2001 Census. For specific denominations Statistics Canada counted 14,660 Roman Catholics (22 percent), and 10,970 United Church (16.5 percent), 3,720 Anglicans (5.6 percent), 3,065 Lutherans (4.6 percent), as well as about 1,305 Baptists (2 percent), and about 1,200 Pentecostals (1.8 percent), about 1,060 Presbyterians (1.6 percent), about 905 for the Christian and Missionary Alliance (1.5 percent), and about 650 Jehovah's Witnesses (1.0 percent), as well as about 585 for the Evangelical Missionary Church (0.9 percent) and 455 Mormons (0.7 percent ).42
In a July 2007 analysis of demographic information from the 2006 Federal Census prepared by Environics Analytics, Red Deer was the city most closely resembling the country as a whole.43
Named Cultural Capital of Canada by Canadian Heritage in 2003,44 Red Deer is home to a wide variety of arts and cultural groups. It is the home of Central Alberta Theatre, Central Music Festival, the Red Deer Symphony Orchestra, the Red Deer Museum and Art Gallery, the Red Deer Royals and other performing arts and fine arts organizations.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2013)|
The Alberta Sports Hall of Fame is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Highway 2) and the Greater Red Deer Visitor Centre.
The Canyon Ski Resort is located 7.5 km (4.7 mi) east of Red Deer.
The Enmax Centrum hosts sports events, concerts, trade shows and conventions.
The 12,000 m2 (130,000 sq ft) G.H. Dawe Community Centre is shared by G.H. Dawe Community School, the G.H. Dawe Branch of the Red Deer Public Library, G.H. Dawe Centre Recreation Facility and St. Patrick's School.
The Greater Red Deer Visitor Centre is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Highway 2) and the Alberta Sports Hall of Fame.
The Recreation Centre, an older facility that has been upgraded to modern standards, has indoor and outdoor pools, steam rooms and hot tubs among other features.
Waskasoo Park meanders through Red Deer from its outskirts in the southwest, through the heart of the city, to its outskirts in the northeast along the Red Deer River. It includes over 80 kilometres (50 miles) of multi-use trails for biking, rollerblading, horseback riding, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing and walking. The park is one of the reasons Red Deer is known as "Park City".
The Westerner Exposition Grounds hosts events such as Agricon and Westerner Days. Held in early July, Westerner Days includes a rodeo, pony chuck-wagon racing, a fair, exhibitions and other events.
Red Deer is the hometown of several well-known sporting personalities, including former NHLer Ron Anderson, ex-NHLer Glen Wesley, Trent Hunter, Chris Mason, Randy Moller, Brandon Sutter, Paul Postma and Mark Tinordi, and Olympic gold medallist Jamie Salé. Ron MacLean is also from Red Deer. Olympic medallist speed skater Jeremy Wotherspoon also spent most of his childhood in Red Deer after being born in Saskatchewan. Olympic bronze medallist Deidra Dionne grew up in Red Deer.
- Red Deer Rebels, Western Hockey League
The city is served by Red Deer Regional Airport, which serves mostly general aviation, but also a small commuter airline. Scheduled turbo-prop service is available to Calgary, Kelowna, Edmonton, Grande Prairie and Fort McMurray.
Red Deer Transit provides local bus service throughout the city.
Health care is provided at the Red Deer Regional Hospital.
Three school authorities operate schools in Red Deer.
Founded in 1887, the Red Deer Public School District45 serves 10,000 students in thirty schools. Offering a wide range of programming, the district not only meets the needs of children and youth from the City of Red Deer and welcomes international students from around the world. Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School and Hunting Hills High School provide a large number of program options for students of high school age.
Founded in 1909, when the Daughters of Wisdom, a religious order from France, accepted the challenge of the Tinchebray Fathers, also from France, to offer Catholic schooling in Red Deer, Red Deer Catholic Regional Schools46 welcomes almost 7,000 students in five Central Alberta communities, including Red Deer. They operate École Secondaire Notre Dame High School, the only Catholic high school in central Alberta, which serves 1,500 students from the City of Red Deer and surrounding communities.
Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2's school École La Prairie is a French school located near downtown Red Deer that offers pre-kindergarten through grade 9 programs. It offers all courses in French to a population of 119 students47 whose first language is French.
Red Deer College was founded in 1964 as Red Deer Junior College. Today, it offers some degrees, adult upgrading, certificate programs, diploma programs, university transfer courses, applied degree programs, and apprenticeship and trades training.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2011)|
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