Revenge is a harmful action against a person or group in response to a grievance, be it real or perceived. It is also called payback, retribution, retaliation or vengeance; it may be characterized as a form of justice (not to be confused with retributive justice), an altruistic action which enforces societal or moral justice aside from the legal system. Francis Bacon described it as a kind of "wild justice" that "does... offend the law [and] putteth the law out of office".1
Social psychologist Ian Mckee says the desire for the sustenance of power motivates vengeful behavior as a means of impression management: "People who are more vengeful tend to be those who are motivated by power, by authority and by the desire for status. They don't want to lose face."34
Some societies encourage the revengeful behavior which is called blood feud. These societies usually attribute the honour of individuals and groups a central role. Thus, while protecting of his reputation an avenger feels as if he restores the previous state of dignity and justice. According to Michael Ignatieff, "revenge is a profound moral desire to keep faith with the dead, to honour their memory by taking up their cause where they left off." 5 Thus, honour may become a heritage that passes from generation to generation. Whenever it is compromised, the affected family or community members might feel compelled to retaliate against an offender to restore the initial "balance of honour" that preceded the perceived injury. This cycle of honour might expand by bringing the family members and then the entire community of the new victim into the brand-new cycle of revenge that may pervade generations.6
Many religions condemn revenge, or promote it as eternal punishment.
Judaism forbids revenge for small sins such as insults and things like stealing. For large crimes, such as murder, the issue of revenge is more complicated. While some rabbis condemn all revenge, others consider feelings (though not necessarily actions) of revenge permissible in extreme cases such as murder, where the forgiveness of the person offended cannot be attained.citation needed
Some assert that the Hebrew Bible's concept of reciprocal justice "an eye for an eye" (Exod. 21:24) validates the concept of proportionate revenge, in which there would be a simple 'equality of suffering'; however Rabbinic law states this verse indicates a person should provide a monetary payment for the eye or tooth that was damaged, and does not require the assailant to receive physical damage. This view confounds the concepts of justice and revenge, and disregards the fact that "eye for an eye" justice was a philosophical advance on the normative practice of the day (see blood feud, infra) and that Judaic scripture elsewhere prescribes “Do not seek revenge . . . love your neighbor as yourself” (Leviticus 19:18). Also, the Hebrew Bible illustrates the concept that '"vengeance is mine" says the Lord' (Deut. 32:35, cf., in the NT, Rom. 12:19).
- Revenge is not always better, but neither is forgiveness; learn to know them both, son, so that there is no problem. -- Prahlada (quoted by Draupadi) (The Book of the Forest, Mahabharata)7
Vendettas or "blood feuds" are cycles of provocation and retaliation, fuelled by a burning desire for revenge and carried out over long periods of time by familial or tribal groups; they were an important part of many pre-industrial societies, especially in the Mediterranean region. They still persist in some areas, notably in Albania with its tradition of gjakmarrja or 'blood feuds.'9 During the Middle Ages, most would not regard an insult or injury as settled until it was avenged, or, at the least, paid for — hence, the extensive Anglo-Saxon system of wergild (literally, "man-price") payments, which placed a certain monetary value upon certain acts of violence in an attempt to limit the spiral of revenge by codifying the responsibility of a malefactor.
In Japan's feudal past, the Samurai class upheld the honour of their family, clan, or lord through the practice of revenge killings (敵討ち katakiuchi). These killings could also involve the relatives of an offender. Today, katakiuchi is most often pursued by peaceful means, but revenge remains an important part of Japanese culture.
The motto of Scotland is Nemo Me Impune Lacessit, Latin for 'Nobody shall provoke/injure me with impunity'. The origin of the motto reflects the feudal clan system of ancient Scotland, particularly the Highlands.
The goal of some legal systems is limited to "just" revenge — in the fashion of the contrapasso punishments awaiting those consigned to Dante's Inferno, some have attempted to turn the crime against the criminal, in clever and often gruesome ways.
Modern Western legal systems usually state as their goal the reform or re-education of a convicted criminal. Even in these systems, however, society is considered the victim of a criminal's actions, and the notion of vengeance for such acts is an important part of the concept of justice — a criminal "pays his debt to society".
Psychologists have found that the thwarted psychological expectation of revenge may lead to issues of victimhood.citation needed
The popular expression "revenge is a dish best served cold" suggests that revenge is more satisfying if enacted when unexpected or long feared, inverting traditional civilized revulsion toward 'cold-blooded' violence.12
The idea's origin is obscure. The French diplomat Talleyrand (1754–1838) has been credited with the saying La vengeance est un mets que l'on doit manger froid. Revenge is a dish that should be eaten cold., albeit without supporting detail.13 It has been in the English language at least since the 1846 translation of the 1845 French novel Mathilde by Joseph Marie Eugène Sue: la vengeance se mange très-bien froide,14 there italicized as if quoting a proverbial saying, and translated revenge is very good eaten cold.15 It has been wrongly credited16 to the novel Les liaisons dangereuses (1782).
Its path to modern popularity may begin with the 1949 film Kind Hearts and Coronets which had revenge is a dish which people of taste prefer to eat cold. The familiar wording appears in the film Death Rides a Horse (1967), in the novel The Godfather by Mario Puzo (1969), and as if from an "old Klingon Proverb" in the film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982) and again in the title sequence of the Quentin Tarantino film Kill Bill: Vol 1 (2003).
Another proverb states: "Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves." The implication here is that a desire for revenge may ultimately hurt the seeker as much as the victim. Alternatively, it may imply that you should be prepared to die yourself in the process of seeking revenge.
Revenge is a popular subject in literature, drama, and other arts. Notable examples include the plays Hamlet and Othello by William Shakespeare, the novel The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, and the short story "The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe. Other examples are the Greek myths of Medea, the painting Herodias' Revenge by Juan de Flandes, the opera Don Giovanni by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and the novel The Princess Bride by William Goldman. In Japanese art, revenge is a theme in various woodblock prints depicting the Revenge of the Forty-Seven Ronin by many well-known and influential artists, including Kuniyoshi. The Chinese playwright Ji Junxiang used revenge as the central theme his theatrical work The Orphan of Zhao;17 it depicts more specifically familial revenge, which is placed in the context of Confucian morality and social hierarchal structure.18
Some modern societies use tales of revenge to provide catharsis, or to condition their members against acting out of desire for retribution.citation needed In many of these works, tragedy is compounded when the person seeking revenge realizes he/she has become what he/she wished to destroy. However, in others, the consummation is depicted as satisfying and cathartic.
Revenge is also a popular theme in video games, with some games featuring revenge as the driving force of the plot. In the 2012 video game Dishonored, players assume the role of Corvo Attano, bodyguard to the Empress of Dunwall, Jessamine Kaldwin, who is framed for her assassination and imprisoned as a result. After escaping prison, each mission requires the player to find and neutralize (as killing enemies is entirely optional) those involved in the assassination plot.
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- Retributive justice
- Honor killing
- Eye for an eye
- Crime of passion
- Nemesis (mythology)
- Proportionality (law)
- Dirty Work
- Vengeful ghost
- The Killing Scene: Hamlet 5.2.303–309.
- Michael Price (June 2009). Revenge and the people who seek it. 40, No. 6. apa.org. p. Print version: page 34. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
- Ian McKee, PhD. 2008. Social Justice Research (Vol. 138, No. 2)
- Brandon Hamber and Richard A. Wilson, Symbolic Closure through Memory, Reparation and Revenge in Post-conflict Societies (Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 1999)
- Helena Yakovlev-Golani (2012). "Revenge - the Volcano of Despair: The Story of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict". Exploring the Facets of Revenge. p. 83.
- "The Balance". shonmehta.com.
- "The Nine Satanic Statements".
- "Peacemaker breaks the ancient grip of Albania's blood feuds". CSM June 24, 2008
- "Blood feuds and gun violence plague Turkey's southeast". Reuters. May 5, 2009
- "Deadly twist to PNG's tribal feuds". BBC News. August 25, 2005
- Jennifer Speake (2008). Concise Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs, 5th Ed.. Oxford University Press. p. 576. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Le Dictionnaire Marabout des pensées des auteurs du monde entier. Verviers: Gérard & Co. 1969.
- Eugène Sue (1845). Mathilde: mémoires d'une jeune femme. Welter. p. 148. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- Marie Joseph Eugène Sue (1846). The orphan; or, Memoirs of Matilda, tr. [from Mathilde] by the hon. D.G. Osborne. p. 303.
- "The meaning and origin of the expression: Revenge is a dish best served cold". Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Liu, Wu-Chi (1953). "The Original Orphan of China". Comparative Literature 5 (3): 195. JSTOR 1768912.
- Shi, Fei (2009). "Tragic Ways of Killing a Child: Staging Violence and Revenge in Classical Greek and Chinese Drama". In Constantinidis, Stratos E. Text & presentation, 2008. Jefferson: McFarland. p. 175. ISBN 9780786443666.