Smoking in Japan
Smoking in Japan, though relatively less restricted by law than in many other nations, has significantly changed in recent years.1 Tobacco use has been in constant decline since 1996 and the decline has been accelerating in recent years. Consumption of cigarettes in 2012 was 197.5 billion sticks, roughly 57% of the peak figure in 1996 and a number last seen in 1968.2 Similarly in 2012, the adult smoking rate was 22.1%, 33.7% of Japanese men and 10.6% of Japanese women;3 this is the lowest recorded figure since Japan Tobacco began surveying in 1965.4 Nevertheless, nearly 30 million people smoke in Japan, making the country one of the world's larger tobacco markets5
Until 1985, the tobacco industry was a government-run monopoly; the government of Japan is still involved in the industry through the Ministry of Finance, which after a sell-off in March 2013, now owns only one third of Japan Tobacco's outstanding stock, and the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, which is active in public health and other tobacco control policy making.6
Non-smoking areas are becoming increasingly common in Japan, in homes, offices, restaurants, pachinko parlors and public areas, even in fast food or family restaurants.8 Kanagawa Prefecture enacted Japan's first smoke-free public places ordinance in 2009 and Hyogo Prefecture followed with a similar law in 2012.9 All trains either have non-smoking cars or are completely smoke-free, as are many train stations platforms in urban areas.10
A particular brand of cigarettes in Japan costs the same across all vendors, from cigarette machines to big supermarkets to corner shops. Bulk purchases are not discounted. As of 6 August 2013, the price of a typical pack of cigarettes went up from 410 to 440 yen but with the raise of the consumption sales tax to 8% the 1st April 2014, the price is now from 430 to 460 yen.
The smoking rate in Japan has been on the decline. A nationwide Internet survey published in 2006 by goo Research on the subject of tobacco showed 23.1% of respondents smoke every day.11 In 2008 the smoking rate of Japanese men dropped to a record low of 36.8 percent and the rate for women dropped to 9.1 percent.12
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Unlike in Europe and North America, where mandatory smoking bans apply in restaurants, bars, and public areas, smoking in Japan is amply restricted, but in accord with Article 25 of the nation's Health Promotion Act which merely urges smoking restrictions. Anti-smoking laws are common for crowded outdoor areas in urban settings and limited indoor bans have been enacted in Kanagawa and Hyogo Prefectures, but not nationally. Other restrictions are implemented by the choices of public and private property owners, managers, employers, etc.13
Many of the wealthier wards of Tokyo, such as Shinjuku and Shibuya, are applying various kinds of anti-smoking laws. They have designated special smoking sections in areas and it is punishable by fine if caught smoking outside these areas. Chiyoda-ku banned smoking while walking on busy streets from November 2002, the first local government in Japan to do so.14
Starting in 2007, Kyoto began designating certain city streets as non-smoking areas, and have since then been increasing the number of streets designated as such.1516 In a 2010 report, Kyoto Prefecture stated that the major goal of their anti-smoking policies is "to ensure that there is zero chance for people to suffer from second-hand smoke in Kyoto prefecture."17
Starbucks is one of the few service industry companies in Japan that entirely ban smoking in all its stores.18 McDonald's Japan plans to ban smoking at some of its stores following renovations,18 and banned smoking at its 298 restaurants in Kanagawa prefecture since 1 March 2010.19 Kentucky Fried Chicken banned smoking at one branch in Shibuya, Tokyo in July 2010.18
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While a high percentage of men smoke, the rate for women has not risen much beyond 10 percent. Traditionally, Japanese women who smoked were considered unfeminine.
Since the mid-1990s, the number of female smokers has risen, among young women in particular. "The manufacturers were very successful in providing cool images to the consumers," says Ministry of Health and Welfare technical officer Yumiko Mochizuki, when asked to explain the steady rise in female smokers. "Until recently, the Ministry of Health and Welfare had an understanding that smoking was entirely up to the individual."21
The government's advertising ban based on the "motherhood" argument was watertight until the tobacco industry was privatized in 1985. Advertising that encourages women to smoke is forbidden in Japan under a voluntary industry agreement. The industry group pledged to voluntarily honor the advertising ban and is charged with enforcing it. United States maker Brown & Williamson sells Capri cigarettes in Japan in slim white boxes with a flower-like design on the cover. R.J. Reynolds' Tokyo billboards for Salem's Pianissimo cigarettes are green-and-pink. Philip Morris advertised its Virginia Slims brand with the slogan "Be You" in an ad campaign.
Other factors contribute to the rise in female smokers. Some observers cite stress, saying that more Japanese women are smoking to relax as more enter the workforce. Others argue that smoking is one arena in which women can have equality with men.citation needed Media influence is also cited, as many women on popular Japanese television dramas smoke.
Cigarettes can be bought in tobacco stores and at vending machines, and public ashtrays dot sidewalks and train platforms. The number of cigarette vending machines in Japan is estimated at 500,000 in 2002.22
The law prohibits the smoking of cigarettes by persons under the age of twenty.23
Taspo is a smart card developed by the Tobacco Institute of Japan, the nationwide association of tobacco retailers, and the Japan Vending Machine Manufacturers Association. Introduced in 2008, the card is necessary to purchase cigarettes from vending machines.
Japan Tobacco commissioned a series of over 70 public service announcement style "smoking manner" posters about smoking etiquette. The ads were displayed in a wide variety of formats ranging from placards in the subway to postcards to beverage coasters.
- Levin, Mark, Tobacco Control Lessons from the Higgs Boson: Observing a Hidden Field Behind Changing Tobacco Norms in Japan. American Journal of Law and Medicine, 39 (2013): 471-489. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2230999
- Levin, Tobacco Control Lessons (2013) at 473, 484.
- Id. at 471.
- Leo, Peter (May 3, 2006). "In China, smoking's the big thing". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 2010.
- Cameron, Deborah (August 23, 2005). "Mobile phone addiction stops teen smoking". The Age. Retrieved 2008-10-28. "Though tobacco use has been in slow decline since, Japan still has more than 30 million smokers, putting it in the world's top four tobacco markets."
- Levin, Tobacco Control Lessons (2013) at 474, 480-481.
- Birtley, Tony (January 18, 2007). "Long road for anti-smoking Japanese". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Levin, Tobacco Control Lessons (2013) at 485.
- Id. at 481-482.
- JR East: Concerning the separation of smoking and non-smoking areas (Japanese)
- "Smoking in Japan". Whatjapanthinks.com. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- McCurry, Justin (August 2, 2010). "Japan hits smokers where it hurts: An October price hike on cigarettes may lessen Japan's reputation as a smokers' paradise". GlobalPost.
- "Tobacco Control Laws, Country Details for Japan". Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "Smoking ban on Tokyo's streets". BBC News. 2 October 2002. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- "7月1日施行" (in Japanese). Kyoto Shimbun. 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
- "路上喫煙禁止を拡大" (in Japanese). Kyoto Shimbun. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
- "京都府における受動喫煙防止対策の目標". 京都府における受動喫煙防止対策に関する報告書 (in Japanese). Kyoto Prefecture. Retrieved 2012-05-16. "quote: 【大 目 標】 京都府内で人が受動喫煙を受ける機会をゼロにする"
- "Most new McDonalds' outlets to ban smoking". Asahi Shimbun. 2010-08-09. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- Koh, Yoree (August 10, 2010). "McDonald’s to Snuff Out Smoking in Japan?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- NAGASHIMA, Atsuko (2007-06-30). "『農業図絵』にみる喫煙とジェンダー" (PDF). Research Paper; 非文字資料研究 News Letter, 16: 23-23 (in Japanese). Kanagawa University Repository. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
- "Japan Ads Sell Women On Smoking | csmonitor.com". Csmonitor.com. Retrieved 2008-11-04.dead link
- "Smoking Statistics: 28 May 2002". 2005-2011 World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 2002-05-28. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2012-05-16. "With 500,000 cigarette vending machines, the young can easily buy cigarettes."
- "Smoking in Japan". Japan-guide.com. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- 「マナーの気づき1」篇 グラフィック広告（イラスト一覧） Japan Tobacco (Japanese)
- Japan Tobacco's Delightfully Disturbing 'Smoking Manners for Adults' Ads Steve Levenstein
- Ozasa, Shunichi (February 18, 2010). "Japan to Seek Total Smoking Ban in Public Places, Yomiuri Says". Bloomberg.