Religion in Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, with millions of different peoples following a wide variety of different religions. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism, Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity, Lingayatism, Jainism, Sikhism, Taoism, Zoroastranism, Sanamahism as well as many other beliefs.
|Religions by country|
- 1 Irreligion / atheism / agnosticism
- 2 Abrahamic religions
- 3 Taoic religions
- 4 Dharmic religions
- 5 Iranian religions
- 6 Shamanism and Animism
- 7 Sanamahi /Sanamahism
- 8 References
- 9 See also
In the People's Republic of China, 59% of the population claim to be non-religious.1 However, this percentage may be significantly greater (up to 80%) or smaller (down to 30%) in reality, because some Chinese define religion differently. Some Chinese define religion as practicing customs (which may be done for cultural or traditional reasons), while others define it as actually consciously believing their religion will lead to post-mortem salvation/reincarnation. A Dentsu statistic states that 46% of Vietnamese and 51% of Japanese are irreligious.2
Judaism is the predominant religion in Israel, which has a nominal Jewish population of about 7 million, though the matter of distinguishing Jewish religious, cultural and ethnic identity is a complex one.citation needed
Christianity is a widespread minority religion in Asia with more than 260 million adherents 4 constituting around 6.5% of the total population of Asia. Only five countries are predominantly Christian, Cyprus which is predominantly Greek Orthodox, the Philippines, which is the 3rd largest Roman Catholic nation in the world, East Timor, Armenia, and Georgia. Christianity also accounts for 29.2% of South Korea's population (54.5% of its religious population) and is now the predominant religion in South Korea.
Asian countries with large Christian populations are Phillipines (84 million), China (39 million), India (24 million, concentrated especially in the North-Eastern and Southern parts of the country5), Indonesia (20 million), South Korea (15 million), Vietnam (7 million), Japan (2.5 million) and Malaysia (2.5 million).
The Bahá'í Faith is an Abrahamic religion although it is quite different from Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. It was so founded by Bahá'u'lláh in what was then Persia (also known as Iran). Today the largest national population of Bahá'ís is in India with between 1.7 million6 to 2.2 million,7 where there is also the Lotus Temple. Significant populations are found in many countries including Vietnam and Malaysia where "about 1%", some 260,000, of the population are Bahá'ís.8 In other places, like Kazakhstan there are 25 Local Spiritual Assemblies.9
In modern day Iran, the religion is severely persecuted (see Persecution of Bahá'ís). In neighboring Turkmenistan, Bahá'í Faith is effectively banned,10 and individuals have had their homes raided for Bahá'í literature.11 For further information, see Bahá'í Statistics for Asia and Category:Bahá'í Faith by country.
Islam is the largest religion in Asia with approx. 1.1 billion adherents which is 25% of Asia's population.12 South Asia and Southeast Asia are home of the most populous Muslim countries, with Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh having more than 100 million adherents each. According to U.S. government figures, in 2006 there were 20 million Muslims in China. In the Western Asia, the non-Arab countries of Iran and Turkey are the largest Muslim-majority countries. In South Asia, Pakistan and Bangladesh are the countries with the largest Muslim-majority. In Central Asia, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are the countries with the largest Muslim-majority.
Of the 104 million strong population of the Philippines, around 5 to 10 percent, some 5 to 10 million people, are Muslim.131415 India's Muslim population is 13.4% of the total, approximately 161 million people.16 Thailand's Muslims make up 4.6 percent of the population, or approximately 3 million people.17 Also Sri Lanka's Muslims make up 10 percent of the population, or approximately 2.5 million people
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a minority Muslim sect, originated on the Asian continent in 1889 in Qadian, India. The community had 10 million members as of 1980s. As of 2008, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has been established in all Asian countries except for Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Georgia and North Korea. Ahmadis are most persecuted in Asia, particularly in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia and India.
Confucianism was founded in China by the famous philosopher, Kǒng Fūzǐ (more commonly known in English-speaking countries as Confucius). Confucianism is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought that has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia. Some consider it to be the state religion of East Asian countries because of governmental promotion of Confucian values. Today the Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese diaspora has brought Confucianism to the world.
Taoism (modernly: Daoism) is a philosophical and religious tradition that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (modernly romanized as "Dao"). The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimately ineffable: "The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao."18
Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism and is closely associated in this context with "original", or "primordial", Taoism.19 Whether he actually existed is commonly disputed;2021 however, the work attributed to him – the Daodejing – is dated to the late 4th century BC.22
Taoist propriety and ethics may vary depending on the particular school, but in general tends to emphasize wu-wei (action through non-action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures: compassion, moderation, and humility.
Chinese folk religion are a label used to describe the ethnic religious traditions which have been a main belief system in China and among the Han Chinese ethnic group for most of the civilization's history until today. Shenism comprises Chinese mythology and includes the worship of shens (神, shén; "deities", "spirits", "awarenesses", "consciousnesses", "archetypes") which can be nature deities, Taizu or clan deities, city deities, national deities, cultural heroes and demigods, dragons and ancestors. "Shenism" as a term was first published by A. J. A Elliot in 1955.23 It is sometimes categorized with Taoism, since over the centuries institutional Taoism has been attempting to assimilate or administrate local religions. More accurately, Taoism can be defined as a branch of Shenism, since it sprang out of folk religion and Chinese philosophy. Chinese folk religion is sometimes seen as a constituent part of Chinese traditional religion, but more often, the two are regarded as synonymous. With around 454 million adherents, or about 6.6% of the world population, Chinese folk religion is one of the major religious traditions in the world. In China more than 30% of the population adheres to Shenism or Taoism.24
Kami-no-michi is almost unique to Japan and the Japanese diaspora. It is a set of practices carried out to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 7th and 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to disorganized folklore, history, and mythology. Shinto today is a term that applies to public shrines suited to various purposes such as war memorials, harvest festivals, romance, and historical monuments, as well as various sectarian organizations.
Muism ("religion of the Mu")2526 or sometimes Sinism (Shingyo, "religion of the gods", with shin being the Korean character derivative of the Hanja),27 encompasses a variety of indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Korean people, the Korean sphere and the Korean diaspora.28 In contemporary South Korea, the most used term is Muism and a shaman is known as a mudang (무당, 巫堂). The role of the mudang, usually a woman, is to act as intermediary between a spirit entity, spirits or gods and human beings.
Women are enlisted by those who want the help of the spirit world. Shamans hold gut, or services, in order to gain good fortune for clients, cure illnesses by exorcising negative or 'bad' spirits that cling to people, or propitiate local or village gods. Such services are also held to guide the spirit of a deceased person to higher realms. Today this religion is a minority, but has in recent years seen a resurgence.29
Dharmic religions, also called Indian religions, are the predominant and oldest religions of Asia. Most of Asia's population follows Indian religions. All Indian religions originated in South Asia. These religions all have the concepts of dharma, karma, and reincarnation.
Hinduism is the second largest religion in Asia with approximately 1 billion followers.3031 Hinduism is a way of living according to the one's understanding of principles of Vedas and Upanishads. Veda is revealed knowledge. Just as the knowledge of gravity was revealed to Newton, similarly, in India, many Rishis or Seers were awakened to certain transcendental Eternal Truths. These Rishis realized that their real nature was not concerned with or linked with 'body or mind', nor was it dependent on sense perceptions, but was in fact identical with the Universal Consciousness.
Hinduism is the majority religion in India, Nepal, and the Indonesian island of Bali, with strong minorities in the Asian nations of Bhutan, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Singapore, and Sri Lanka. Before the arrival of Buddhism and Islam in Southwest Asia and Southeast Asia, Hinduism (and Shaivism in particular) was the most widely practiced religion in Southwest Asia and Southeast Asia.323334
Hinduism as we know it can be subdivided into a number of major currents. The main divisions of Hinduism are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Smartism and Shaktism. The vast majority of present day Hindus can be categorized under one of these four groups, although there are many other, partly overlapping, allegiances and denominations.
Hinduism is the world's oldest religion. It predates recorded history and is thought to have had a beginning during the Indus Valley Civilization itself. It has no single founder; rather, it is a diverse melange of traditions, practices, and lineages., Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism emerged in ancient India from Hinduism.
Jainism is one of the oldest Indian religions. Jains are mostly found in India but are increasingly found throughout the world.35 Jains have significantly influenced and contributed to ethical, political and economic spheres in India. Jains have an ancient tradition of scholarship and have the highest degree of literacy for a religious community in India.3637 Jain libraries are the oldest in the country.3839 It has traditionally been confined to the Indian Subcontinent and West Asia. It is based on the teachings of Vardhaman Mahavir and also on 23 other Tirthankaras.
Buddhism is the fourth largest world religion and the 3rd largest in Asia. It is dominant in Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Tibet, Japan, Laos, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore. It also has strong minorities in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines and Russia.
Lingayatism is an independent religion in which followers worship GOD in ISHTALINGA form. Lingayatists do not believe in the caste system as in Hinduism. Established by Lord Basavanna in the 12th century.
Sikhism is the fifth largest organized religion in the world.43 And one of the most steadily growing.44 It is a monotheistic religion founded by Guru Nanak Dev in the 1500s. The religion professes its roots in the area of Punjab, whose territories form part of India and Pakistan. This system of religious philosophy and expression has been traditionally known as the Gurmat (literally the counsel of the gurus) or the Sikh Dharma. Sikhism originated from the word Sikh, which in turn comes from the Sanskrit root śiṣya meaning "disciple" or "learner", or śikṣa meaning "instruction". Sikhism is the 3rd largest religion in India with 2% of the total population being Sikh. There is also a large concentration of Sikhs in Malaysia, Thailand, Burma, the Philippines, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Hongkong, Singapore, Indonesia, Kuwait, U.A.E and Nepal.
Zoroastrianism was once the state religion of the Persian Empire, but is now a minority mostly found in India and Iran. It worships a monotheistic god, Ahura Mazda, and was founded by Zoroaster. It is the original Iranian religion, and spawned Manichaeism and Mazdakism.Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra, in Avestan), probably founded some time before the 6th century BC in Iran. The term Zoroastrianism is, in general usage, essentially synonymous with Mazdaism, i.e., the worship of Ahura Mazda, exalted by Zoroaster as the supreme divine authority.
In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil originates from Him. Thus, in Zoroastrianism good and evil have distinct sources, with evil (druj) trying to destroy the creation of Mazda (asha), and good trying to sustain it. Mazda is not immanent in the world, and His creation is represented by the Amesha Spentas and the host of other Yazatas, through whom the works of God are evident to humanity, and through whom worship of Mazda is ultimately directed. The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta, of which a significant portion has been lost, and mostly only the liturgies of which have survived. The lost portions are known of only through references and brief quotations in the later works of (primarily) the 9th-11th centuries.
Zoroastrianism is of great antiquity. In some form, it served as the national- or state religion of a significant portion of the Iranian people for many centuries before it was gradually marginalized by Islam from the 7th century onwards. The political power of the pre-Islamic Iranian dynasties lent Zoroastrianism immense prestige in ancient times, and some of its leading doctrines were adopted by other religious systems. It has no major theological divisions (the only significant schism is based on calendar differences), but it is not monolithic. Modern-era influences have a significant impact on individual/local beliefs, practices, values and vocabulary, sometimes complementing tradition and enriching it, but sometimes also displacing tradition entirely.
|This section requires expansion. (May 2008)|
Today it's experiencing a revival of old traditional religion like Sanamahism in most of Asia. In Manipur(Kangleipak),a state in the North East part of India is still following this 2000 years old religion by the people of both the valleys and hills till now.The study of Sanamahi religion may be termed as "SANAMAHISM" and the followers as SANAMAHISTS" it simply the cult of Sanamahi the creator of Meetei trinity, the Sidaba Mapu - the immortal one - the immortal trinity god which is in extensive use in ancient literature. The written literature of this religion is call PUYA. At the closed of the 20th century Sanamahism gained a strong foothold owing to the coming of modern education, increase in population and many other social factors. The gap of untouchables between Sanamahism and Hinduism became almost abandon. During this period the impact of Sanamahism became more and more embedded in the hearts and mind of the people at large. As a result it gave a new hope and dimension in the process of the revivalist's movement of Sanamahism. Old beliefs and religious bindings were untied and the beliefs of emerging movement began to take their place. From the present population trend, the state of Manipur and its region has sharply increased of Sanamahi followers from the previous census.In the religious history of Manipur, the 14th of May, 1945, the Meetei Marup was formed in Manipur unanimously. This led to the revival of Sanamahi religion and its main follower in all aspect of traditional cultures, scripts of Meetei (Meetei Mayek), customary practices, and religious ceremonies relating to the Sanamahi society. These formations also lead to the conflict between the followers of Sanamahi religion and those who followed Hinduism.484950
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- Source: Year 2000 Estimated Baha'i statistics from: David Barrett, World Christian Encyclopedia, 2000; Total population statistics, mid-2000 from Population Reference Bureau
- National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India
- National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Malaysia
- Government of Kazakhstan (2001). "Religious Groups in Kazakhstan". 2001 Census. Embassy of Kazakhstan to the USA & Canada. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
- compiled by Wagner, Ralph D. "Turkmenistan". Synopsis of References to the Bahá'í Faith, in the US State Department's Reports on Human Rights 1991-2000. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
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- Robinet (1997), p. 63.
- Robinet 1997, p. 25
- Kirkland 2004, p. 62
- Kirkland 2004, p. 61
- ChartsBin (2009-09-16). "Chinese Folk Religion Adherents by Country". Chartsbin.com. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- Chang Soo-kyung, Kim Tae-gon. Korean Shamanism – Muism. Jimoondang, 1998.
- Choi Joon-sik. Folk-religion: The Customs in Korea.
- Margaret Stutley. Shamanism: A Concise Introduction. Routledge, 2003.
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- Estimates for the population of Jains differ from just over four million to twelve million due to difficulties of Jain identity, with Jains in some areas counted as a Hindu sect. Many Jains do not return Jainism as their religion on census forms for various reasons such as certain Jain castes considering themselves both Hindu and Jain. The 1981 Census of India returned 3.19 million Jains. This was estimated at the time to be at least half the true number. There are an estimated 25,000-30,000 Jains in Europe (mostly in Britain), 20,000 in Africa, 45,000 plus in North America (from Dundas, Paul (2002). The Jains. Routledge. p. 271. ISBN 0-415-26606-8, 9780415266062 Check
|isbn=value (help).) and 5,000 in the rest of Asia.
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- The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India, John E. Cort, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 115, No. 1 (January – March, 1995), pp. 77–87
- "History - Melbourne Shwetambar Jain Sangh Inc". Melbournejainsangh.org. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- Jerry Bentley, Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press), 46
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- "Mahayana Buddhism: Buddhism in Indonesia". Buddhanet.net. 1934-03-10. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
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- "Animism". OMF. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- List of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community buildings and structures
- Major religious groups
- Religion in Africa
- Religion in Europe
- Religion in North America
- Religion in the Mongol Empire