|River Camel (Dowr Kammel)|
The Camel valley in winter. Taken from between Pendavey bridge and Polbrock looking upstream.
|- left||River Ruthern|
|- right||De Lank River, River Allen|
|- location||Bodmin Moor|
|- location||Padstow, North Cornwall coast|
|Length||48 km (30 mi)|
The River Camel (Cornish: Dowr Kammel, meaning crooked river) is a river in Cornwall, UK. It rises on the edge of Bodmin Moor and together with its tributaries drains a great deal of North Cornwall. The river flows into the eastern Celtic Sea between Stepper Point and Pentire Point having covered a stretch of about 30 miles. The river is tidal as far upstream as Egloshayle and is popular for sailing, birdwatching and fishing. The name Camel comes from the Cornish language for 'the crooked one', a reference to its winding course. It is only recently that the whole river has been known as the Camel, historically the river was divided into three named stretches. Heyl (Cornish: Heyl, meaning estuary) was the name for the estuary up to Egloshayle, the River Allen (Cornish: Dowr Alen, meaning shining river) was the stretch between Egloshayle and Trecarne, whilst the name Camel was reserved for the stretch of river between its source and Trecarne.1
- 1 Geology and hydrology
- 2 Estuary
- 3 Recreation
- 4 Wildlife and conservation
- 5 History and infrastructure
- 6 Tributaries and their names
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The River Camel rises on Hendraburnick Down (UK Grid Reference SX135875) on the edge of Bodmin Moor, an area which forms part of the granite spine of Cornwall. The river's course is then through upper and middle Devonian rocks, predominantly slates such as Upper Delabole Slates, Trevose Slates and Polzeath Slates. These stretch right to the coast, although Pentire head is composed mainly of pillow lavas.2 The only active quarry in the River Camel catchment area is Delabole Quarry3 although there has been mining for lead and antimony on Pentire Head, as well as building stone at various locations. Further inland mines surrounding the Camel and its tributaries produced lead, copper and iron, while Mulberry Mine near Ruthernbridge also produced tin.
The source of the River Camel is at an altitide of 218 metres (715 ft) above sea level4 and has an average incline of 7m/km.4 The upper reaches of the Camel and its tributaries are mainly moorland giving way to woodland and farmland, predominantly livestock.4 This means that 64.8% of the catchment is grassland, with a further 14.8% arable land and 12.9% woodland. Of the remaining 7.4%, 4.5% is urban or built-up areas, 2.7% is mountain, heath and bog and the remainder is inland waters.5
The catchment area of the River Camel covers a total of 413 km²4 on the western side of Bodmin Moor, and is mainly Devonian slates and granite,6 with some shales and sandstones.4 Water volumes are affected by the reservoir at Crowdy Marsh, by abstraction of water for public supply, and by effluent from the sewage system around Bodmin. Data collected by the National Water Archive shows that water flow in the River Camel for 2006 was considerably below average. This correlates with reduced rainfall, particularly between the months of June and September.7
|“||The next five and a half miles beside the broadening Camel to Padstow is the most beautiful train journey I know||”|
— John Betjeman, Betjeman's Cornwall8
The River Camel's estuary, known as the Camel Estuary (Cornish: Heyl Kammel)9 stretches from Wadebridge downstream to the open sea at Padstow Bay. The quays at Wadebridge are now developed with apartments and retail space on the west bank. North of the quays, the river passes under a new concrete bridge carrying the A39 bypass and past the disused Vitriol Quay. Downstream of Burniere Point the valley widens on the right with acres of salt marsh where the River Amble flows in. Here the Cornwall Birdwatching and Preservation Society have hides on both sides of the river; those on the Camel Trail being open to the public. The main river follows the western side of the valley, while on the eastern side a barrage prevents the rising tide from entering the River Amble.
Downstream from the Amble. a small test bore into Dinham Hill is only accessible from the foreshore at low tide. Cant Cove lies on the east bank below Cant Hill and the rotting ribs of a ship project from the mud. Almost opposite Cant Hill on the west bank is Camel Quarry, the piles of waste rock clearly visible above the river with the remains of a quay visible at low water. From here the mud gives way to sand and Gentle Jane, named after a legendary lady who treated the ills of all comers.10
From Porthilly Cove on the east bank, the estuary widens and swings to the north. On the west bank, the Camel Trail crosses the triple-span “Iron Bridge” over Little Petherick Creek then passes below Dennis Hill with its obelisk.
The mouth of the River Camel lies between Stepper Point on the west and Pentire Point on the east, and each headland shelters sandy beaches. On the west side of the eastuary, Tregirls beach is protected by Stepper Point. At the northern end of Tregirls beach is Harbour Cove and between here and Hawker's Cove evidence has been found of occupation during the Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman periods, and use of Harbour Cove for trading vessels.11
In 1827, Padstow Harbour Association chose Hawker's Cove as the location for the Padstow lifeboat. Operations were taken over by the RNLI in 1856. A new lifeboat station and slipway were built in 1931 and a second lifeboat stationed at Hawker's Cove. The station closed in 1962 because silting rendered the channel too shallow.12 The building is now converted to residential use.
Beyond Hawkers Cove, the Doom Bar extends across the estuary. This notorious sandbank has been the graveyard of many ships over the years. As with many things in Cornwall, there is a legend as to how the Doom Bar came about; a local fisherman is reputed to have shot a mermaid with an arrow, with the result that she cursed Padstow by putting this sandbar between the harbour and the sea.13
On the east side of the estuary, the village of Rock is popular centre for sailing, dinghy racing and marine leisure. From Rock, dunes and intertidal sands extend north as far as Brea Hill. Beyond Brea Hill is Daymer Bay with a popular beach north of which is the settlement of Trebetherick. A stretch of rocky foreshore swings east to the bay and beach at Polzeath, a popular location for surfing. North of Polzeath, Pentire Point marks the northeast extremity of the estuary.
The Camel Estuary has been designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), covering the area between Padstow/Rock and Wadebridge. 14 The Estuary comprises part of the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park.
There are several sandy beaches located on the River Camel. On the western bank Tregirls beach and St Georges Well lie between Stepper Point and Padstow, while on the eastern bank moving upstream from Pentire Point there is Polzeath beach, Daymer Bay and Rock. Water quality is monitored at the latter three locations, results from 2007 being either "good" or "excellent".15
The Camel Trail, used by walkers and cyclists, follows the trackbed of the old Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway from Wenfordbridge, past the outskirts of Bodmin at Dunmere, and through Wadebridge to end in Padstow.
The Saints' Way footpath links Padstow with Fowey. It follows first the River Camel, and then Little Petherick Creek from Padstow to Little Petherick, before striking inland and crossing the county to the River Fowey. This route is a very ancient one used by travellers from Ireland and Wales making for Brittany and wishing to avoid the dangerous seas around Lands End.10
The section of the River Camel between and Tuckingmill Bridge and Penrose Bridge near Blisland is graded as Grade 2 for kayaking.16
There are 5 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) along the length of the River Camel. Four small SSSIs at Harbour Cove, Rock Dunes, Trebetherick Point and Pentire Peninsula are on the estuary, while the River Camel Valley and Tributaries SSSI covers much of the Camel Valley between Egloshayle and Blisland, and then extends in several further sections of varying size right up to its source. This SSSI also covers much of the River Allen, a tributary which flows into the river immediately upstream of Egloshayle, and also some smaller unnamed tributaries. In addition there is also an SSSI at Amble Marshes on the River Amble which flows into the Camel Estuary between Wadebridge and Rock.
There are two nature reserves on Camel and its tributaries. The Walmsley sanctuary of the Cornwall Birdwatching and Preservation Society is situated on the Amble marshes on the River Amble above Trewornan Bridge. Hawke's Wood reserve is owned by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust and is situated on the south side of the Camel Valley between Wadebridge and Dunmere. Here there is an abandoned quarry in a mature woodland of predominantly Sessile Oak.18
Although very few British mammals rely largely on rivers for their habitat, one of the few that do, the otter, can be found on the Camel.
With the large areas of salt marsh on the estuary, the River Camel provides an excellent location for birds. Large flocks of waders can be seen in winter, preyed on by local Peregrines, and a migrant Osprey often pauses a few days to fish in Spring and Autumn.18 Mute Swans nest at several locations, particularly near to the bridge in Wadebridge where there is often a nest on a small island a few yards downstream of the bridge. Ducks are also found on the river with Shelduck, Shoveller and Mallard on the estuary and Teal further upstream.19
The Camel estuary was one of the first places in England to be colonised by Little Egrets, the birds being particularly seen on mudflats at low tide. Other rarities include an American Belted kingfisher seen in the 1980s for only the second time in England.
There are two birdwatching hides on the River Camel. Tregunna Hide (Grid reference SW 969 738) is owned by Cornwall County Council and is located on the Camel Trail21 and is open to the public. Burniere Hide (Grid Reference SW 982 740) is owned by the Cornwall Birdwatching and Preservation Society (CBWPS)21 and is only open to members. In addition, the CBWPS own the Walmsley Sanctuary which covers over 20 hectares (49 acres) on the River Amble, a tributary of the River Camel, with a further 2 hides for use by its members. The sanctuary is nationally important for wintering waders and wildfowl.19
By the Atlantic Ocean the flora is distinctly maritime, characterised by Thrift and Bladder campion on exposed clifftops and Spring squill and heather growing in the turf. Stunted Blackthorn and Gorse also tolerate more exposed sites, while the quarry on Stepper Point is home to many species of marsh plants. Above Egloshayle there are beds of Yellow Flag Iris while the wooded slopes of the valley are filled with Bluebells in spring.
Cornwall is a county of high cliffs and deep valleys, so rivers have been used for transport throughout history. Being one of the few safe havens on the north coast of Cornwall, the Camel Estuary has been used since Roman times, and most likely earlier.11 The river has been navigable beyond Wadebridge with the highest quay being at Guineaport, and then beyond that at least as far as Pendavy a mile further upstream.24
In July 1988, the water supply to the town and the surrounding area was contaminated when 20 tons of aluminium sulphate was poured into the wrong tank at the nearby Lowermoor Water Treatment Works on Bodmin Moor. An independent inquiry into the incident (the worst of its kind in British history) was started in 2002, and a draft report issued in January 2005, but questions still remain as to the long-term effects on the health of local residents. Michael Meacher, who visited Camelford in his post as environment minister, called the incident and its aftermath, "A most unbelievable scandal."26
The main tributaries of the River Camel are the Allen, the Ruthern, the De Lank and the Stannon. Other tributaries include the River Amble, which joins the Camel near Burniere Point and the Polmorla Brook which joins the Camel immediately above the bridge at Wadebridge.
In terms of its name there is evidence that what is now known as the River Camel has had several names in the past. The name Camel is derived from Middle Cornish "Cam-El", "Crooked one", and seems originally to have referred only to the upper parts.27 The lower part of the river was referred to as the River Allen, a common Celtic river name of unknown derivation, however in the 19th Century the name Allen was transferred to the River Layne which flows into the Camel just above Egloshayle. The Camel estuary appears to have been called the River Hayle from Middle Cornish "Hayle", estuary27 and while this may have been as much a description as a proper name, the continued use of the name Hayle Bay for the bay containing Polzeath beach supports this. In turn it has been suggested that the River Layne may have previously been called the River Dewi given the number of places along its course which contain the element.27
- Weatherhill, Craig. A Concise Dictionary of Cornish Place-names, 2009.
- "Killas". Cornwall Regionally Important Geological/Geomorphological Sites Group. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
- "BGS GeoIndex". British Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- "49001 - Camel at Denby: Land Use". Natural Environment Research Council. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
- "camel and allen". Westcountry Rivers Trust. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- "Camel at Denby". Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- "Camel at Denby 2006". Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- Murray, John (1984). Betjeman's Cornwall. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-4106-9.
- Place-names in the Standard Written Form (SWF) : List of place-names agreed by the MAGA Signage Panel. Cornish Language Partnership.
- Duxbury, Brenda; Williams, Michael (1987). The River Camel. St Teath: Bossiney Books. ISBN 0-948158-26-3.
- "From Constantinople to Cornwall". Time Team. Season 2008. Episode 10. 2008-03-09. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/2008/padstow/index.html.
- "Padstow History". RNLI. 2007. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Bishop, Ray (1994). North Cornwall Camera. Bodmin: Bossiney Books. ISBN 0-948158-97-2.
- "Camel Estuary". Cornwall AONB unit. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- "Water Quality 2007". North Cornwall District Council. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- "Guide to the River Camel (Tuckingmill to Penrose)". The UK rivers guidebook. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- "River Camel". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- Bere, Rennie (1982). The Nature of Cornwall. Buckingham: Barracuda Books Limited. ISBN 0-86023-163-1.
- "Walmsley Sanctuary". Cornwall Birdwatching & Preservation Society. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- "Hawkes Wood". Cornwall Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Reserves & Hides". Cornwall Birdwatching & Preservation Society. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- "Marine sightings of Basking Shark 'Cetorhinus maximus' in Cornwall". Cornwall Wildlife Trust. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- "Invasive weeds on the River Camel". Westcountry Rivers Trust. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- Fairclough, Anthony; Wills, Alan (1979). Bodmin and Wadebridge 1834 - 1978. Truro: Bradford Barton. p. 21. ISBN 0 85153 343 4.
- Kentley, Eric. Cornwall's bridge & viaduct heritage. Truro: Twelveheads Press. ISBN 0 906294 584.
- The Independent, 16 April 2006, Poisoned: The Camelford scandal
- Weatherhill, Craig (1995). Cornish Place Names and Language. Sigma Leisure. ISBN 1-85058-462-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rivers of Cornwall.|
- Birdlife on the River Camel
- Cornwall Birdwatching & Preservation Society
- River Camel page at swuklink.com
- Saints' Way page on Cornwall County Council website
- South West Coast Path website