|Domenico Ruiu - Marianus IV of Arborea - Maria Carta - Franco Columbu - Giovanni Spano - Giovanni Soro|
|Regions with significant populations|
(inhabitants of Sardinia)
|Italian, Sardinian, Sassarese, Corsican Gallurese, Catalan Algherese, Ligurian Tabarchino|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Italians, Corsicans, Catalans and Spaniards|
- 1 Origin and influences
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Languages
- 4 Religion
- 5 Notable Sardinians
- 6 Genetic peculiarities of the population
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Notes
The Sardinian people are originally from the island of Sardinia, which was populated in waves of emigration from the Paleolithic period until recent times.
Sardinia was first colonized in a stable manner during the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic by people from the Iberian peninsula and the Italian peninsula. During the Neolithic period, people from Italy, Spain and the Aegean area settled in Sardinia. In the Eneolithic-Early Bronze age the "Beaker folk" from the Franco-Iberian area and from Central Europe1 settled on the island, bringing new metallurgical techniques and ceramic styles and probably some kind of Indo-European speech.2
The Nuragic civilization arose during the Middle Bronze Age. At that time the island was divided into three or more major ethnic groups, the most important being the Ilienses, the Balares and the Corsi.3 Nuragic Sardinians have been connected by some scholars to the Shardana, a tribe of the Sea Peoples, which appear several times in ancient Egyptian records,4 but this hypothesis has been discredited by most historians.citation needed
The language (or the languages) spoken in Sardinia during the bronze age is unknown . According with some reconstructions the "Proto-Sardinian language" was a derivate of the Basque language with similarities with the ancient Iberian . Other scholars believe that there were various linguistic areas (two or more), possibly pre-indoeuropeans and indoeuropeans.
The south of the island was partially conquered by the Carthaginians in the 6th century BC and was conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC. Sardinia, with the exception of the central mountainous area, was heavily "latinized" during the Roman period, and the modern Sardinian language is considered the most conservative Romance language.citation needed
During the Middle Ages, the island was divided into four independent "Giudicati" (Kingdoms), some of which coming under Genoese and Pisan political influence. Genoa founded the cities of Alghero and Castelgenovese (Castelsardo) while the Pisans founded Castel di Castro (Cagliari) and Villa di Chiesa (Iglesias), who become with Sassari a commune. From the 12th century in the northwestern Sardinia, mainly in Nurra and Anglona, trades and immigration from Tuscany, Corsica and Liguria led to the birth of Sassarese language, still spoken in many centers.
From 1324 to 1420, Sardinia came under the rule of Kingdom of Aragon who repopulated the cities of Castel di Castro and Alghero with colonists, mainly Catalans.6 Catalan is still spoken today in the city of Alghero.
The Spanish era ended in 1713 when the whole island came under the control of the Austrian House of Habsburg, followed in 1718 by the Dukes of Savoy, who assumed the title of "Kings of Sardinia". During this period Ligurian families settled on the island of San Pietro and Sant'Antioco, in the south-west area of Sardinia, bringing with them a Ligurian dialect called "Tabarchino", spoken today in that area. The Kingdom of Sardinia annexed the whole peninsula and Sicily in 1861 after the Risorgimento, becoming the Kingdom of Italy.
Since 1850 limited groups of specialised workers from Styria, Austria, followed by German miners from Freiburg began to settled temporarly in the Iglesiente in particular in the mining areas of Monte Vecchio, Guspini and Ingurtosu . Some Germans influenced building and toponym is still visible in this area.7 The contemporaneous migration flow from the Italian peninsula towards the Sardinian mining areas of Iglesiente was more considerable and more stable ; these miners came mostly from Lombardy, Piedmont, Tuscany and Romagna.8 According to a 1882 census realised by the French engineer Leon Goüine, in the south-western Sardinian mines worked 9.780 miners, 3.571 of which were of mainland Italian origin;9 most of the them settled in Iglesias and frazioni .
At the end of the 19th century communities of fishermen from Sicily, Torre del Greco (Campania) and Ponza (Lazio) migrated on the east coasts of the island, in the towns of Arbatax/Tortolì, Siniscola and La Maddalena.10
In the 20th century there was extensive emigration from the mainland during the Fascist government when people from Veneto but also from Marche, Abruzzo and Sicily came to Sardinia to populate the new mining town of Carbonia and the villages of Mussolinia (now Arborea) and Fertilia. Venetian and Friulan are still spoken today in Arborea by the elderly.11 After World War II Istrian refugees were relocated in the north-west coast of Sardinia in the Nurra region, today Istriot and Venetian are spoken in Fertilia, Tanca Marchese and Arborea . In the same period few Italian Tunisian families settled in the sparsely populated area of Castiadas, east of Cagliari.12
With a population density of 69/km2, slightly more than a third of the national average, Sardinia is the fourth least populated region in Italy. The population distribution is anomalous compared to that of other Italian regions lying on the sea. In fact, contrary to the general trend, urban settlement has not taken place primarily along the coast but towards the centre of the island. Historical reasons for this include repeated Saracen raids during the Middle Ages (making the coast unsafe), widespread pastoral activities inland, and the swampy nature of the coastal plains (reclaimed only in the 20th century). The situation has been reversed with the expansion of seaside tourism; today all Sardinia's major urban centres are located near the coasts, while the island's interior is very sparsely populated.
It is the Italian region with the lowest total fertility rate13 (1.087 births per woman), and the region with the second-lowest birth rate;14 However, the population has increased in recent years due to immigration, mainly from Eastern Europe (esp. Romania), Africa and China.
At the end of 2010 there were 37,853 foreign national residents, forming 2,3% of the total Sardinian population.15
Sardinia is the first discovered Blue Zone, a demographic and/or geographic area of the world where people live measurably longer lives. Sardinians share with the inhabitants of Japanese island of Okinawa the highest rate of centenarians in the world (22 centenarians/100,000 inhabitants). The key factors of the high contentration of centenarians are identified in the genetic of Sardinian population, lifestyle such as diet and nutrition, and the social structure.
- Birth Rate: 8.3 (per 1,000 inhabitants - 2005) 16
- Fertility Rate: 1.07 (births per woman - 2005) 17
- Mortality rate: 8.7 (per 1,000 inhabitants - 2005) 16
- Infant mortality rate males: 4.6 (per 1,000 births- 2000) 18
- Infant mortality rate females: 3.0 (per 1,000 births - 2000) 18
- Marriage rate: 4.0 (per 1,000 inhabitants - 2005) 16
- Suicide rate:11.4 (per 100,000 inhabitants) 19
- Total literacy rate: 98.2% 2021
- Literacy rate under 65 years old: 99.5% 2021
|Source: ISTAT 2011, - D.Angioni-S.Loi-G.Puggioni, La popolazione dei comuni sardi dal 1688 al 1991, CUEC, Cagliari, 1997 - F. Corridore, Storia documentata della popolazione di Sardegna, Carlo Clausen, Torino, 1902|
Most Sardinians are native to the island but a sizable percentage have settled outside Sardinia, it had been estimated that between 1955 and 1971 308,000 Sardinians have emigrated in other Italian regions.22 Sizable Sardinian communities are located in Piedmont, in Liguria, Lombardy, Tuscany and Latium.
Sardinians and their descendants are also numerous in Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland and mainly in Argentina. Small communities with Sardinians ancestors, about 5000 people, are also found in Brazil (mostly in the cities of Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo),23 the UK and Australia.
|Sardinians residing in European countries 200824|
Unlike the rest of Italian emigration, where migrants were mainly males, between 1953-1974 an equal number of females and males emigrated from Sardinia to the Italian mainland.
In spite of Sardinian (Sardu)25 being the most widely spoken language of Sardinia, alongside Italian (Italiano) which, being introduced in the island by law on July 1760,26 became the official language of the Piedmontese Kingdom at the expense of Spanish, a number of different languages are being traditionally spoken over the course of time: among all, the most worth mentioning are Sassarese (Sassaresu)27 and Gallurese (Gadduresu).28 In plus, it must be noted that in Sardinia also there are examples of two language islands, the first one being Algherese (Alguerés),29 the second one being Tabarchino (Tabarchin).30 Fewer and fewer people speak Venetian, Friulian and Istriot in Arborea and Fertilia.31
Sardinians are one of the most genetically isolated populations in Europe, though they are the single population that encloses all of the genetic characteristics of the Europeans, such as the highest variability of the Y chromosome found among the European peoples.32333435
According to some studies, along with the Basques they represent an example of a pre-Indo-European population surviving in Europe from the Paleolithic period.3637 The lineage of most Sardinians today goes back approximately 20,000 years, to the island's original settler population. 38 39
While Sardinians do not constitute a homogeneous population from a genetic point of view (studies have found micro-differentiation in the population genetic structure in different sub-regions of the island40 ),in comparison to other european and mediterranean populations ( Italians included), are distinguished by own genetic characteristics.41
Distribution of Sardinian Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups in percentage according to Eupedia.42
|Region||I2||R1b||G2a||J2||J1||E1b1b||T + (L)||Q|
Furthermore, the I haplogroup of the indigenous Sardinians is of the I2a1 subtype (I-M26), which is almost unique to the island, though it takes origin in the Pyrenees region. The I2a1 haplogroup also has a low distribution around the Pyrenees, the Basque Country, Castile, the department of Béarn and Brittany in France, England, Sweden and Corsica. I-M26 may have evolved in southern France. It could have been introduced to Sardinia around 9,000 years ago and been preserved by isolation and drift.43 The second-most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among the Sardinian male population is the haplogroup R1b (22% of the total population) mainly present in the northern part of the island. Sardinia also has a relatively high distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup G (11%),44 which is also found mainly in the Caucasus, the Sardinian subtype of the Haplogroup G is closer to that one still present today in the Alps region, in particular the Tyrol area. Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a man who lived about 3,300 BC, found on the Alps in 1991 was discovered recently to be closely related genetically to modern Sardinians.
The most common mtDNA haplogroups in Sardinia are H (H1 and H3) and V who are also particularly common on the Iberian peninsula.45 Some subclades typical of Sardinia and rare in the rest of Europe are:
The subclade U5b3a1 of Haplogroup U (mtDNA) came from Provence to Sardinia by obsidian merchants, as it is estimated that 80% of obsidian found in France comes from Monte Arci in Sardinia reflecting the close relations that existed at one time for these two regions. Still about 4% of the female population in Sardinia belongs to this haplotype.46 One other interesting anomaly is the presence of H13a of Haplogroup H (mtDNA) is present in the island at around 9.2%. As this is an extremely rare subclade normally present in the Caucasus, its worthy of further investigation. 47 48
Sardinian folk costumes and traditional masks:
Urthos mask of Fonni
Costumes from Maracalagonis
Costumes from Cagliari
Costumes from Busachi
Costumes of Olbia
Costume of Sennori
Child wearing the costume of Cagliari
daily traditional costume of Dorgali
Folk Costumes from Quartu Sant'Elena
Costumes from Selargius
Women dressed in traditional Sardinian costumes (Selargius)
Costumes of Settimo San Pietro
Costume of Dolianova
Costume of Nuragus
Knights from Teulada
Traditional Costume of Laconi
Costume of Tonara
Costumes of Fonni
A Mamuthones and an Issohadore, traditional carnival costumes of Mamoiada
Sardinian knights on Sa Sartiglia day (Oristano).
People in traditional dress (Busachi)
costume of Orgosolo
Sardinian men and children in traditional dress at the "Sagra del Redentore" (Nuoro)
Children from Ovodda in traditional dress
An "Issohadores", typical mask of the Sardinian carnival (Mamoiada)
A "Mamuthones", another typical mask of the Sardinian carnival (Mamoiada)
Boes and Merdule (Ottana)
Sardinians in traditional dress (Orgosolo)
Costume of Atzara
Costume of Oliena
Costume of Orune
Costume of Ittiri
Costume of Sassari
Sardinian man in traditional dress playing the Launeddas
Costume of Cossoine
Costume of Isili
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to People of Sardinia.|
- List of Sardinians
- Nuragic civilization
- History of Sardinia
- Sardinian language
- Corsican people
- Italian people
- Catalan people
- Casula, Franco Cesare (1994). La Storia di Sardegna. Sassari: Carlo Delfino Editore.
- Brigaglia, Manlio; Giuseppina Fois, Laura Galoppini, Attilio Mastino, Antonello Mattone, Guido Melis, Piero Sanna, Giuseppe Tanda (1995). Storia della Sardegna. Sassari: Soter Editore.
- Ugas, Giovanni (2006). L'Alba dei Nuraghi. Cagliari: Fabula Editore. ISBN 978-88-89661-00-0.
- Manlio Brigaglia - Storia della Sardegna , pg. 48-49-50
- Giovanni Ugas - L'alba dei Nuraghi , pg.22-23-24
- Giovanni Ugas - L'alba dei Nuraghi, p. 241
- SardiniaPoint.it - Interview with Giovanni Ugas, archaeologist and professor of the University of Cagliari (Italian)
- Francesco Cesare Casula - La Storia di Sardegna, pg.141
- Manlio Brigaglia - Storia della Sardegna , pg.158
- ^ Stefano Musso, op. cit., p.314
- http://notedarchivio.myblog.it/archive/2009/01/23/quando-i-bergamaschi-occuparono-le-case.html QUANDO I BERGAMASCHI OCCUPARONO LE CASE
- Veneti nel Mondo (Venetians in the World) - Anno III - numero 1 - Gennaio 1999 (Italian)
- http://lanuovasardegna.gelocal.it/regione/2011/04/23/news/e-al-ritorno-conquistarono-le-terre-abbandonate-1.3420885 E al ritorno conquistarono le terre abbandonate Nei paesi intorno a Castiadas ridiedero vita alle aziende Etfas nate dalla riforma agraria
- ISTAT Numero medio di figli per donna per regione 2002-2005
- ISTAT Tassi generici di natalità, mortalità e nuzialità per regione 2002-2005
- Rapporto Istat - La popolazione straniera residente in Italia al 31º dicembre 2010
- ISTAT Speranza di vita alla nascita per sesso e regione 2002-2005
- ISTAT Numero medio di figli per donna per regione 2002-2005
- Ministero della Salute Speranza di vita e mortalità
- http://www.epicentro.iss.it/temi/mentale/Vichi2011.asp La mortalità per suicidio in Italia
- http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/statistiche/analfabetismo_01.pdf Analfabetismo Italia - Censimento 2001
- http://www.sardegnastatistiche.it/index.php?xsl=672&s=12&v=9&c=5042&subnodo=337&refp=0&id=251&tt=4&anno=5 SARDEGNA STATISTICHE Analfabeti Numero di persone che hanno dichiarato di non saper leggere né scrivere
- Giuseppe Sanna - L'emigrazione della Sardegna (Emigration of Sardinia) (Italian)
- Il messagero sardo - Una piccola ma attiva colonia di sardi vive nello stato di Bahia (Italian)
- Museo Nazionale Emigrazione Italiana - 25-03-2012
- Sardinian is generally considered to be the most conservative Romance language, and was also the first language to split off genetically from the rest of the others, possibly as early as the first century BC. Most of the academic community usually subdivides Sardinian into two groups: the first one would be Logudorese (Sardu logudoresu) and the second one would be Campidanese (Sardu campidanesu).
- S'italianu in Sardìnnia, Amos Cardia, Iskra
- It's a language born as a lingua franca of Tuscan-Corsican origin, with minor Ligurian, Catalan and Spanish influences and major Logudorese Sardinian influence.
- It's a Corsican dialect with Logudorese Sardinian influence.
- It's a Catalan dialect spoken in Alghero by the time Catalan invaders repopulated the town and expelled the indigenous population.
- It's a Ligurian dialect spoken in Carloforte and Calasetta.
- These villages have been founded and populated in the 1920s and 1930s by families who mainly came from north-eastern Italy, and from Istria and Dalmatia immediately after the IIWW.
- http://www.avvenire.it/Cronaca/Pagine/sardegna-madre-di-tutti-gli-europei.aspx Sardegna madre di tutti gli europei
- http://www.galileonet.it/articles/51fb9e88a5717a457e0001ad Le origini degli europei scritte nel dna dei sardi
- http://www.larena.it/stories/Cultura_e_Spettacoli/545261_le_origini_delluomo_europeo_scritte_nel_dna_dei_sardi/ Le origini dell'uomo europeo scritte nel Dna dei sardi EVOLUZIONE. Su «Science» gli esiti di uno studio su 1.200 isolani
- http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/565.full LOW-PASS DNA SEQUENCING OF 1200 SARDINIANS RECONSTRUCTS EUROPEAN Y-CHROMOSOME PHYLOGENY
- http://www.englemed.co.uk/13/13sep273_immune_system_genes.php Gene clues to immune strength (September 27th, 2013)
- http://www.nia.nih.gov/newsroom/2013/09/gene-variants-found-associated-human-immune-system-autoimmune-disease#.UlGultJ7J_A Gene variants found associated with human immune system, autoimmune disease
- http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004654 High Differentiation among Eight Villages in a Secluded Area of Sardinia Revealed by Genome-Wide High Density SNPs Analysis
- "Sardinian Population (Italy): a Genetic Review" (PDF). International Journal of Modern Anthropology. 2008. p. 55. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
-  Eupedia : Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by region in percentage. See note n° 4
- Robert Henvell - Aspects of Sardinian Genetics
- Zei, G. et al. (2003). "From surnames to the history of Y chromosomes: the Sardinian population as a paradign.". Eur J of Human Genetics 11 (10): 802–07. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201040. PMID 14512971.
- Paolo Francalacci-IL POPOLAMENTO UMANO DELLA SARDEGNA VISTO DALLA PROSPETTIVA DEI SISTEMI GENETICI UNIPARENTALI  (Italian)
-  American Journal of Human Genetics : Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5b3: A Distant Echo of the Epipaleolithic in Italy and the Legacy of the Early Sardinians
- "The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup H Confirms That the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 2004. p. 910. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
- "High-resolution mtDNA evidence for the late-glacial resettlement of Europe from an Iberian refugium" (PDF). Genome Research. 2005. p. 19. Retrieved 2010-12-26.