Single-player video game
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A single-player video game is a video game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session. "Single-player game" usually refers to a game that can only be played by one person, while "single-player mode" usually refers to a particular game mode that is designed to be played by a single player, though the game also contains modes that can be played by several players simultaneously.1
The vast majority of modern console games and arcade games are designed so that they can be played by a single player; although many of these games have modes that allow two or more players to play (not necessarily simultaneously), very few actually require more than one player for the game to be played. The Unreal Tournament series is one example of such.2
The earliest video games, such as Tennis for Two (1958), Spacewar! (1962), and Pong (1972), were symmetrical games designed to be played by two players. Single-player games gained popularity only after this, with early titles such as Speed Race (1974)3 and Space Invaders (1978).
The reason for this, according to Raph Koster, is down to a combination of several factors: increasingly sophisticated computers and interfaces that enabled asymmetric gameplay, cooperative gameplay and story delivery within a gaming framework, coupled with the fact that the majority of early games players had introverted personality types (according to the Myers-Briggs personality type indicator).4
Although the vast majority of modern games incorporate a single-player element either as the core or as one of several game modes, single-player gaming is currently viewed by the video game industry as peripheral to the future of gaming, with Electronic Arts president Frank Gibeau stating that he had not approved one game to be developed as a single-player experience,.5
As the narrative and conflict in single-player gameplay is created by a computer rather than a human opponent, single-player games are able to deliver certain gaming experiences that are typically absent - or de-emphasised - in multiplayer games.6
Single-player games rely more heavily on compelling stories to draw the player into the experience and to create a sense of investment. Humans are unpredictable, so human players - allies or enemies - cannot be relied upon to carry a narrative in a particular direction, and so multiplayer games tend not to focus heavily on a linear narrative. By contrast, many single-player games are built around a compelling story.7
Whilst a multiplayer game relies upon human-human interaction for its conflict, and often for its sense of camaraderie, a single-player game must build these things artificially. As such, single-player games require deeper characterisation of their non-player characters in order to create connections between the player and the sympathetic characters and to develop deeper antipathy towards the game's antagonist(s). This is typically true of role-playing games (RPGs), such as Dragon Quest and the Final Fantasy series, which are primarily character-driven.
Notable examples of single-player games include action-adventure games such as The Legend of Zelda, platform games such as the Mario series and Sonic the Hedgehog, stealth games such as the Metal Gear series, survival horror such as Resident Evil and Silent Hill, and first-person shooters such as Doom, Half-Life and Deus Ex.
- Multiplayer video game
- Cooperative gameplay
- Massively multiplayer online game
- List of video gaming topics
- Oosterhuis, Kas; Feireiss, Lukas (March 2006). The Architecture Co-laboratory: Game Set and Match II : on Computer Games, Advanced Geometries, and Digital Technologies. Delft: Delft University of Technology. p. 180. ISBN 90-5973-036-4.
- "Unreal Tournament 3 Single-player Campaign Preview." Unreal Tournament 3 Single-player Campaign Pr. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
- "Speed Race." (Game). N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
- Koster, Raph (10 Feb 2006). "Are single-player games doomed?". Archived from the original on 8 Feb 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
- "Is single-player gaming under-threat?". Computer and Video Games (Future plc). 28 Oct 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
- "ThomasDaPsycho." : Video Game Story Elements. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
- "Tales of the Rampant Coyote: What Makes a Great RPG - Mechanics." Tales of the Rampant Coyote. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.