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A semi-vegetarian or flexitarian12 diet is one that is plant-based with the occasional inclusion of meat products.34567 In 2003, the American Dialect Society voted flexitarian as the year's most useful word and defined it as "a vegetarian who occasionally eats meat".8 In 2012, the term was listed for the first time in the mainstream Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.9
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat. Common reasons for adopting a flexitarian diet may be health, environment (see environmental vegetarianism) or reduction of resource consumption (see economic vegetarianism), which are also arguments in favor of adopting a fully vegetarian diet. While flexitarians may view the flexitarian diet as occasional indulgences,10 vegetarians may strongly resent the term and view it as cheating or as a moral lapse.11 Other than flexitarian diets that may include any type of meat, semi-vegetarianism includes:
Pollotarians: They eat chicken or other poultry, but not meat from mammals, often for environmental, health or food justice reasons.1213
Pescetarians: They eat fish or other seafood, but not poultry or red meat from mammals. The macrobiotic diet is plant-based, and may or may not include the occasional addition of fish or other seafood.14
Pollo-pescetarians: They eat fish and poultry, but not red meat from mammals.