|Foundation date||San Francisco, California, USA
|Headquarters||San Francisco, California, USA|
|Key people||Trip Adler (CEO, co-founder),
Jared Friedman (CTO, co-founder),
Tikhon Bernstam (CIO, co-founder)
|Services||Social reading and publishing platform|
|Alexa rank||275 (December 2013[update])1|
|Type of site||Social Software|
|Available in||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
Launched in 2007 by Trip Adler and Jared Friedman, Scribd also features written works contributed by users around the world and is headquartered in San Francisco, CA. Backed by Y Combinator, Charles River Ventures, and Redpoint Ventures, Scribd is one of the most influential websites in the world with more than 80 million active readers coming to the site every month. 2
Scribd's subscriptions service is available on iOS and Android smartphones and tablets, as well as the Kindle Fire, the Nook, and personal computers for $8.99, and lets readers have unlimited access to more than 100,000 books from over 900 publishers, including Harper Collins, Rosetta, and Workman.3
The idea for Scribd was originally inspired when Trip Adler was at Harvard and had a conversation with his father, John R. Adler, about the difficulties of publishing academic papers. He teamed up with cofounders Jared Friedman and Tikhon Bernstam and they attended Y Combinator in Cambridge in the summer of 2006.citation needed Scribd was launched from a San Francisco apartment in March 2007 and quickly grew in traffic. In 2008, it ranked as one of the top 20 social media sites according to Comscore.4 In June 2009, Scribd launched Scribd Store,5 and shortly thereafter closed a deal with Simon & Schuster to sell ebooks on Scribd.6 Over 150 publishers including Random House, Wiley, Workman, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Pearson, Harvard University Press and Stanford University Press are now associated with Scribd. ProQuest began publishing dissertations and theses on Scribd in December 2009.
In October 2009, Scribd launched its branded reader for media companies with The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, The Huffington Post, TechCrunch and MediaBistro.7 Over 100 media companies now use Scribd’s branded reader to embed source material into their stories. In August 2010, news stories began to break and documents and books began to go viral on Scribd including the overturned Prop 8 and HP’s lawsuit against Mark Hurd’s move to Oracle Corporation.
As of December 2013, Adler is the CEO of Scribd, where he is responsible for the product and strategic direction of the company. Adler was named in BusinessWeeks "Best Young Tech Entrepreneurs 2010" list.8
At the beginning of October 2013, the company announced a partnership with major publishing company HarperCollins. The official statement revealed that the "majority" of the HarperCollins US and HarperCollins Christian catalogs will be available in Scribd's subscription service. Chantal Restivo-Alessi, chief digital officer at HarperCollins, explained to the media that the deal represents the first time that the publisher has released such a large portion of its catalog.9
In February 2010, Scribd unveiled its first mobile plans for e-readers and smartphones.10 In April 2010 Scribd launched a new feature called "Readcast",11 which allows automatic sharing of documents on Facebook and Twitter.12 Also in April 2010, Scribd announced its integration of Facebook social plug-ins at the Facebook f8 Developer Conference.13
The company was initially funded with US$12,000 from Y Combinator, and received over US$3.7 million in June 2007 from Redpoint Ventures and The Kinsey Hills Group.1516 In December 2008, the company raised US$9 million in a second round of funding, led by Charles River Ventures with re-investment from Redpoint Ventures and Kinsey Hills Group, and hired as president George Consagra, former Bebo COO and managing director of Organic Inc.17 Consagra left Scribd and became CEO of Good Guide in August 2010.
David O. Sacks, former PayPal COO and founder of Yammer and Geni, joined Scribd’s board of directors in January 2010. Scribd hired Robert Macdonald, former head of media and publisher partnerships at Google, in July 2010 as its SVP of business development and opened a New York office.18 Scribd also utilizes Google Advertisements for revenue generation.19 It also makes revenue from Scribd Store sales.20 In August 2010 it began beta testing premium services.
Scribd raised its largest round in January 2011 bringing in an additional $13M. The latest round was led by MLC Investments of Australia and SVB Capital and included several previous investors.21
Scribd used iPaper, which is a rich document format similar to PDF built for the web, which allows users to embed documents into a web page.22 iPaper was built with Adobe Flash, allowing it to be viewed the same across different operating systems (Windows, Mac OS, and Linux) without conversion, as long as the reader has Flash installed (although Scribd has announced non-Flash support for the iPhone).23 All major document types can be formatted into iPaper including Word docs, PowerPoint presentations, PDFs, OpenDocument documents, OpenOffice.org XML documents, and PostScript files.
All iPaper documents are hosted on Scribd. Scribd allows published documents to either be private or open to the larger Scribd community. The iPaper document viewer is also embeddable in any website or blog, making it simple to embed documents in their original layout regardless of file format.
On May 5, 2010, Scribd launched the largest implementation of HTML5 to date at the Web 2.0 Conference in San Francisco.26 TechCrunch reported that Scribd is migrating away from Flash to HTML5. "Scribd co-founder and chief technology officer Jared Friedman tells me: 'We are scrapping three years of Flash development and betting the company on HTML5 because we believe HTML5 is a dramatically better reading experience than Flash. Now any document can become a Web page.'"27 In July 2010 Publishers Weekly wrote a cover story on Scribd entitled "Betting the House on HTML5."28
Notable users of Scribd include Virginia senator Mark Warner,30 former California gubernatorial candidate Meg Whitman, New York Times DealBook reporter Andrew Ross Sorkin, All Things D Reporter Kara Swisher, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Red Cross, UNICEF, World Economic Forum, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, The World Bank, Ford Motor Company, HewlettPackard, Samsung and the Hasmonean High School Living Torah.
According to Scribd, more than 50 million users used its service in 2010 and this total increased to 80 million by October 2013. As of 2010, Scribd's documents are embedded more than 10 million times across the web and more than 1.8 million searches are conducted on Scribd's website on a daily basis.319
Scribd has often been accused of copyright infringement. In March 2009, Scribd launched a copyright management system and has made upgrades to the system including the addition of OCR. The New York Times reported in May 2009 that Scribd hosted pirated works by authors such as Ursula K. Le Guin.32
In September 2009, American author Elaine Scott alleged that Scribd "shamelessly profits from the stolen copyrighted works of innumerable authors."33 Her attorneys Joe Sibley and Kiwi Camara sought class action status in their efforts to win damages from Scribd for allegedly "egregious copyright infringement."3435 On May 11, 2009, Motoko Rich, writing in the New York Times, reported on Scribd's hosting of pirated works. Sibley Camara filed a class action lawsuit against Scribd, accusing it of calculated copyright infringement for profit.36 The suit was dropped in July 2010.3738
In 2007, one year after its inception, Scribd had been served with 25 DMCA take down notices.39 It is not known how many DMCA notices have been served up to now, but on 8 January 2013, a single author, Steven Saylor, notified Scribd of 17 unauthorized uploads of his copyrighted work.40
Supported formats include:46
- Microsoft Excel (.xls, .xlsx)
- Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt, .pps, .pptx, .ppsx)
- Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx)
- OpenDocument (.odt, .odp, .ods, .odf, .odg)
- OpenOffice.org XML (.sxw, .sxi, .sxc, .sxd)
- Plain text (.txt)
- Portable Document Format (.pdf)
- PostScript (.ps)
- Rich text format (.rtf)
- Tagged image file format (.tif, .tiff)
- "Scribd.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
- "Scribd had a blowout year and so did the web document".
- Brad Stone (17 May 2009). "Site Lets Writers Sell Digital Copies". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Brad Stone (11 July 2009). "Simon & Schuster to Sell Digital Books on Scribd.com". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "From The Desk Of Your News Outlet And Scribd". Reuters. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
- "Best Young Tech Entrepreneurs 2010". Business Week. Retrieved 2010.
- Anthony Ha (1 October 2013). "With HarperCollins Deal, Scribd Unveils Its Bid To Become The Netflix For Books". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Fowler, Geoffrey A. (2010-02-10). "Scribd Plans Mobile Application". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- "Scribd gets 'Readcasting': Autosharing made easy". CNet. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "Scribd launches readcast". Marketwire. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Scribd's bet on the Facebook Effect". CNN. 2010-04-21. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "Scribd Redesign Is An Attempt To Become A "Social Network For Reading"". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "Scribd Banks $3.5 Million from Redpoint".
- "Scribd – CrunchBase Company Profile".
- "Scribd raises $9 million, hires new president for social publishing".
- "Digital Musical Chairs: Google Exec to Scribd, Apple Exec to AOL, Yahoo Exec to Google!". All Things Digital. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- "Scribd". appappeal.com. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- Johnson, Bobbie (22 July 2009). "scribd". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- "Scribd Raises $13 Million To Support Mobile Moves, Product Expansion". paidContent.org. 19 Jan 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- "iPaper: a Simple Way to View and Share Documents on the Web". Wired.dead link
- "Scribd on your iPhone".
- "Global Storage Settings panel". Macromedia.com. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
- "Scribd SAP Largest API Integration Press Release". Scribd. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- "HTML5 and The Future of Publishing". Web 2.0 Expo. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
- Erick Schonfeld (May 5, 2010). "Scribd CTO: We Are Scrapping Flash And Betting The Company On HTML5". Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- "Betting the House on HTML 5". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- "YouTube for documents". techcrunch.com. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- "Mark Warner". scribd.com. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- "Scribd". CrunchBase. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- Motoko Rich (2009-05-11). "Print Books Are Target of Pirates on the Web". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
- Johnson, Bobbie (2009-09-21). "Book sharing site Scribd rejects claims of copyright infringement". The Guardian (London).
- Greg Sandoval (September 19, 2009). "Jammie Thomas lawyers file suit against Scribd". Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- Motoko Rich (2009-09-19). "Jammie Thomas lawyers file suit against Scribd". CNET News.com. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- "Class Action Copyright Suit Filed Against Scribd... By Jammie Thomas' Lawyers?". TechDirt. 2009-09-21. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- "Lawsuit Saying Scribd's Copyright-Protection Filters Infringe On Copyrights Has Been Dumped". Scribd. TechDirt. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- Kravets, David (2010-07-19). "Lawsuit Dropped; Claimed That Copyright-Filtering Violates Copyright". Wired. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- "Scribd looks like a winner". Scribd. TechCrunch. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- http://www.stevensaylor.com/ArchivePage.html. Accessed on 8 January 2013.
- Stone, Brad (29 March 2009). "passwords of comcast customers exposed". nytimes.com. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- "Comcast passwords leaked onto the web". cnet.com. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- "Comcast passwords exposed". hothardware.com. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- Gannes, Liz. "Leaked Facebook Movie Script Paints Zuckerberg as Vindictive and Naive". Gigaom.
- "Freedom on the Net – Turkey 2013". Freedom House. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- Jason (February 26, 2009). "Info, FAQs, and Forums/FAQ: Writing, Uploading and Managing Documents". Retrieved October 11, 2010.
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