Research

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Basrelief sculpture "Research holding the torch of knowledge" (1896) by Olin Levi Warner. Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.

Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications."1 It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, etc.

Forms of research

Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, such as business schools, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate totally).2

Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics, and a different, more relativist epistemology. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.

Artistic research, also seen as 'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

Etymology

Aristotle, 384 BC – 322 BC, - one of the early figures in the development of the scientific method.3

The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning 'search'.4 The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.4

Definitions

Research has been defined in a number of different ways.

A broad definition of research is given by Martyn Shuttleworth - "In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge."5

Another definition of research is given by Creswell who states that - "Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.6

The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or examination; especially  : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws".4

Steps in conducting research

Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.7 The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are:8

  • Identification of research problem
  • Literature review
  • Specifying the purpose of research
  • Determine specific research questions or hypotheses
  • Data collection
  • Analyzing and interpreting the data
  • Reporting and evaluating research
  • Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

The steps generally represent the overall process, however they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.9 Most researches begin with a general statement of the problem, or rather, the purpose for engaging in the study.10 The literature review identifies flaws or holes in previous research which provides justification for the study. Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher(s) collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher(s) then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as Empirical research. The results of the data analysis in confirming or failing to reject the Null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end the researcher may discuss avenues for further research.

Rudolph Rummel says, "... no researcher should accept any one or two tests as definitive. It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results."11

Scientific research

Primary scientific research being carried out at the Microscopy Laboratory of the Idaho National Laboratory.
Scientific research equipment at MIT.

Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:

  1. Observations and Formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of ones interest and following that subject area to conduct subject related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.
  2. Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.
  3. Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.
  4. Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study.
  5. Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from and/or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable.
  6. Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data in order to draw conclusions about it.
  7. Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures and pictures, and then described in words.
  8. Test, revising of hypothesis
  9. Conclusion, reiteration if necessary

A common misconception is that a hypothesis will be proven (see, rather, Null hypothesis). Generally a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected (see falsifiability). However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true.

A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which state no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables. A null hypothesis uses a sample of all possible people to make a conclusion about the population.12

Historical method

German historian Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886), considered to be one of the founders of modern source-based history.

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines that are commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes lower criticism and sensual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are part of most formal historical research:13

Research methods

The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):

The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress.

There are two major types of research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:

Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th century.14
Qualitative research
Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc that is analyzed and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time consuming, and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.citation needed Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses.citation needed Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.
Quantitative research
Systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. Asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive).15 Statistics derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.

The Quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.citation needed These methods produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize.citation needed Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory and/or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest. Depending on the research question, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments (this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment).citation needed If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics in order to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.16

In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.17

Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary and secondary data, is becoming more common.18

Professionalization

In several national and private academic systems, the professionalization of research has resulted in formal job titles.

In Russia, former Soviet Union and some Post-Soviet states the term researcher (Russian: Научный сотрудник, nauchny sotrudnik) is both a generic term for a person who carried out scientific research, as well as a job position within the frameworks of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Soviet universities, and in other research-oriented establishments. The term nauchny sotrudnik is also sometimes translated as research fellow, research associate, etc.

The following ranks of a nauchny sotrudnik are known:

  • Junior Researcher (Junior Research Associate)
  • Researcher (Research Associate)
  • Senior Researcher (Senior Research Associate)
  • Leading Researcher (Leading Research Associate)19
  • Chief Researcher (Chief Research Associate)

Publishing

Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869.

Academic publishing describes a system that is necessary in order for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The system varies widely by field, and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. There is also a large body of research that exists in either a thesis or dissertation form. These forms of research can be found in databases explicitly for theses and dissertations. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine.

Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields; from the print to the electronic format. A study suggests that researchers should not give great consideration to findings that are not replicated frequently.20 It has also been suggested that all published studies should be subjected to some measure for assessing the validity or reliability of its factors in order to prevent the publication of unproven findings.21 Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since about the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access.22 There are two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which the articles or the whole journal is freely available from the time of publication, and self-archiving, where the author makes a copy of their own work freely available on the web.

Research funding

Most funding for scientific research comes from three major sources: corporate research and development departments; private foundations, for example, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; and government research councils such as the National Institutes of Health in the USA23 and the Medical Research Council in the UK. These are managed primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors. Many senior researchers (such as group leaders) spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research, but also as a source of merit.

The Social Psychology Network provides a comprehensive list of U.S. Government and private foundation funding sources.

Original research

Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified).2425

Different forms

Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.26

The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and usually established by means of peer review.27 Graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation.28

Artistic research

The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines.29 One of the characteristics of artistic research is that it must accept subjectivity as opposed to the classical scientific methods. As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis.30

Artistic research has been defined by the University of Dance and Circus (Dans och Cirkushögskolan, DOCH), Stockholm in the following manner - "Artistic research is to investigate and test with the purpose of gaining knowledge within and for our artistic disciplines. It is based on artistic practices, methods and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context."31 Artistic research aims to enhance knowledge and understanding with presentation of the arts.32 For a survey of the central problematics of today's Artistic Research see Giaco Schiesser.33

Most writers, whether of fiction or non-fiction books, also have to do research to support their creative work. This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research.34

See also

References

  1. ^ OECD (2002) Frascati Manual: proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development, 6th edition. Retrieved 27 May 2012 from www.oecd.org/sti/frascatimanual.
  2. ^ J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry (1994). "Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching". Energy & Environment 18 (2): 13–43. 
  3. ^ "The Origins of Science". Scientific American Frontiers.
  4. ^ a b c Unattributed. ""Research" in 'Dictionary' tab". Merriam Webster (m-w.com). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  5. ^ Shuttleworth, Martyn (2008). "Definition of Research". Explorable. Explorable.com. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  6. ^ Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
  7. ^ Trochim, W.M.K, (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base.
  8. ^ Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2008 ISBN 0-13-613550-1 (pages 8-9)
  9. ^ Gauch, Jr., H.G. (2003). Scientific method in practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2003 ISBN 0-521-81689-0 (page 3)
  10. ^ Rocco, T.S., Hatcher, T., & Creswell, J.W. (2011). The handbook of scholarly writing and publishing. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. 2011 ISBN 978-0-470-39335-2
  11. ^ Questions About Freedom, Democide, And War
  12. ^ Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. ^ Garraghan, Gilbert J. (1946). A Guide to Historical Method. New York: Fordham University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-8371-7132-6. 
  14. ^ Sullivan P (2005-04-13). "Maurice R. Hilleman dies; created vaccines". Washington Post. 
  15. ^ Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. ^ Data Collection Methods
  17. ^ Kara H (2012) Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p.102. Bristol: The Policy Press.
  18. ^ Kara H (2012) Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p.114. Bristol: The Policy Press.
  19. ^ Job qualifications for Leading Researcher (Russian)
  20. ^ Heiner Evanschitzky, Carsten Baumgarth, Raymond Hubbard and J. Scott Armstrong (2006). "Replication Research in Marketing Revisited: A Note on a Disturbing Trend". 
  21. ^ J. Scott Armstrong and Peer Soelberg (1968). "On the Interpretation of Factor Analysis". Psychological Bulletin 70: 361–364. 
  22. ^ J. Scott Armstrong and Robert Fildes (2006). "Monetary Incentives in Mail Surveys". International Journal of Forecasting. 
  23. ^ "NIH Reporter". 
  24. ^ What is Original Research? Original research is considered a primary source. Thomas G. Carpenter Library University of North Floridadead link
  25. ^ Schaum's Quick Guide to Writing Great Research Papers - Laurie Rozakis
  26. ^ Singh, Michael; Li, Bingyi (October 6, 2009). "Early career researcher originality: Engaging Richard Florida’s international competition for creative workers". Centre for Educational Research, University of Western Sydney. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. 
  27. ^ Callaham, Michael; Wears, MD, MS, Robert; Weber, MD, Ellen L. (2002). "Journal Prestige, Publication Bias, and Other Characteristics Associated With Citation of Published Studies in Peer-Reviewed Journals". JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.287.21.2847. 
  28. ^ Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-2007 edition - The United States Department of Labor
  29. ^ Lesage, Dieter (Spring 2009). "Who’s Afraid of Artistic Research? On measuring artistic research output". Art&Research - A Journal of Ideas, Contexts and Methods 2 (2). ISSN 1752-6388. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  30. ^ Eisner, E. W. (1981). "On the Differences between Scientific and Artistic Approaches to Qualitative Research". Educational Researcher 10 (4): 5–9. doi:10.2307/1175121. 
  31. ^ Unattributed. "Artistic research at DOCH". Dans och Cirkushögskolan (website). Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  32. ^ Schwab, M. (2009). Draft Proposal. Journal for Artistic Research. Bern University of the Arts.
  33. ^ Schiesser, G. (2012). «A certain Frustration …» – Paradoxies | Voids | Perspectives in Artistic Research Today, in: Practices of Experimentation. Research and Teaching in the Arts today. Compiled by Christoph Brunner und Giaco Schiesser. Ed. by the Department of Art & Media, Zurich University of the Arts. Zürich: Scheidegger & Spiess 2012, pp. 96-111.
  34. ^ Hoffman A (2003) Research for Writers, pp 4-5. London: A&C Black Publishers Limited.

Further reading

  • Gorard, S. (2013) Research Design: Robust approaches for the social sciences, London:SAGE, ISBN 978-1446249024, 218 pages

Video of a lecture on research design

  • Freshwater, D., Sherwood, G. & Drury, V. (2006) International research collaboration. Issues, benefits and challenges of the global network. Journal of Research in Nursing, 11 (4), pp 9295–303.
  • Cohen, N. & Arieli, T. (2011) Field research in conflict environments: Methodological challenges and snowball sampling. Journal of Peace Research 48 (4), pp. 423–436.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of research at Wiktionary
  • Quotations related to Research at Wikiquote







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