|Nickname(s): City of Eagles|
|• Total||5,854 km2 (2,260 sq mi)|
|• Density||455/km2 (1,180/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|Number of towns||59|
|Number of union councils||22|
Sargodha (Punjabi, Urdu: سرگودها), is administrative centre of Sargodha Division of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Sargodha is the 11th in the List of most populated metropolitan areas in Pakistan and 5th largest in Punjab.
Sargodha is located in the north-east of Pakistan. It is known as Pakistan's best citrus-producing area. It is an agricultural trade centre with various industries.2 Sargodha is one of the few planned cities in Pakistan, the other being Gwadar, Jauharabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad and Islamabad.
Pakistan's largest airbase, PAF Base Mushaf (formerly PAF Base Sargodha), is situated in Sargodha and hosts the headquarters of the Pakistan Air Force's Central Air Command. The airbase is also home to the Combat Commanders School (CCS), formerly the Fighter Leader's School, an elite training facility for training Pakistan Air Force pilots in fighter tactics and weapons. When MM Alam made his world record that time he was in Sargodha Mushaf base.
Sargodha District was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The JATT, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Sargodha was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Sargodha District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. During the period of British rule, Sargodha district increased in population and importance.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sargodha District.
Sargodha was a small town at the beginning of the British Empire but, due to its geographical location, the British Royal Air Force built an airport there. It took on greater importance after the independence of Pakistan for the Pakistan Air Force. Shahpur, which is now a tehsil of Sargodha District, was the district at that time. Most parts of the tehsil Sillanwali and Kirana Hills region were part of Jhang district and were included later during the British Raj in the Sargodha district.
The 1965 war with India on 6 September 1965 meant the city was a prime target for India, due to the city's close proximity to the neighbouring rival. The citizens of Sargodha supported the Pakistan Army against the advancing of the Indian Army into Pakistan. In 1966, recognising this bravery, the Government of Pakistan awarded the city of Sargodha as well as Sialkot and Lahore with the award of Hilal-E-Istaqlal.
As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics of the Sargodha district, by spoken language:
Inhabitants of Sargodha District speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects: which are
- Majhi or Standard (in Sargodha city)
- Shapuri (Main dialect of the district)
- Pothohari (Northern borders)
- Jhangvi (southern borders)
- Raangri (scattered populations)
Other Languages include:
- Urdu is the mother tongue of few people but being national language is spoken and understood by most of the population.
- English is official language and sole medium of instruction from higher secondary level education. English is understood and spoken by the educated population.
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According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the district had a population of 2,665,979, of which 27.96% lived in urban settlements.
It is located 172 kilometres northwest of Lahore, in Sargodha District. It lies about 30 miles from the M-2 motorway, which connects Lahore and Islamabad. It is connected to the M-2 by several interchanges at different locations. Sargodha is roughly 94 km from Faisalabad, due southeast. Directly east connected by the M-2 motorway are Lahore and the route to Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Due east is the city of Jhang; toward the west are the city of Mianwali and the Chashma Barrage. Dera Ismail Khan is located 232 km southwest from the city.
Sargodha mainly comprises flat, fertile plains, although here are a few small hills on the Sargodha-Faisalabad Road. The River Jhelum flows on the western and northern sides, and the River Chenab lies on the eastern side of the city. The city has a climate of extreme heat and cold. The maximum temperature reaches 50 °C (122 °F) in the summer while the minimum temperature recorded is as low as freezing point in the winter.
|Climate data for Sargodha (1960–2012)|
|Average high °C (°F)||20
|Average low °C (°F)||8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||18
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||5||4||5||4||3||3||7||7||4||1||1||1||45|
Sargodha is the capital of Sargodha Tehsil. Until divisions were abolished in the year 2000, Sargodha was the divisional headquarters of Sargodha Division. As of October 2012, the division system in Punjab Province has been restored, and Sargodha became the divisional headquarters of Sargodha District, Khushab District, Mianwali District and Bhakkar District. The city of Sargodha is administratively subdivided into 22 union councils.5
Sargodha is largely an agricultural and industrial city. The vast fields in the city have allowed the farmers to develop a range of crops and animal breeding programs. Some of the main crops include citrus, wheat, rice, and sugar cane, which are exported to the other cities as well as internationally. Citrus fruits such as oranges (locally known as kinnows) and guavas are the main fruits grown in the district. Jaman, pears, dates, pomegranates, phalsa and almonds are also grown in minor quantities. Turnips, onions, cauliflower, potatoes and tomatoes are the main vegetables grown in the district. The main livestock for the city include goats, sheep, buffaloes and cattle.
Even with agricultural goods being the major income generator for the city as well as the district, the economy and industry has been diversifying itself to generate more demand for other goods which can be manufactured and produced in the city. Other industrial markets include: beverages, manufacture of diesel engines, foundry products, glass products, leather footwear, oil mills, pesticides, insecticides, poultry feed, plastics, readymade garments, tanning and textiles, Switches/Bacolite industry.
Sargodha is home to the University of Sargodha,University of Lahore ,Sragodha Campus and Allama Iqbal Open University, which are offering a range of courses from Economics to Medicine. Sargodha Medical College (SMC) is located just outside the city offering MBBS, postgraduate education and training. A new 100 acre campus has been built recently to accommodate the increasing demand for medical education in the city. University College of Agriculture (UCA), A constituent college of University of Sargodha is providing education and professional training in the field of Engineering, Agriculture and Animal Sciences, UCA offers degrees from undergraduate level (BSc. Honors) to PhD in different disciplines of agricultural and animal sciences. Another institute is Sargodha Collegiate School System was established in year 2000.Goverment College OF Technology offering three year diploma of associate engineering and also Graduation in engineering. Hira College offering three years Associate Engineering in Many Technologies. A Computer College and sister institution of Sargodha Collegiate School System called IT Global Vision is also working from past 3 years.
- Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (Former Chief Minister Of The United Punjab)
- Feroz Khan Noon (Former Prime Minister Pakistan)
- Ehsan-ul-Haq Piracha (Former Finance Minister of Pakistan)
- Imtiaz Bhatti (Former Ambassador / High Commissioner of Pakistan for Burundi, Madagascar, Malawi and Tanzania)
- Wazir Agha (Urdu Scholar)
- Hameed Gul (Former ISI Chief)
- Ch. Anwar Ali Cheema (Politician, PML-Q)
- Ch.Ghias Mela (Politician, PML-Q)
- Hafiz Muhammad Saeed (Amir Jama'at-ud-Da'wah)
- Mohammad Hafeez (Pakistani cricketer)
- Aizaz Cheema (Pakistani cricketer)
- Rafiq Anjum (ptv drama Actor)
-  (01-06-2011)
- "Punjab Portal, Sargodha District population". Pportal.punjab.gov.pk. 2011-09-08. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
- "Weather2 – Sargodha". Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Sargodha - Government of Pakistan". Nrb.gov.pk. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
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- CCAPS (City College of Accountancy & Professional Studies)
- SargodhaPost.com - First online newspaper of Sargodha
- Sargodha.com.pk - All about Sargodha
- Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Sargodha
- University of Sargodha
- Sargodha Collegiate School System