Sevier County, Tennessee
|Sevier County, Tennessee|
Sevier County Courthouse in Sevierville
Location in the state of Tennessee
Tennessee's location in the U.S.
|Founded||September 28, 1794|
|Named for||John Sevier1|
|• Total||597 sq mi (1,546 km2)|
|• Land||592 sq mi (1,533 km2)|
|• Water||5 sq mi (13 km2), 0.91%|
|• Density||163/sq mi (63/km²)|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Parks
- 8 Transportation
- 9 In popular culture
- 10 Communities
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Prior to the encroachment of white settlers in present day Sevier County in the mid-18th century, the area had been inhabited for as many as 20,000 years by nomadic and semi-nomadic Native Americans. In the mid-16th century, Spanish expeditions led by Hernando de Soto (1540) and Juan Pardo (1567) passed through what is now Sevier County, reporting that the region was part of the domain of Chiaha, a minor Muskogean chiefdom centered around a village located on a now-submerged island just upsteam from modern Douglas Dam. By the late 17th-century, however, the Cherokee— whose ancestors were living in the mountains at the time of the Spaniards' visit— had become the dominant tribe in the region. Although they used the region primarily as hunting grounds, the Chicakamauga faction of the Cherokee vehemently fought white settlement in their territory, frequently leading raids on households, even through the signing of various peace treaties, alternating short periods of peace with violent hostility, until forcibly marched from their territory by the U.S. government on the "Trail of Tears".4
Sevier County was formed on September 18, 1794 from part of neighboring Jefferson County, and has retained its original boundaries ever since. The county takes its name from John Sevier, governor of the failed State of Franklin and first governor of Tennessee, who played a prominent role during the early years of settlement in the region.5 Since its establishment in 1795, the county seat has been situated at Sevierville (also named for Sevier), the eighth-oldest city in Tennessee.
Sevier County was strongly pro-Union during the Civil War. When Tennessee held a vote on the state's Ordinance of Secession on June 8, 1861, Sevier Countians voted 1,528 to 60 in favor of remaining in the Union.6 In November 1861, William C. Pickens, Sheriff of Sevier County, led a failed attempt to destroy the railroad bridge at Strawberry Plains as part of the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy.7
Prior to the late 1930s, Sevier County's population, economy, and society— which relied primarily on subsistence agriculture— held little significance vis-à-vis any other county in the rural South. However, with the creation of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 1930s, the destiny of Sevier County (within which lies thirty percent of the total area of the national park) changed drastically. Today, tourism supports the county's economy.
As one of the largest counties in Tennessee, Sevier County's terrain varies from one of the most rugged portions of the Appalachian Mountains to the river valley of the French Broad River and Douglas Lake. The maximum elevation differential in Sevier County is the greatest in Tennessee, ranging from a high of 6,643 feet (2,025 m) at Clingmans Dome (the highest natural point in the state) to a low of 850 feet (259 m) at the French Broad River.9
- Great Smoky Mountains
- Clingmans Dome
- Douglas Lake
- French Broad River
- Little Pigeon River
- Mount Le Conte
- Jefferson County, Tennessee - north
- Cocke County, Tennessee - east
- Haywood County, North Carolina - southeast
- Swain County, North Carolina - south
- Blount County, Tennessee - west
- Knox County, Tennessee - northwest
- Roundtop Mountain State Natural Area
As of the census12 of 2010, there were 89,889 people, 37,583 households, and a homeownership rate of 68.7 percent, below the state average. The population density was 120 people per square mile (46/km²). There were 37,252 housing units at an average density of 63 per square mile (24/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.27% White, 0.56% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, and 0.85% from two or more races. 1.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 28,467 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.30% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.80% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 26.30% from 45 to 64, and 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $34,719, and the median income for a family was $40,474. Males had a median income of $27,139 versus $20,646 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,064. About 8.20% of families and 10.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.10% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over.
Sevier County was Tennessee's third fastest-growing county by percentage change in population between the 1990 census and 2000 census.13
The head of the Sevier County government, the county mayor (known as county executive until 2003), is elected in county-wide elections. The mayor serves along with a 25-member board of elected commissioners representing districts covering the many small communities spread across the county.
Sevier County, like most of East Tennessee, goes strongly Republican in Presidential elections. The last election in which a Republican failed to carry it was in 1912, when the Progressive Theodore Roosevelt carried it. It has not been carried by a Democrat since 1832, when it went for Andrew Jackson. In 1916 it gave Charles Hughes 90.38 percent of the vote--reportedly his highest percentage of any county in the nation.14 In 1932 Herbert Hoover received 77.01% of the vote15 and in 1936 Alf Landon received 77.73%.16 Since 1992 no Republican candidate has received less than 55% of the county's vote and in 2008 John McCain received 73.4%.17 All of the county's state legislators are Republicans, and Republican candidates routinely garner well over 70 percent of the vote on the occasions they face opposition at all.
From its beginnings as a traditional subsistence-based farming society, Sevier County has grown into a major tourist destination since the establishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which is dominates the southern portion of the county. One of the very reasons for the park's creation, however, was also one of the county's first major economic engines: the lumber industry. Establishments in what is now the national park felled large amounts of timber in the early 1900s. Though the park effectively killed the logging industry in the late 1930s, it spurred the development of one of the largest tourist resorts in the United States of America, as the Great Smoky Mountains National Park is now the most visited national park in the country.18 In recent years the tourism bubble has expanded beyond the city of Gatlinburg, which borders the northwestern segment of the national park, and into the nearby cities of Pigeon Forge and Sevierville.
The commercial cabin rental industry has grown tremendously in recent years.
The tourism industry drives the county's economy. The following destinations are among the most lucrative for the area:
- Great Smoky Mountains National Park, southern Sevier County: Established in 1936 and propelling the tourism industry in Sevier County ever since, the national park is the most visited in the entire system, welcoming over 10 million nature enthusiasts every year, most of which arrive through Sevier County.
- Dollywood, Pigeon Forge: The theme park named for part-owner Dolly Parton (who was born in Sevierville) admits 2.2 million guests a year, making it both the most popular theme park and most frequented attraction (after the Great Smoky Mountains National Park) in Tennessee.
- Ripley's Aquarium of the Smokies, Gatlinburg: Opened in 2000 and designated the most visited aquarium in the United States in 2001, when over 2 million tourists passed through its galleries, Ripley's Aquarium of the Smokies is the largest single tourist draw in Gatlinburg.19
- Ober Gatlinburg, Gatlinburg: The Ober Gatlinburg ski resort sits above Gatlinburg, offering numerous attractions for visitors unique to the county, including winter ski slopes and an indoor ice skating rink. The tramway that takes visitors to and from the resort is touted as "America's Largest Aerial Tramway."20
- Smoky Mountain Opry, Pigeon Forge: A musical revue stage show that debuted in 2011. It offers both that program during the majority of the year, as well as the "Christmas Spectacular" during the winter months.
The Sevier County School System is composed of thirty-two public and private institutions ranging from Head Start programs through a number of secondary schools. One post-secondary institution is also located within the county.
In addition to the federally operated Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Sevier County is home to numerous smaller community parks, primarily within the cities of Sevierville, Pigeon Forge, and Gatlinburg. The most significant of them are listed as follows:
- Holt Park (Gatlinburg)
- Mills Park (Gatlinburg)
- Mynatt Park (Gatlinburg)
- Northview Optimist Park (Kodak)
- Patriot Park (Pigeon Forge)
- Pigeon Forge City Park
- Sevierville City Park
The massive development of the tourism industry in Sevier County in recent years, while blessing the county with good economic fortunes, has put a major stress on the county's roadways. In an effort to control this the county has put forth numerous projects to widen existing highways, and the cities of Pigeon Forge and Gatlinburg have also implemented a bus service oriented towards visitors, which ferries tourists to and from various popular destinations throughout the towns via decorated buses referred to as "trolleys."2122
- State highways:
The Great Smoky Mountains Parkway connects Interstate 40 (Exit 407) to the national park via the cities of Sevierville, Pigeon Forge, and Gatlinburg. From the exit, the Parkway follows Tennessee State Route 66 ("Winfield Dunn Parkway") into Sevierville, where it joines U.S. Route 441. It continues along US-441 through Pigeon Forge and Gatlinburg, before entering the national park, where ascends to the crest of the Smokies at Newfound Gap. The Parkway is joined by Chapman Highway (US-441), which connects Sevierville to Knoxville, and U.S. Route 321, which connects Pigeon Forge to Wears Valley and Townsend. Along this stretch of U.S. and Tennessee highways, a nearly-continuous tourist sprawl (separated only by a spur route of the Foothills Parkway, known as "the spur") has emerged in the three communities.
- Sevier County is the setting for the novel Child of God by Cormac McCarthy.23
- Gatlinburg was the site of the showdown between Sue and his father in the Johnny Cash hit, "A Boy Named Sue".
- Entertainer Dolly Parton was born and grew up in Sevierville, and many of her early songs drew on her experiences there, perhaps most notably "My Tennessee Mountain Home".
- Sevier County is mentioned in the song "Good Lord Lorrie" by the Turnpike Troubadours.
- Beulah Duggan Linn, "Sevier County," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Trail of Tears, National Park Service. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- Origins of Tennessee County Names, Tennessee Blue Book, 2005, p. 512.
- Oliver Perry Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War (R. Clarke Company, 1899), p. 199.
- Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War, pp. 381-383.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Tom Dunigan, "Tennessee County High Points," Tennessee Landforms, 2 November 2012. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Based on 2000 census data
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Census data for Tennessee counties in 1990 and 2000
- David Leip's Presidential Atlas: Statistics for 1916
- David Leip's Presidential Atlas: Statistics for 1932
- David Leip's Presidential Atlas: Statistics for 1936
- The New York Times electoral map (Zoom in on Tennessee)
- Great Smoky Mountains National Park-infoplease.com Ten Most Visited National Parks. Infoplease.com. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- David Williams, "Will Fish Lure Tourists to Atlanta?" CNN.com, 21 November 2005. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- Mike Doyle, "Ober Gatlinburg Ski Area," About.com. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- Pigeon Forge Trolley. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- Gatlinburg Trolley Department. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- Richard B. Woodward, Cormac McCarthy's Venomous Fiction, The New York Times, April 19, 1992
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sevier County, Tennessee.|
||Knox County||Jefferson County|
|Blount County||Cocke County|
|Swain County, North Carolina||Haywood County, North Carolina|