Saratoga Springs, New York

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Coordinates: 43°4′31″N 73°46′57″W / 43.07528°N 73.78250°W / 43.07528; -73.78250
Saratoga Springs
City
Downtown Saratoga Springs.jpg
A view of downtown, looking south along Broadway from its intersection with Caroline Street.
Motto: Health, History, Horses
Nickname: The Spa City, 'Toga
Country United States
State New York
Region Capital District
County Saratoga
Landmark Saratoga Race Course
River Kayaderossas Creek
Elevation 300 ft (91 m)
Coordinates 43°4′31″N 73°46′57″W / 43.07528°N 73.78250°W / 43.07528; -73.78250
Lowest point Kayaderosseras Creek
 - elevation 0 ft (0 m)
Area 29.0 sq mi (75 km2)
 - land 28.4 sq mi (74 km2)
 - water 0.6 sq mi (2 km2)
Population 26,586 (2010)
Density 920 / sq mi (355 / km2)
Founded ca. 1776
Incorporation as city 1915
Government Saratoga Springs City Hall
 - location 474 Broadway
 - coordinates 43°5′0.23″N 73°47′2.81″W / 43.0833972°N 73.7841139°W / 43.0833972; -73.7841139
Mayor Joanne Yepsen (D)
Timezone EST (UTC-5)
 - summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Postal code 12866
Area code 518
FIPS code 36-65255
GNIS feature ID 0964489
Demonym Saratogian
Location within Saratoga County
Location within New York State
Wikimedia Commons: Saratoga Springs, New York
Website: http://www.saratoga-springs.org/

Saratoga Springs, also known as simply Saratoga (though not to be confused with the nearby town of that name), is an affluent city in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census.1 The name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area, which has made Saratoga a popular resort destination for over 200 years. The city is just north of Albany in the heart of New York's Capital Region. Summer residents annually include many of New York City's affluent residents, as well as a number of affluent people from other nearby states, executives, and increasingly, foreigners from Europe and South America.

History

The picture-esque area was occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican Indians before they were pushed out by European settlement, both Dutch and English colonists. They eventually moved east and became allied with other remnant peoples and became known as the Stockbridge Indians, as they settled near Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

The English built Fort Saratoga in 1691 on the west bank of the Hudson River. The current village of Schuylerville, New York was settled about a mile south by English colonists shortly after the fort; it was known as Saratoga until 1831. In 1767, William Johnson, a British soldier who was a hero of the French and Indian Wars, was brought by Native American friends to springs about 10 miles (16 km) west of the village. They treated his war wounds, as the spring was thought to have medicinal properties. Now known as High Rock Spring, it may still be visited today. In 1756 Johnson had been appointed British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northeast region due to his success in building alliances with the Mohawk and other Iroquois tribes. He had learned the language, and created many trading relationships. He achieved great wealth from trading and landholdings, and was knighted for his service to the Crown with the Iroquois.

The first permanent European-American settler built a dwelling about 1776. The springs attracted tourists, and Gideon Putnam built the first hotel for travelers. Putnam also laid out the roads and donated land for use as public spaces.

The Battle of Saratoga, the turning point of the Revolutionary War, did not take place in Saratoga Springs. Rather, the battlefield is 15 miles (24 km) to the southeast in the Town of Stillwater. A museum dedicated to the two battles is located on the fields where the battles were fought. The British encampment before the surrender at Saratoga took place 10 miles (16 km) east of the city, in Schuylerville, where several historical markers delineate points of interest. The surrender of the sword of battle took place where Fort Saratoga had been, south of Schuylerville.

Saratoga Springs was established as a settlement in 1819 from a western portion of the Town of Saratoga. Its principal community was incorporated as a village in 1826 and the entire region became a city in 1915. Tourism was greatly aided after 1832 by the arrival of the Saratoga and Schenectady Railroad, which brought thousands of travelers to the famous mineral springs. Resort hotels developed to accommodate them. Patronage of the railroad increased steadily after the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company assumed control in 1870 and began running the Empire State Express directly between New York City and the resort.

In the 19th century, the noted doctor Simon Baruch encouraged developing European-style spas in the United States as centers for health. With its wealth of mineral waters, Saratoga Springs was developed as a spa, generating the development of many large hotels, including the United States Hotel and the Grand Union Hotel. The latter was, in its day, the largest hotel in the world.2

In 1863, Saratoga Race Course opened, moving to its current location the following year. Horse racing and its associated betting greatly increased the city's attraction as a tourist destination at a time when horse racing was a popular national spectator sport. In addition, the Saratoga Springs area was known for its gambling, which after the first years of the 20th century was illegal, but still widespread. Most gambling facilities were located on Saratoga Lake, on the southeast side of the city.

During the 1950s, the state and city closed the famed gambling houses, as they were outlawed. The closing and redevelopment in 1950s of some premier hotels, including the Grand Union and United States, Saratoga Springs, was further damaging Saratoga Springs as a destination.

The city started to prosper again in the 1960s with the completion of the Grand Adirondack Northway (Interstate 87), which allowed visitors from the north and south much easier access. In addition, the construction of the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in the late 1960s, which features classical and popular music and dance, furthered the city's renaissance. The New York City Ballet has a summer residency there, together with other high-quality dance groups and musicians. Since the early 1990s, there has been a boom of building, both residential and retail, in the west side and downtown areas of the city.

Geography

Saratoga Springs is located at 43°04′31″N 73°46′57″W / 43.075337°N 73.782422°W / 43.075337; -73.782422 (43.075337, -73.782422).3

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.1 square miles (75 km2), of which 28.4 square miles (74 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) (2.17%) is water.

The Adirondack Northway (Interstate 87) and US Route 9 pass alongside and through the city, respectively. New York State Route 29, New York State Route 50, New York State Route 9N, and New York State Route 9P lead into Saratoga Springs.

Saratoga Lake is southeast of the city.

Demographics

2012

According to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:


As of the census1 of 2012, there were 26,711 people, 11,312, and 5,923 families residing in the city. The population density was 921.1 people per square mile (355.6/km2). There were 11,584 housing units at an average density of 407.5 per square mile (157.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 92.5% White, 1.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.01% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.64% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population.

There were 11,312 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.5% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.88.

In the city the population was spread out with 19.4% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males.

In 2012, the median income for a family was $91,392, while the mean income for a family was $114,560. 4 The median income for a household in the city was $62,766, while the mean income for a household was $81,807.5 Males had a median income of $61,582 versus $47,759 for females. About 3.0% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. 6

Business

Saratoga Springs relies heavily on tourism as its main source of income during the summer social season while the Saratoga Race Course is open. Many residents commute daily to Albany via Interstate 87, Interstate 787, and Interstate 90. The business district in Saratoga increasingly contributes to the economy year round, as the city has attracted many national and international luxury-brand retailers, as well as trendy local boutiques; it has become an upscale shopping destination for the Albany metropolitan area.

In industry, the Saratoga Spring Water Co. (a division of Anheuser-Busch InBev) is located on Geyser Road. Operating since 1872, the water has been served during many presidential inaugurations in Washington D.C., including Barack Obama's in 2013. Quad Graphics, offset printers of Time Magazine, Newsweek, People Magazine, Sports Illustrated and many other magazines, has a plant here, and Ball Corporation, makers of the Mason Jar as well as aluminum cans, for companies such as Pepsi and Anheuser-Busch InBev, has a large manufacturing plant in the city. Stewart's Shops, a popular convenience store chain, which is an employee- and family-owned business, is based out of Saratoga Springs. Stewart's has more than 300 stores throughout New York and Vermont.

Playground for the Rich

Horse Racing

The city is perhaps best known for the Saratoga Race Course, which opened on August 3, 1863. The first track was located on East Avenue (at the present Oklahoma Training Track location) which is perpendicular to the present Saratoga Race Course, which opened the following year. Founded by John Hunter and William R. Travers, the thoroughbred track is the oldest continuously-operating sporting event of any kind in the United States. The track holds a summer meet lasting six weeks, from late July to Labor Day, that attracts the top horses, jockeys, and trainers in America. The meet features a number of major stakes races, with the Travers Stakes, a Grade I race, being the most important of America's summer horse races. The track season sees a dramatic influx of people into the city, on average over 100,000 people. Hotels and Resorts are completely booked, luxury condos fill up, and many Saratogians rent out their homes.

Harness Racing

Saratoga Casino and Raceway, a harness (Standardbred) racetrack that includes a video gaming facility, the Racino, and a horse betting simulcast room.

Polo

For the past 100 years, polo ponies have thundered up and down the fields of the Saratoga Polo Club, leaving an impact as exciting as in the times of warriors and princes.

World Class Golf

Private Clubs

  • McGregor Links Country Club
  • Saratoga National Golf
  • Saratoga Golf and Polo

Public Clubs

The Springs

Columbian Spring, one of Saratoga's many public springs

Before racing began in Saratoga, the area's natural mineral springs had been attracting wealth for many decades. The springs occur on a line where the north-south Saratoga Fault allows water trapped in subsurface shale layers to reach the surface.

Believed to have healing powers, springs can be found all over town. Most of the springs are covered by small pavilions and marked by plaques; others, however, are less conspicuous, sometimes just a spigot in a rock. The springs are famous for their varied and distinct tastes: some are clear freshwater, others are saltier, and some taste strongly of a certain mineral such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium chloride. There is a sulfur odor, but mineral analysis of the water consistently shows almost no presence of dissolved sulfur. The sulfur is in the form of the gas hydrogen sulfide, which degasses from the water very quickly. Visitors are welcome to bottle the spring water for personal consumption.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century excessive pumping for commercial bottling was threatening to deplete the springs. In 1911 the New York State Reservation, now the Spa State Park, was created to protect the springs and the Lincoln and Roosevelt bath houses were built. Currently, luxury spa treatments with these waters are available in the Roosevelt Baths. 7 The springs include:

Arts & Entertainment

The Saratoga Performing Arts Center (known by its acronym "SPAC") is a covered outdoor amphitheater located on the grounds of the Saratoga Spa State Park, with a capacity of 5,000 in reserved seating and 20,000+ on its general admission lawn area. SPAC is the summer home of the Philadelphia Orchestra and the New York City Ballet, and has hosted a weekend-long jazz festival since 1978.8 Since 2006, the Saratoga Native American Festival has been held on SPAC grounds each fall.9 SPAC is a stop for touring national recording artists: over 20 popular bands grace the stage every summer. Steps away on State Park grounds, the Spa Little Theater hosts the "Home Made Theater" as well as Opera Saratoga (formerly known as the Lake George Opera) during the summer.

Museums in the area include the National Museum of Dance and Hall of Fame, the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, and the Saratoga Automobile Museum. There are more than 20 golf courses in the area.

Superhorse, one of 34 fiberglass horses on display around downtown Saratoga Springs in the 2007 Horses, Saratoga Style exhibit of public art


The city is notable for its vibrant night life. Caffè Lena was one of the first venues in the Eastern US at which Bob Dylan performed in 1961. Arlo Guthrie played at Caffè Lena early in his career and has returned for occasional benefit concerts, and the singer Don McLean was a frequent performer there early in his career. (Contrary to a popular legend, Mr. McLean has stated that his song "American Pie" was not composed at a table in the Tin & Lint, a bar on Caroline Street.10) Numerous other establishments are located on Broadway, Caroline Street (the Hamilton district), and the redeveloped Putnam Street.

Recently, Beekman Street (four blocks West of Broadway), once the center of a working-class residential neighborhood, has become an art district, housing four galleries, a restaurant, a pub and teahouse, and a bistro. Artists live and work in co-ops and arrange social events. While some take credit for "revitalizing" a "deteriorating" area, others consider such declarations an insult to the generations of minority and marginalized ethnicities who worked in the service jobs of the tourism economy, and were traditionally segregated to this once-remote quarter.

Saratoga Springs is home to Yaddo, a 400-acre (1.62 km2; 0.63 sq mi) artists' community, founded by Wall Street financier Spencer Trask and his wife, author Katrina Trask. Since its inception in 1900, Yaddo has hosted 68 authors who later won the Pulitzer Prize and one Nobel Prize winner, Saul Bellow. Leonard Bernstein, Truman Capote, Aaron Copland, Sylvia Plath, and David Sedaris have all been artists-in-residence.11 The Yaddo grounds are adjacent to the backstretch of the Saratoga Race Course.

Museums

Media

Government

The Saratoga Springs charter specifies a "commission" form of city government. Recent efforts to amend the charter have not yet been successful. The most recent charter change proposal appeared on the ballot in the November 2012 election and was rejected.12 The Saratoga Springs City Council members for 2014 are:13

  • Mayor Joanne Yepsen
  • Commissioner of Finance Michele Madigan
  • Commissioner of Public Works Anthony "Skip" Scirocco
  • Commissioner of Public Safety Christian Mathiesen
  • Commissioner of Accounts John P. Franck

The county supervisors for the city are Matthew Veitch and Peter Martin.13

The city is one of only three in the state of New York to have a three-tier tax district system, the inside district being what was originally the village of Saratoga Springs, and the outside district being the town of Saratoga Springs minus the village. The other two cities with three-tier tax system are Rome, New York and Oneida, New York.

Transportation

The closest scheduled air service is available at Albany International Airport (ALB). There is also a general aviation facility, Saratoga County Airport (5B2), located west of city limits in the Town of Milton.

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Saratoga Springs, operating its Adirondack daily in both directions between Central Station in Montreal and Penn Station in New York City and the Ethan Allen Express daily in both directions between Rutland, Vermont and New York City. The local station off of West Avenue was built in 1956, but dramatically rehabilitated in 2004. The 6,400-square-foot (590 m2) passenger area contains a coffee shop/newsstand, murals, an automated teller machine, a visitors information kiosk, an outside patio area with benches, and a children’s play area. The station serves about 23,000 passengers every year.

Greyhound Bus Lines also serves the city frequently, sending buses every few hours towards Albany or Montreal. The city Amtrak station serves as the Greyhound Bus Lines and Adirondack Trailways Bus Lines station. The city is also served by the Capital District Transportation Authority, which provides bus service from Schenectady via Route 50 daily, and weekday service to Albany via the Northway Express line. Low-cost curbside bus service is also provided by Megabus, with direct service to New York City and Burlington, Vermont.

Long-distance motorists generally reach Saratoga via Interstate 87, which north of Albany is known as the Adirondack Northway. Three exits access the city. Exit 13-S is optimal for reaching Saratoga Lake, and 13-N for the Saratoga Performing Arts Center (SPAC) and the southern and western quadrants of the city. Visitors to the Saratoga Race Course use Exit 14, which is also arguably best for reaching downtown from the south. Exit 15 serves Skidmore College, downtown if coming from the north, and the shopping malls just north of city limits.

Education & Recreation

Empire State College and Skidmore College are both located in Saratoga Springs; Verrazzano College (1969-1975)1415 was also located there. During the summer, Skidmore is one of several hosts for the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth. Eastern Nazarene College, located in Quincy, Massachusetts, was founded in Saratoga Springs as the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute and Biblical Seminary at the turn of the 20th century.

The Saratoga Springs City School District16 is made up of:

  • Six elementary schools (kindergarten through grade five) — Lake Avenue, Caroline Street, Division Street and Geyser Road in the City of Saratoga Springs; Greenfield in the Town of Greenfield; and Dorothy Nolan in the Town of Wilton
  • One middle school (grades six through eight) — Maple Avenue Middle School in the Town of Greenfield
  • One high school (grades nine through twelve) — Saratoga Springs High School located on the West side on Blue Streak Boulevard in the City of Saratoga Springs.

Private schools in Saratoga Springs include Saratoga Central Catholic High School, St. Clement's Regional Catholic School, The Waldorf School of Saratoga Springs, and Saratoga Independent School. Alternatively, many local children commute to around Albany at prestigious schools such as The Emma Willard School, The Albany Academies, Doane Stuart School and The LaSalle School.

Saratoga Spa State Park

The Saratoga Spa State Park capitalizes on the culture and mineral springs that drove Saratoga Springs. This is a large state park and includes a hotel, 2 pool complexes, mineral baths, Saratoga Performing Arts Center, picnic areas, hiking trails and numerous mineral springs. The Saratoga Performing Arts Center, located on the State Park grounds, has been the summer home of the Philadelphia Orchestra and New York City Ballet since 1966. Jazz and dance are featured at SPAC. The SPAC Amphitheater itself is 110 feet (34 m) high, sits in a natural, curved bowl that is bordered by large pine trees and a large lawn space, but is afflicted by the roar of nearby Geyser Creek, which creates serious acoustical problems. Inside the amphitheater is seating for 5100, the lawn can easily hold an additional 20,000 people. The park is also home to the National Museum of Dance and Hall of Fame, the Saratoga Automobile Museum, the Lincoln Mineral Baths and Spa, and the Gideon Putnam Resort & Spa.

East Side Rec. Skateboard Park

skateboarder skating the skateboard pool at Saratoga Springs Skatepark in New York State

The Saratoga Springs Skatepark (est. 1988), located in the center of the East Side Recreation area on Lake Avenue, is New York State's first municipal skatepark. The exercise facility is known for its concrete skateboard pool, installed with a state-of-the-art design in 2004 which the city filled with dirt in March 2010. The city's reasons cited for filling the "bowl" with dirt were graffiti, vandalism and unconfirmed structural issues which they claimed affected the skating surface. In addition, the city lacked funds to staff guards at the park and claimed it had spent nearly $200,000 on the park since it opened in 1988.17 After a group of skateboarders lobbied the city then publicly offered to dig out the pool by hand, the city excavated it in November 2011.1819 The skatepark is now free, open to the public and endorses a skate-at-your-own-risk policy per the New York Recreational Use Statute.

Notable residents

Actors

Sports figures

Musicians

Authors/journalists

Others

In popular culture

Saratoga Springs and Saratoga society are frequently featured on-screen and mentioned in films and television.

Films shot in and around Saratoga Springs

Radio

  • Saratoga Springs was the setting for a radio soap opera by the same name, created by ZBS Foundation and written by Meatball Fulton. The 1989 series was produced as 90 four-minute daily episodes for National Public Radio. The story incorporates Saratoga Springs historical facts and utilizes local actors as well as ZBS regulars. Lena Spencer of Caffe Lena is listed as playing herself. A "Best of Saratoga Springs" compilation (c. 2004) can be purchased from ZBS (www.zbs.org). During spring and early summer, 2007, the original four-minute episodes were podcast by ZBS.

Television

  • In the pilot episode of the 1960s sitcom Green Acres, it was noted that Eddie Albert's character of Oliver Wendell Douglas was born in Saratoga Springs.

Music

  • In the song "Adelaide's Lament" in the 1950 Broadway musical Guys and Dolls, Adelaide, who has an eternal cold caused by her fiancé's refusal to finally marry, sings "When they get on that train to Niagara / She can hear church bells chime / The compartment is air-conditioned / And the mood sublime... / Then they get off at Saratoga for the fourteenth time / A person can develop la grippe!"
  • The 1971 song "American Pie" by Don McLean was not written at the Tin and Lint bar on Caroline Street, according to Mr. McLean (see the citation above).
  • In the 1972 Carly Simon song "You're So Vain" the singer references horseracing in Saratoga Springs: "Well, I hear you went up to Saratoga, and your horse naturally won...."
  • In 1988, Whitney Houston's performance of "Didn't We Almost Have It All," the second single of her second studio album, was filmed during a live show in the city. The video was rotated regularly on MTV and it eventually became her fifth (of a record-breaking seven) consecutive number one hits on the Billboard 100 chart.

Food

Other

Sister cities

Gallery

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ R. F. Dearborn, Saratoga and How to See It
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  4. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_5YR_DP03
  5. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?
  6. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_5YR_DP03
  7. ^ Saratoga Springs Heritage Area Visitor Center. "History of Saratoga". Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  8. ^ McGuire, Mark (27 June 2012). "The first Saratoga Jazz Fest". The Times Union. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  9. ^ Willman, Dale (30 September 2012). "Native American Festival Continues at SPAC: Photo Essay". Saratoga Wire. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Dimopoulos, Thomas (26 November 2011). "Bye, bye local legend: Don McLean refutes tale of song's origin". The Post Star. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  11. ^ "History". Yaddo. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  12. ^ McCarty, Lucian (15 May 2012). "Saratoga Citizen-based charter change proposal to be on November ballot". The Saratogian. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.saratogian.com/general-news/20140101/saratoga-springs-officials-sworn-in
  14. ^ "Verrazzano makes $3 million offer for Skidmore's Scribner Campus". Skidmore News. Sep 11, 1969. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  15. ^ "New York Colleges that have Closed, Merged, Changed Names". Westminster College. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  16. ^ Saratoga Springs City School District website, www.saratogaschools.org
  17. ^ Donges, Patrick (24 March 2010). "Skateboarding bowl filled at Saratoga Springs' East Side Rec". The Saratogian. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  18. ^ Jenks, Eric (5 November 2011). "Photos: Saratoga Springs' East Side Rec skate bowl reopens". The Saratogian. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  19. ^ Yusko, Dennis (20 October 2011). "Skateboarder's moves may hit pay dirt". The Times Union. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  20. ^ "David Hyde Pierce". IMDb. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  21. ^ Humphries, Shawn (2005-10-14). "How Bill Parcells Made Big Gains". Golf Online. Retrieved 2007-02-14. dead link
  22. ^ Flass, Barbara (1991). "Pieces of the Past: Clarence Knapp". Eye on Saratoga 6 (11): 19. 
  23. ^ Shulman, Lenny. "Sheikh Mohammed Buys Saratoga Farm". Bloodhorse.com. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  24. ^ a b Invented in Saratoga County, Starr, Timothy, 2008
  25. ^ Collins, Glenn (August 10, 2010). "In Saratoga Springs, Catering to the Horse Set". New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Saratoga (1937)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  27. ^ a b c d "Magical Movie Tour" (PDF). Saratoga County Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  28. ^ Aftermath at the Internet Movie Database
  29. ^ Post, Paul (25 July 2012). "Film shot in Saratoga Springs released on DVD; "Virgin Alexander" has won multiple awards". The Saratogian. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  30. ^ "Ass Backwards (2013)". Internet Movie. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  31. ^ Linda Stradley (2004). "History of Club Sandwich". What's Cooking America?. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  32. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  33. ^ Diakopoulos, Christopher (2006-04-27). "City looks to get new sister". The Saratogian (Journal Register Company). Retrieved 2006-09-07. dead link

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