US Army sniper team shooting from within a room in Afghanistan with M24 SWS, 19 October 2006.
|Activity sectors||use of high-precision rifles|
A sniper is a highly trained marksman who operates alone, in a pair, or with a sniper team to maintain close visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or distances exceeding the detection capabilities of enemy personnel. These sniper teams operate independently, with little combat asset support from their parent units. Snipers typically have highly selective and specialized training and use high-precision/special application rifles and optics, and often have sophisticated communication assets to feed valuable combat information back to their units.
In addition to marksmanship, military snipers are trained in camouflage, field craft, infiltration, special reconnaissance and observation, surveillance and target acquisition.1 Snipers are especially effective when deployed within the terrain of urban warfare, or jungle warfare.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Modern warfare
- 3 History
- 4 Police
- 5 Training
- 6 Targeting
- 7 Hide sites and hiding techniques
- 8 Tactics
- 9 Counter-sniper tactics
- 10 Irregular and asymmetric warfare
- 11 Notable military snipers
- 12 See also
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
The verb "to snipe" originated in the 1770s among soldiers in British India where a hunter skilled enough to kill the elusive snipe was dubbed a "sniper".2 The term sniper was first attested in 1824 in the sense of the word "sharpshooter".2
Another term, "sharp shooter" was in use in British newspapers as early as 1801. In the Edinburgh Advertiser, 23 June 1801, can be found the following quote in a piece about the North British Militia; "This Regiment has several Field Pieces, and two companies of Sharp Shooters, which are very necessary in the modern Stile of War". The term appears even earlier, around 1781, in Continental Europe.
Generally, a sniper's primary function in modern warfare is to provide detailed reconnaissance from a concealed position and, if necessary, to reduce the enemy's fighting ability by neutralizing high value targets (especially officers, communication and other personnel) and in the process pinning down and demoralizing the enemy.34 Typical sniper missions include managing intelligence information they gather during reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition for air-strikes and artillery, assist employed combat force with fire support and counter-sniper tactics, killing enemy commanders, selecting targets of opportunity, and even destruction of military equipment, which tend to require use of anti-materiel rifles in the larger calibers such as the .50 BMG, like the Barrett M82, McMillan Tac-50, and Denel NTW-20.4
Soviet Russian and derived military doctrines include squad-level snipers. Snipers have increasingly been demonstrated as being useful by US and UK forces in the recent Iraq campaign in a fire support role to cover the movement of infantry, especially in urban areas.4
Military snipers from the US, UK, and other countries that adopt their military doctrine are typically deployed in two-man sniper teams consisting of a shooter and spotter.5 A common practice is for a shooter and a spotter to take turns in order to avoid eye fatigue.4 In most recent combat operations occurring in large densely populated towns such as Fallujah, Iraq, two teams would be deployed together to increase their security and effectiveness in an urban environment. A sniper team would be armed with their long range weapon, and a shorter ranged weapon to engage and protect the team should enemies come in close contact. German doctrine of largely independent snipers and emphasis on concealment developed during the Second World War have been most influential on modern sniper tactics, currently used throughout Western militaries (examples are specialized camouflage clothing, concealment in terrain and emphasis on coup d'œil).678
Early forms of sniping, or marksmanship were used during the American Revolutionary War. For instance, in 1777 at the battle of Saratoga the Colonists hid in the trees and used early model rifles to shoot British officers. Most notably, Timothy Murphy shot and killed General Simon Fraser of Balnain on October 7, 1777 at a distance of about 400 yards.91011 During the Battle of Brandywine, Capt. Patrick Ferguson had a tall, distinguished American officer in his rifle's iron sights. Ferguson did not take the shot as the officer had his back to Ferguson, only later did Ferguson learn that George Washington had been on the battlefield that day.12
A special unit of marksmen was established during the Napoleonic Wars in the British Army. While most troops at that time used inaccurate smoothbore muskets, the British "Green Jackets" (named for their distinctive green uniforms) used the famous Baker rifle. Through the combination of a leather wad and tight grooves on the inside of the barrel (rifling), this weapon was far more accurate, though slower to load. These Riflemen were the elite of the British Army, and served at the forefront of any engagement, most often in skirmish formation, scouting out and delaying the enemy. Another term, "sharp shooter" was in use in British newspapers as early as 1801. In the Edinburgh Advertiser, 23 June 1801, can be found the following quote in a piece about the North British Militia; "This Regiment has several Field Pieces, and two companies of Sharp Shooters, which are very necessary in the modern Stile of War". The term appears even earlier, around 1781, in Continental Europe, translated from the German Scharfschütze.
The Whitworth rifle was arguably the first long-range sniper rifle in the world.13 Designed by Sir Joseph Whitworth, a prominent British engineer, it used twisted hexagonal barrels instead of traditional round rifled barrels, which meant that the projectile did not have to bite into grooves as was done with conventional rifling. His rifle was far more accurate than the Pattern 1853 Enfield, which had shown some weaknesses during the recent Crimean War. At trials in 1857 which tested the accuracy and range of both weapons, Whitworth's design outperformed the Enfield at a rate of about three to one. The Whitworth rifle was able to hit the target at a range of 2,000 yards, whereas the Enfield could only manage it at a distance of 1,400 yards.14
During the Crimean War the first optical sights were designed for fitting onto the rifles. Much of this pioneering work was the brainchild of Colonel D. Davidson, using optical sights produced by Chance Brothers of Birmingham. This allowed a marksman to more accurately observe and target objects at a greater distance than ever before.15 The telescopic sight, or scope, was originally fixed and could not be adjusted, which therefore limited its range.
Despite it's success at the trials, it was not adopted by the British Army. However the Whitworth Rifle Company was able to sell the weapon to the French army, and also to the Confederacy during the American Civil War.16 Both the Union and Confederate armies employed sharpshooters, the most notable incident was during the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, where, on May 9, 1864, Union General John Sedgwick was killed at a range of about 1,000 yards (910 meters) after saying the enemy "couldn't hit an elephant at this distance."17181920
During the Boer War the latest breech-loading rifled guns with magazines and smokeless powder were used by both sides. The British were equipped with the Lee-Metford rifle, while the Boers had received the latest Mauser rifles from Germany. In the open terrain of South Africa the marksman was a crucial component in battle.
The first British sniper unit began life as the Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment formed in 1899, that earned high praise during the Second Boer War (1899–1902).4 The unit was formed by Lord Lovat and reported to an American, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the British Army Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts. Burnham fittingly described these scouts as "half wolf and half jackrabbit.".21 Just like their Boer scout opponents, these scouts were well practised in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, and military tactics. They were skilled woodsmen and practitioners of discretion: "He who shoots and runs away, lives to shoot another day." They were also the first known military unit to wear a ghillie suit.22 Hesketh Hesketh-Prichard said of them that "keener men never lived",23 and that "Burnham was the greatest scout of our time."24
After the war, this regiment went on to formally become the first official sniper unit, then better known as sharpshooters.21
During World War I, snipers appeared as deadly sharpshooters in the trenches. At the start of the war, only Imperial Germany had troops that were issued scoped sniper rifles. Although sharpshooters existed on all sides, the Germans specially equipped some of their soldiers with scoped rifles that could pick off enemy soldiers showing their heads out of their trench.6 At first the French and British believed such hits to be coincidental hits, until the German scoped rifles were discovered.6 During World War I, the Germans received a reputation for the deadliness and efficiency of their snipers, partly because of the high-quality lenses the Germans could manufacture.6
Soon the British army began to train their own snipers in specialized sniper schools. Major Hesketh Hesketh-Prichard was given formal permission to begin sniper training in 1915, and founded the First Army School of Sniping, Observation, and Scouting at Linghem in France in 1916.25 Starting with a first class of only six, in time he was able to lecture to large numbers of soldiers from different Allied nations, proudly proclaiming in a letter that his school was turning out snipers at three times the rate of any such other school in the world.26
He also devised a metal-armoured double loophole that would protect the sniper observer from enemy fire. The front loophole was fixed, but the rear was housed in a metal shutter sliding in grooves. Only when the two loopholes were lined up—a one-to-twenty chance—could an enemy shoot between them.27 Another innovation was the use of a dummy head to find the location of an enemy sniper.28 The papier-mâché figures were painted to resemble soldiers to draw sniper fire. Some were equipped with rubber surgical tubing so the dummy could "smoke" a cigarette and thus appear realistic. Holes punched in the dummy by enemy sniper bullets then could be used for triangulation purposes to determine the position of the enemy sniper, who could then be attacked with artillery fire. He developed many of the modern techniques in sniping, including the use of spotting scopes and working in pairs, and using Kim's Game to train observational skills.29
The main sniper rifles used during the First World War were the German Mauser Gewehr 98; the British Pattern 1914 Enfield33 and Lee-Enfield SMLE Mk III, the Canadian Ross Rifle, the American M1903 Springfield, and the Russian M1891 Mosin–Nagant.
During the interbellum, most nations dropped their specialized sniper units, notably the Germans. Effectiveness and dangers of snipers once again came to the fore during the Spanish Civil War. The only nation that had specially trained sniper units during the 1930s was the Soviet Union. Soviet snipers were trained in their skills as marksmen, in using the terrain to hide themselves from the enemy and the ability to work alongside regular forces. This made the Soviet sniper training focus more on "normal" combat situations than those of other nations.
Snipers reappeared as important factors on the battlefield from the first campaign of World War II. During Germany's 1940 campaigns, it appeared that lone, well hidden French and British snipers could halt the German advance for a significant amount of time. For example during the pursuit to Dunkirk, British snipers were able to significantly delay German infantry's advance. This prompted the British to once again increase training of specialized sniper units. Apart from marksmanship British snipers were trained to blend in with the environment, often by using special camouflage clothing for concealment. However, because the British Army offered sniper training exclusively to officers and non-commissioned officers, the number of trained snipers in the combat units considerably reduced overall effectiveness.7
During the Winter War, Finnish snipers took a heavy toll of the invading Soviet army. Simo Häyhä is credited with 505 confirmed kills,3435 most with the Finnish version of the iron-sighted bolt action Mosin-Nagant.
One of the best known battles involving snipers, and the battle that made the Germans reinstate their specialized sniper training, was the Battle of Stalingrad. Their defensive position inside a city filled with rubble meant that Soviet snipers were able to inflict significant casualties on the Wehrmacht troops. Because of the nature of fighting in city rubble, snipers were very hard to spot and seriously dented the morale of the German attackers. The best known of these snipers was probably Vasily Zaytsev, immortalized in the novel War of the Rats and the subsequent film Enemy At The Gates.
German Scharfschützen were prepared before the war, equipped with Karabiner 98 and later Gewehr 43 rifles, but there were often not enough of these weapons available, and as such some were armed with captured scoped Mosin-Nagant 1891/30, SVT or Czech Mauser rifles. The Wehrmacht re-established its sniper training in 1942, drastically increasing the number of snipers per unit with the creation of an additional 31 sniper training companies by 1944. German snipers were as the only snipers in the world at the time issued with purpose manufactured sniping ammunition, known as the 'effect-firing' sS round.36 The 'effect-firing' sS round featured an extra carefully measured propellant charge and seated a heavy 12.8 gram (198 gr) full metal jacketed boat tail projectile of match grade build quality, lacking usual features such as a seating ring to further improve the already high ballistic coefficient of .584 (G1).37 For aiming optics German snipers used the Zeiss Zielvier 4x (ZF39) telescopic sight which had bullet drop compensation in 50 m increments for ranges from 100 m up to 800 m or in some variations from 100 m up to 1000 m or 1200 m. There were ZF42, Zielfernrohr 43 (ZF 4), Zeiss Zielsechs 6x and other telescopic sights by various manufacturers like the Ajack 4x, Hensoldt Dialytan 4x and Kahles Heliavier 4x with similar features employed on German sniper rifles. Several different mountings produced by various manufacturers were used for mounting aiming optics to the rifles. In February 1945 the Zielgerät 1229 active infrared aiming device was issued for night sniping with the StG 44 assault rifle.
428,335 individuals received Red Army sniper training, including Soviet and non-Soviet partisans, with 9,534 receiving sniping 'higher qualification'. The two six-month training courses in 1942 for women alone trained nearly 55,000 snipers.38verification needed On average there was at least one sniper in an infantry platoon and one in every reconnaissance platoon, including in tank and even artillery units.verification needed Some used the PTRD anti-tank rifle with an adapted scope as an early example of an anti-materiel rifle.
In the United States Armed Forces, sniper training was only very elementary and focused on being able to hit targets over long distances. Snipers were required to be able to hit a body over 400 meters away, and a head over 200 meters away. There was almost no concern with the ability to blend into the environment. Sniper training varied from place to place, resulting in a wide range of qualities of snipers. The main reason the US did not extend their training beyond long-range shooting was the limited deployment of US soldiers until the Normandy Invasion. During the campaigns in North Africa and Italy, most fighting occurred in arid and mountainous regions where the potential for concealment was limited, in contrast to Western and Central Europe.
The U.S. Army's lack of familiarity with sniping tactics resulted in disastrous effects in Normandy and the campaign in Western Europe where they encountered well trained German snipers.6 In Normandy, German snipers remained hidden in the dense vegetation and were able to encircle American units, firing at them from all sides. The American and British forces were surprised by how near the German snipers could safely come and attack them, as well as by their ability to hit targets at up to 1,000m. A notable mistake made by the green American soldiers was to lie down and wait when targeted by German snipers, thus allowing the snipers to pick them off one after another.6 German snipers often infiltrated Allied lines and sometimes when the front-lines moved, they fought from their sniping positions, refusing to surrender until their rations and munitions were exhausted.
Those tactics were also consequences of changes in German enrollment. After several years of war and heavy losses on the Eastern Front, the German army was forced to rely more heavily on enrolling teenage soldiers. Due to lack of training in more complex group tactics and thanks to rifle training provided by Hitlerjugend those soldiers would often be used as autonomous left behind snipers. While an experienced sniper would take a few lethal shots and retreat to a safer positions, those young boys, due both to disregard for their own safety and lack of tactical experience would rather cave in and fight until they'd run out of ammo or get taken down. While this tactic would generally end in the demise of the sniper, with a heavy human cost hence the nickname "Suicide Boys" given to those soldiers, this irrational behavior would prove quite disruptive to Allied forces progression. After World War II, many elements of German sniper training and doctrine were copied by other countries.6
In the Pacific War, the Empire of Japan trained snipers. In the jungles of Asia and the Pacific Islands, snipers posed a serious threat to the U.S, British, and Commonwealth troops. Japanese snipers were specially trained to use the environment to conceal themselves. Japanese snipers used foliage on their uniforms and dug well-concealed hide-outs that were often connected with small trenches. There was no need for long range accuracy because most combat in the jungle took place within a few hundred meters. Japanese snipers were known for their patience and ability to remain hidden for long periods. They almost never left their carefully camouflaged hiding spots. This meant that whenever a sniper was in the area, the location of the sniper could be determined after the sniper had fired a few shots. The Allies used their own snipers in the Pacific, notably the U.S. Marines, who used M1903 Springfield rifles.
Some common sniper rifles used during the Second World War include: the Soviet M1891/30 Mosin Nagant and, to a lesser extent, the SVT-40; the German Mauser Karabiner 98k and Gewehr 43; the British Lee-Enfield No. 4 and Pattern 1914 Enfield; the Japanese Arisaka 97; the American M1903A4 Springfield and M1C Garand; to a lesser extent, the Italians trained few snipers and supplied them with a scoped Carcano Model 1891.
The longest range recorded for any sniper kill, confirmed or not, currently stands at 2,815 m (3,079 yd) and was achieved by an unknown Australian sniper assigned to the Australian 2nd Commando Regiment. It was accomplished in an engagement in 2012 in which the sniper used a Barrett M82A1 chambered in .50 BMG.39
The longest confirmed sniper kill in combat was achieved by Craig Harrison, a Corporal of Horse (CoH) in the Blues and Royals RHG/D of the British Army. In November 2009, Harrison struck two Taliban machine gunners consecutively south of Musa Qala in Helmand Province in Afghanistan at a range of 2,475 m (2,707 yd) using a L115A3 Long Range Rifle.4041 The QTU Lapua external ballistics software,42 using continuous doppler drag coefficient (Cd) data provided by Lapua,43 predicts that such shots traveling 2,475 m (2,707 yd) would likely have struck their targets after nearly 6.0 seconds of flight time, having lost 93% of their kinetic energy, retaining 255 m/s (840 ft/s) of their original 936 m/s (3,070 ft/s) velocity, and having dropped 121.39 m (4,779 in) or 2.8° from the original bore line. Due to the extreme distances and travel time involved, even a light cross-breeze of 2.7 m/s (6.0 mph) would have diverted such shots 9.2 m (360 in) off target, which would have required compensation. The calculation assumes a flat-fire scenario, utilizing British military custom high pressure .338 Lapua Magnum cartridges, loaded with 16.2 g (250 gr) Lapua LockBase B408 bullets, fired at 936 m/s (3,071 ft/s) muzzle velocity44 under the following on-site (average) atmospheric conditions: barometric pressure: 1,019 hPa (30.1 inHg) at sea-level equivalent or 899 hPa (26.5 inHg) on-site, humidity: 25.9%, and temperature: 15 °C (59 °F) in the region for November 2009,45 resulting in an air density ρ = 1.0854 kg/m3 at the 1,043 m (3,422 ft) elevation of Musa Qala.
CoH Craig Harrison, the holder of the record for longest confirmed sniper kill, mentions in reports that the environmental conditions were perfect for long range shooting, no wind, mild weather, clear visibility. Mr. Tom Irwin, a director of Accuracy International, the British manufacturer of the L115A3 rifle, said: "It is still fairly accurate beyond 1,500 m (1,640 yd), but at that distance luck plays as much of a part as anything."
Law enforcement snipers, commonly called police snipers, and military snipers differ in many ways, including their areas of operation and tactics. A police sharpshooter is part of a police operation and usually takes part in relatively short missions. Police forces typically deploy such sharpshooters in hostage scenarios. This differs from a military sniper, who operates as part of a larger army, engaged in warfare. Sometimes as part of a SWAT team, police snipers are deployed alongside negotiators and an assault team trained for close quarters combat. As policemen, they are trained to shoot only as a last resort, when there is a direct threat to life; the police sharpshooter has a well-known rule: "Be prepared to take a life to save a life."46 Police snipers typically operate at much shorter ranges than military snipers, generally under 100 meters (109 yd) and sometimes even less than 50 meters (55 yd). Both types of snipers do make difficult shots under pressure, and often perform one-shot kills.
Police units that are unequipped for tactical operations may rely on a specialized SWAT team, which may have a dedicated sniper.46 Some police sniper operations begin with military assistance.47 Police snipers placed in vantage points, such as high buildings, can provide security for events.48 In one high-profile incident, Mike Plumb, a SWAT sniper in Columbus, Ohio, prevented a suicide by shooting a revolver out of the individual's hand, leaving him unharmed.49
The need for specialized training for police sharpshooters was made apparent in 1972 during the Munich massacre when the German police could not deploy specialized personnel or equipment during the standoff at the airport in the closing phase of the crisis, and consequently all of the Israeli hostages were killed. The German police only had regular police who were selected if they did hunting as a hobby.citation needed While the German army did have snipers in 1972, the use of snipers of the German army in the scenario was impossible due to the German constitution's explicit prohibition of the use of the military in domestic matters. This situation was later addressed with the founding of the specialized police counter-terrorist unit GSG 9.
Military sniper training aims to teach a high degree of proficiency in camouflage and concealment, stalking, observation and map reading as well as precision marksmanship under various operational conditions. Trainees typically shoot thousands of rounds over a number of weeks, while learning these core skills.
Snipers are trained to squeeze the trigger straight back with the ball of their finger, to avoid jerking the gun sideways.4 The most accurate position is prone, with a sandbag supporting the stock, and the stock's cheek-piece against the cheek.4 In the field, a bipod can be used instead. Sometimes a sling is wrapped around the weak arm (or both) to reduce stock movement.4 Some doctrines train a sniper to breathe deeply before shooting, then hold their lungs empty while they line up and take their shot.4 Some go further, teaching their snipers to shoot between heartbeats to minimize barrel motion.4
The key to sniping is accuracy, which applies to both the weapon and the shooter. The weapon should be able to consistently place shots within tight tolerances.4 The sniper in turn must utilize the weapon to accurately place shots under varying conditions.4
A sniper must have the ability to accurately estimate the various factors that influence a bullet's trajectory and point of impact such as: range to the target, wind direction, wind velocity, altitude and elevation of the sniper and the target and ambient temperature. Mistakes in estimation compound over distance and can decrease lethality or cause a shot to miss completely.4
Snipers zero their weapons at a target range or in the field. This is the process of adjusting the scope so that the bullet's points-of-impact is at the point-of-aim (centre of scope or scope's cross-hairs) for a specific distance.4 A rifle and scope should retain its zero as long as possible under all conditions to reduce the need to re-zero during missions.4
A sandbag can serve as a useful platform for shooting a sniper rifle, although any soft surface such as a rucksack will steady a rifle and contribute to consistency.4 In particular, bipods help when firing from a prone position, and enable the firing position to be sustained for an extended period of time. Many police and military sniper rifles come equipped with an adjustable bipod.4 Makeshift bipods known as shooting sticks can be constructed from items such as tree branches or ski poles.4
Range and accuracy vary depending on the cartridge and specific ammunition types that are used. Typical ranges for common battle field cartridges:
|Cartridge||Maximum effective range50|
|5.56x45mm NATO (.223 Remington)||300–500 m|
|7.62x51mm (.308 Winchester)||800-1,000 m|
|7 mm Remington Magnum||900-1,100 m|
|.300 Winchester Magnum||900-1,200 m|
|.338 Lapua Magnum||1,300-1,600 m|
|.50 BMG (12.7x99mm NATO)||1,500-2,000 m|
|12.7x108mm (Russian)||1,500-2,000 m|
|14.5x114mm (Russian)||1,900-2,300 m|
Servicemen volunteer for the rigorous sniper training and are accepted on the basis of their aptitude, physical ability, marksmanship, patience and mental stability. Military snipers may be further trained as forward air controllers (FACs) to direct air strikes or forward observers (FOs) to direct artillery or mortar fire.51
Starting in 2011, the Russian armed forces will establish newly developed sniper courses taking place in military district training centres. Instead of Soviet practice of mainly squad sharpshooters, which were often designated during initial training (and of whom only few become snipers per se), "new" Army snipers are to be trained intensively for 3 months (for conscripts) or longer (for contract soldiers); the program includes theory and practice of countersniper engagements, artillery spotting and coordination of air support. The first instructors are the graduates of the Solnechnogorsk sniper training centre.
The method of sniper deployment, according to Ministry of Defence, is likely to be one three-platoon company at the brigade level, with one of the platoons acting independently and the other two supporting the battalions as needed.52
The range to the target is measured or estimated as precisely as conditions permit and correct range estimation becomes absolutely critical at long ranges, because a bullet travels with a curved trajectory and the sniper must compensate for this by aiming higher at longer distances.4 If the exact distance is not known the sniper may compensate incorrectly and the bullet path may be too high or low. As an example, for a typical military sniping cartridge such as 7.62x51mm NATO (.308 Winchester) M118 Special Ball round this difference (or “drop”) from 700 to 800 meters (770–870 yd) is 200 millimetres (7.9 in). This means that if the sniper incorrectly estimated the distance as 700 meters when the target was in fact 800 meters away, the bullet will be 200 millimeters lower than expected by the time it reaches the target.4
Laser rangefinders may be used, and range estimation is often the job of both parties in a team.53 One useful method of range finding without a laser rangefinder is comparing the height of the target (or nearby objects) to their size on the mil dot scope, or taking a known distance and using some sort of measure (utility poles, fence posts) to determine the additional distance. The average human head is 150 millimeters (5.9 in) in width, average human shoulders are 500 millimeters (20 in) apart and the average distance from a person's pelvis to the top of their head is 1,000 millimeters (39 in).
To determine the range to a target without a laser rangefinder, the sniper may use the mil dot reticle on a scope to accurately find the range. Mil dots are used like a slide rule to measure the height of a target, and if the height is known, the range can be as well. The height of the target (in yards) ×1000, divided by the height of the target (in mils), gives the range in yards. This is only in general, however, as both scope magnification (7×, 40×) and mil dot spacing change. The USMC standard is that 1 mil (that is, 1 milliradian) equals 3.438 MOA (minute of arc, or, equivalently, minute of angle), while the US Army standard is 3.6 MOA, chosen so as to give a diameter of 1 yard at a distance of 1000 yards (or equivalently, a diameter of 1 meter at a range of 1 kilometer.) Many commercial manufacturers use 3.5, splitting the difference, since it is easier to work with.4
Explanation: 1 MIL = 1 milli-radian. That is, 1 MIL = 1x10^-3 radian. But, 10^-3 rad x (360 deg/ (2 x Pi) radians) = 0.0573 degrees. Now, 1 MOA = 1/60 degree = 0.01667 degrees. Hence, there are 0.0573/0.01667 = 3.43775 MOA per MIL, where MIL is defined as a milli-radian. On the other hand, defining a mil-dot by the US Army way, to equate it to 1-yard (1 m) at 1,000 yards (1,000 m), means the Army's mil-dot is approximately 3.6 MOA.
At longer ranges, bullet drop plays a significant role in targeting.4 The effect can be estimated from a chart which may be memorized or taped to the rifle, although some scopes come with Bullet Drop Compensator (BDC) systems that only require the range be dialed in. These are tuned to both a specific class of rifle and specific ammunition. Every bullet type and load will have different ballistics. .308 Federal 175 grain (11.3 g) BTHP match shoots at 2,600 ft/s (790 m/s). Zeroed at 100 yards (100 m), a 16.2 MOA adjustment would have to be made to hit a target at 600 yards (500 m). If the same bullet was shot with 168 grain (10.9 g), a 17.1 MOA adjustment would be necessary.4
Shooting uphill or downhill is confusing for many because gravity does not act perpendicular to the direction the bullet is traveling. Thus, gravity must be divided into its component vectors. Only the fraction of gravity equal to the cosine of the angle of fire with respect to the horizon affects the rate of fall of the bullet, with the remained adding or subtracting negligible velocity to the bullet along its trajectory. To find the correct zero, the sniper multiplies the actual distance to the range by this fraction and aims as if the target were that distance away. For example, a sniper who observes a target 500 meters away at a 45-degree angle downhill would multiply the range by the cosine of 45 degrees, which is 0.707. The resulting distance will be 353 meters. This number is equal to the horizontal distance to the target. All other values, such as windage, time-to-target, impact velocity, and energy will be calculated based on the actual range of 500 meters. Recently, a small device known as a cosine indicator has been developed.4 This device is clamped to the tubular body of the telescopic sight, and gives an indicative readout in numerical form as the rifle is aimed up or down at the target.4 This is translated into a figure used to compute the horizontal range to the target.
Windage which plays a significant role, the effect increasing with wind speed or the distance of the shot. The slant of visible convections near the ground can be used to estimate crosswinds, and correct the point of aim. All adjustments for range, wind, and elevation can be performed by aiming off the target, called "holding over" or Kentucky windage.4 Alternatively, the scope can be adjusted so that the point of aim is changed to compensate for these factors, sometimes referred to as "dialing in". The shooter must remember to return the scope to zeroed position. Adjusting the scope allows for more accurate shots, because the cross-hairs can be aligned with the target more accurately, but the sniper must know exactly what differences the changes will have on the point-of-impact at each target range.4
For moving targets, the point-of-aim is ahead of the target in the direction of movement. Known as "leading" the target, the amount of "lead" depends on the speed and angle of the target's movement as well as the distance to the target. For this technique, holding over is the preferred method.4 Anticipating the behavior of the target is necessary to accurately place the shot.4
The term "hide site" refers to a covered and concealed position from which a sniper and his team can conduct surveillance and/or fire at targets. A good hide conceals and camouflages the sniper effectively, provides cover from enemy fire and allows a wide view of the surrounding area.
The main purpose of ghillie suits and hide sites is to break up the outline of a person with a rifle.
Many snipers use ghillie suits to hide and stay hidden. Ghillie suits vary according to the terrain into which the sniper wishes to blend. For example, in dry, grassy wasteland the sniper will typically wear a ghillie suit covered in dead grass.
Shot placement varies considerably with the type of sniper being discussed. Military snipers, who generally do not engage targets at less than 300 m (330 yd), usually attempt body shots, aiming at the chest. These shots depend on tissue damage, organ trauma, and blood loss to make the kill.
Police snipers who generally engage at much shorter distances may attempt more precise shot at particular parts of body or particular devices: in one event in 2007 in Marseille, a GIPN sniper took a shot from 80 m (87 yd) at the pistol of a police officer threatening to commit suicide, destroying the weapon and preventing the police officer from killing himself.54
In a high-risk or instant-death hostage situation, police snipers may take head shots to ensure an instant kill. The snipers aim for the "apricot", or the medulla oblongata, located inside the head, a part of the brain that controls involuntary movement that lies at the base of the skull. Some ballistics and neurological researchers have argued that severing the spinal cord at an area near the second cervical vertebra is actually achieved,citation needed usually having the same effect of preventing voluntary motor activity, but the debate on the matter remains largely academic at present.
With moving targets it is necessary to lead the target to compensate for movement during the flight of the projectile.
Snipers can target personnel or materiel, but most often they target the most important enemy personnel such as officers or specialists (e.g. communications operators) so as to cause maximum disruption to enemy operations. Other personnel they might target include those who pose an immediate threat to the sniper, like dog handlers, who are often employed in a search for snipers.
A sniper identifies officers by their appearance and behavior such as symbols of rank, talking to radio operators, sitting as a passenger in a car, having military servants, binoculars/map cases or talking and moving position more frequently. If possible, snipers shoot in descending order by rank, or if rank is unavailable, they shoot to disrupt communications.
Since most kills in modern warfare are by crew-served weapons, reconnaissance is one of the most effective uses of snipers. They use their aerobic conditioning, infiltration skills and excellent long-distance observation equipment and tactics to approach and observe the enemy. In this role, their rules of engagement let them engage only high value targets of opportunity.
Some rifles, such as the Denel NTW-20 and Vidhwansak are designed for a purely anti-materiel (AM) role, e.g. shooting turbine disks of parked aircraft, missile guidance packages, expensive optics, and the bearings, tubes or wave guides of radar sets. A sniper equipped with the correct rifle can target radar dishes, water containers, the engines of vehicles, and any number of other targets. Other rifles, such as the .50 caliber rifles produced by Barrett and McMillan are not designed exclusively as AM rifles, but are often employed in such a way, providing the range and power needed for AM applications in a lightweight package compared to most traditional AM rifles. Other calibers, such as the .408 Cheyenne Tactical and the .338 Lapua Magnum are designed to be capable of limited AM application, but are ideally suited as long range anti-personnel rounds.
Baiting is the utilization of dropped objects for potential targets to find and pick up. In the Iraq war, picking up weapons and munitions could be considered evidence of insurgency. Snipers would drop weapons and wait for targets to pick up the weapons so they could engage the target. According to court documents55 quoted by the Washington Post, the U.S. military's Asymmetric Warfare Group encouraged snipers to drop items "such as detonation cords, plastic explosives and ammunition"56 then kill Iraqis who handled the items.555657
"Baiting is putting an object out there that we know they will use, with the intention of destroying the enemy...Basically, we would put an item out there and watch it. If someone found the item, picked it up and attempted to leave with the item, we would engage the individual as I saw this as a sign they would use the item against U.S. Forces."
— Capt. Matthew P. Didier, the leader of an elite sniper scout platoon attached to the 1st Battalion of the 501st Infantry Regiment, in a sworn statement56
Often in situations with multiple targets, snipers use relocation. After firing a few shots from a certain position, snipers move unseen to another location before the enemy can determine where he or she is and mount a counter-attack. Snipers will frequently use this tactic to their advantage, creating an atmosphere of chaos and confusion. In other, rarer situations, relocation is used to eliminate the factor of wind.
As sniper rifles are often extremely powerful and consequently loud, it is common for snipers to use a technique known as sound masking. When employed by a highly skilled marksman, this tactic can be used as a substitute for a noise suppressor. Very loud sounds in the environment, such as artillery shells air bursting or claps of thunder, can often mask the sound of the shot. This technique is frequently used in clandestine operations, infiltration tactics, and guerrilla warfare.
Due to the surprise nature of sniper fire, high lethality of aimed shots and frustration at the inability to locate and attack snipers, sniper tactics have a significant effect on morale. Extensive use of sniper tactics can be used as a psychological strategy in order to induce constant stress in opposing forces. One may note that in many ways, (constant threat, high "per event" lethality, inability to strike back), the psychological impact imposed by snipers is quite similar to those of landmines, booby-traps, and IEDs.95859
Historically, captured snipers are often summarily executed. This happened during World War I,60 and during World War II.61 As a result, if a sniper is in imminent danger of capture, he may discard any items which might indicate his status as a sniper. The risk of captured snipers being summarily executed is explicitly referred to in Chapter 6 of US Army doctrine document FM 3-060.11 entitled 'SNIPER AND COUNTERSNIPER TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES':
Historically, units that suffered heavy and continual casualties from urban sniper fire and were frustrated by their inability to strike back effectively often have become enraged. Such units may overreact and violate the laws of land warfare concerning the treatment of captured snipers. This tendency is magnified if the unit has been under the intense stress of urban combat for an extended time. It is vital that commanders and leaders at all levels understand the law of land warfare and understand the psychological pressures of urban warfare. It requires strong leadership and great moral strength to prevent soldiers from releasing their anger and frustration on captured snipers or civilians suspected of sniping at them.62
The negative reputation of snipers can be traced back to the American Revolution, when American "Marksmen" would intentionally target British officers, an act considered uncivilized by the British Army at the time (this reputation would be cemented during the Battle of Saratoga, when Benedict Arnold allegedly ordered his marksmen to target British General Simon Fraser, an act that would win the battle and French support).5 The British side used specially selected sharpshooters as well, often German mercenaries.5
To demoralize enemy troops, snipers can follow predictable patterns. During the 26th of July Movement in the Cuban Revolution, the revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro always killed the foremost man in a group of President Batista's soldiers.verification needed Realizing this, none of Batista's men would walk first, as it was suicidal. This effectively decreased the army's willingness to search for rebel bases in the mountains. An alternative approach to this psychological process is to kill the second man in the row, leading to the psychological effect of nobody wanting to follow the "leader".
The occurrence of sniper warfare has led to the evolution of many counter-sniper tactics in modern military strategies. These aim to reduce the damage caused by a sniper to an army, which can often be harmful to both combat capabilities and morale.
The risk of damage to a chain of command can be reduced by removing or concealing features which would otherwise indicate an officer's rank. Modern armies tend to avoid saluting officers in the field, and eliminate rank insignia on battle dress uniforms (BDU). Officers can seek maximum cover before revealing themselves as good candidates for elimination through actions such as reading maps or using radios.
Friendly snipers can be used to hunt the enemy sniper. Besides direct observation, defending forces can use other techniques. These include calculating the trajectory of a bullet by triangulation. Traditionally, triangulation of a sniper's position was done manually, though radar-based technology has recently become available. Once located, the defenders can attempt to approach the sniper from cover and overwhelm him. The United States military is funding a project known as RedOwl (Robot Enhanced Detection Outpost With Lasers), which uses laser and acoustic sensors to determine the exact direction from which a sniper round has been fired.63
The more rounds fired by a sniper, the greater the number of chances a target has to locate him. Thus, attempts to draw fire are often made, sometimes by offering a helmet slightly out of concealment, a tactic successfully employed in the Winter War by the Finns known as "Kylmä-Kalle" (Cold Charlie).64 They used a shop mannequin or other doll dressed as a tempting target, such as an officer. The doll was then presented as if it were a real man sloppily covering himself. Usually, Soviet snipers were unable to resist the temptation of an apparently easy kill. Once the angle where the bullet came from was determined, a large calibre gun, such as a Lahti L-39 "Norsupyssy" ("Elephant rifle") anti-tank rifle was fired at the sniper to kill him.
Other tactics include directing artillery or mortar fire onto suspected sniper positions, the use of smoke screens, placing tripwire-operated munitions, mines, or other booby-traps near suspected sniper positions. Even dummy trip-wires can be placed to hamper sniper movement. If anti-personnel mines are unavailable, it is possible to improvise booby-traps by connecting trip-wires to hand grenades, smoke grenades or flares. Though these may not kill the sniper, they will reveal the location of the sniper(s). Booby-trap devices can be placed near likely sniper hides, or along the probable routes to and from the positions. Knowledge of sniper field-craft will assist in this task.
One very old counter-sniper tactic is to tie rags onto bushes or similar items in suspected sniper hides. These rags flutter in the breeze creating random movements in the corner of the sniper's eye, which he/she will often find distracting. The greatest virtue of this tactic is its simplicity and ease of implementation; however, it is unlikely to prevent a skilled sniper from selecting targets, and may in fact provide a sniper with additional information about the wind near the target.
The use of canine units was very successful, especially during the Vietnam War. A trained dog can easily determine direction from the sound of the bullet, and will lie down with its head pointed at the origin of the gunshot.citation needed
The use of sniping (in the sense of shooting at relatively long range from a concealed position) to murder came to public attention in a number of sensational U.S. criminal cases, including the Austin sniper incident of 1966, the John F. Kennedy assassination, and the Beltway sniper attacks of late 2002. However, these incidents usually do not involve the range or skill of military snipers; in all three cases the perpetrators had U.S. military training, but in other specialties. News reports will often (inaccurately) use the term sniper to describe anyone shooting with a rifle at another person.65
Sniping has been used in asymmetric warfare situations, for example in the Northern Ireland Troubles, where in 1972, the bloodiest year of the conflict, the majority of the soldiers killed were shot by concealed IRA riflemen.66 There were some instances in the early 1990s of British soldiers and RUC personnel being shot with .50 caliber Barrett rifles by sniper teams collectively known as the South Armagh sniper.67
The sniper is particularly suited to combat environments where one side is at a disadvantage. A careful sniping strategy can use a few individuals and resources to thwart the movement or other progress of a much better equipped or larger force. Because of this perceived difference in force size, the sniping attacks may be viewed as the act of a few persons to terrorize (earning the moniker 'terrorists') a much larger, regular force — regardless of the size of the force the snipers are attached to. These perceptions stem from the precept that sniping, while effective in specific instances, is much more effective as a broadly deployed psychological attack or as a force-multiplier.686970
Snipers are less likely to be treated mercifully if captured by the enemy.61 The rationale for this is that ordinary soldiers shoot at each other at 'equal opportunity' whilst snipers take their time in tracking and killing individual targets in a methodical fashion with a relatively low risk of retaliation.
In 2003, the U.S.-led multinational coalition composed of primarily U.S. and U.K. troops occupied Iraq and attempted to establish a new government in the country. However, shortly after the initial invasion, violence against coalition forces and among various sectarian groups led to asymmetric warfare with the Iraqi insurgency and civil war between many Sunni and Shia Iraqis.
Through November 2005, when the Pentagon had last reported a sniper fatality, the Army had attributed 28 of 2,100 U.S. deaths to enemy snipers.71 More recently, since 2006, insurgent snipers such as "Juba" have caused problems for American troops. Claims have been made that Juba have shot up to 37 American soldiers in Iraq as of October 2006.72
In 2006, training materials obtained by U.S. intelligence showed that snipers fighting in Iraq were urged to single out and attack engineers, medics, and chaplains on the theory that those casualties would demoralize entire enemy units.73 Among the training materials, there included an insurgent sniper training manual that was posted on the Internet. Among its tips for shooting U.S. troops, there read: "Killing doctors and chaplains is suggested as a means of psychological warfare."71
Some sniper teams in Afghanistan have killed large numbers of Taliban in quite short periods of time. For example, while in Helmand Province, two British snipers (part of the Welsh Guards Battle group) shot dead a total of 75 Taliban in only 40 days during the summer of 2009. In one session of duty, lasting just two hours, they shot and killed eight Taliban. On another occasion, the same team scored a "Quigley" (i.e., killing two Taliban with a single bullet) at a range of 196 metres.74
Taliban snipers have themselves caused problems for coalition forces. For example, over a four-month period in early 2011, two Taliban snipers shot dead two British soldiers and wounded six others at an outpost in Qadrat, Helmand province.75 In one unusual incident, an unnamed 55-year-old ex-Mujahideen fighter with a motorbike and an old British-made Enfield rifle killed two British soldiers with a single shot, hitting the first in the head and the second in the neck.76
Sniper activity has been reported during the Arab Spring civil unrest in Libya in 2011, both from anti-governmental77 and pro-governmental78 supporters, and in Syria at least from pro-government7980 forces.
- One of Japan's most notable warlords, Takeda Shingen, was possibly fatally wounded by a sniper.81
- Lord Brooke, who represented the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, was the first recorded British sniper victim, killed by a Royalist soldier hiding in a bell tower in Lichfield.
- Timothy Murphy (American Revolutionary War) – killed British General Simon Fraser during the pivotal Battle of Saratoga, hampering the British advance and causing them to lose the battle.5
- Patrick Ferguson (American Revolutionary War) - developer of the world's first breech-loaded military rifle (which advanced sniping and sharpshooting tactics), fought with his Corps of Riflemen (recruited from the 6th and 14th Foot) at the Battle of Brandywine, where he may have passed up a chance to shoot George Washington.82
- Napoleonic Wars – Use of Marine sharpshooters in the mast tops was common usage in navies of the period, and Admiral Nelson's death at Trafalgar is attributed to the actions of French Sharpshooters. The British Army developed the concept of directed fire (as opposed to massive unaimed volleys) and formed Rifle regiments, notably the 95th and the 60th who wore green jackets instead of the usual redcoats.citation needed Fighting as Skirmishers, usually in pairs and trusted to choose their own targets, they wrought havoc amongst the French during the peninsular war against Napoleon's Forces.
- British Rifleman Thomas Plunkett (Peninsular war) – shot French General Colbert and one of his aides at a range of between 200 metres (219 yd) and 600 metres (656 yd) using a Baker rifle.83
- Colonel Hiram Berdan (American Civil War) – commanded 1st and 2nd US Sharpshooters, who were trained and equipped Union marksmen with the .52 caliber Sharps Rifle. It has been claimed that Berdan's units killed more enemies than any other in the Union Army.5
- Jack Hinson (American Civil War) recorded 36 "kills" on his custom made .50 caliber Kentucky long rifle with iron sights.
- Sgt. Ben Powell (American Civil War) – sniped Major General John Sedgwick during the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House with a British Whitworth target rifle at the then-incredible distance of 730 metres (798 yd).citation needed This caused administrative delays in the Union's attack and lead to Confederate victory. Sedgwick ignored advice to take cover, his last words according to urban legend being, "They couldn't hit an elephant at this dist-" upon which he was shot. In reality, he was shot a few minutes later.5
- Major Frederick Russell Burnham - assassinated Mlimo, the Ndebele religious leader, in his cave in Matobo Hills, Rhodesia, effectively ending the Second Matabele War (1896).84 Burnham started as a cowboy and Indian tracker in the American Old West, but he left the United States to scout in Africa and went on to command the British Army Scouts in the Second Boer War. For his ability to track, even at night, the Africans dubbed him, He-who-sees-in-the-dark,85 but in the press he became more widely known as England's American Scout.86
- Billy Sing (World War I) – Australian sniper with at least 150 confirmed kills during the Gallipoli Campaign; he may have had close to 300 kills in total at Gallipoli,87 and went on to fight at the Western Front.
- Francis Pegahmagabow (World War I) - Native Canadian sniper credited with 378 kills, and an unknown number of unconfirmed kills. He only took credit for kills when they were verified by an officer.citation needed
- Finnish Lance Corporal Simo Häyhä, aka "White Death", was a sniper during the Winter War and is regarded by many as the most effective sniper in the history of warfare, being credited with killing up to 705 (505 sniper kills, at least 200 sub-machine gun kills) Soviet soldiers accomplished in fewer than 100 days. Häyhä used a White Guard M/28 "Pystykorva" or "Spitz", variant of the Russian Mosin-Nagant rifle, and iron sights.35
- Lieutenant Lyudmila Pavlichenko (World War II) – female Soviet sniper with 309 confirmed kills, making her the most successful female sniper in history.88
- Junior Lieutenant Vassili Zaitsev (World War II) – credited with killing about 200 German soldiers during the Battle of Stalingrad,89 he is portrayed in the film Enemy at the Gates and in the book War of the Rats; both however are fictionalized accounts.
- Mihail Ilyich Surkov has been said to have killed 702 enemy troops.90
- Semen Nomokonov killed 367 persons, including a general.90
- Gefreiter (Private) Matthäus Hetzenauer (World War II) - Austrian sniper who was credited with 345 confirmed killscitation needed on the Eastern Front, the most successful in the Wehrmacht. Unofficially, he killed about 500 Russian soldierscitation needed (there are some kills unverified by officers).
- Obergefreiter (Private First Class) Josef 'Sepp' Allerberger (World War II) - Austrian sniper credited with 257 confirmed kills on the Eastern Front.citation needed (the same situation as has Hetzenauer - German officers seldom confirmed kills).
- Helmuth Wirnsberger - German sniper, who has served in 3. Gebirgsjaegerdivision during WW II and credited 64 confirmed kills.citation needed Unofficially, he killed more than 200 Russians.citation needed
- Chinese Sergeant Tung Chih Yeh claimed to have shot and killed over 100 Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) soldiers using a Chiang Kai-Shek rifle with and without a scope in the Yangtze area during the Second Sino-Japanese War.91
- Zhang Taofang (Chinese: 张桃芳; Traditional Chinese: 張桃芳; Wade–Giles: Zhang Tao-fang) was a Chinese soldier during the Korean War. He is credited with 214 confirmed kills in 32 days without using a sniper magnifying scope, but this is an improbable accreditation.92
- Clive Hulme was a New Zealand recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He is credited with stalking and killing 33 German snipers in the Battle of Crete.93
- Ian Robertson served as a sniper with Australia's 3RAR post World War 2. He became one of the most effective snipers during the Korean War where in one instance he killed 30 in a single morning.94
- Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock (Vietnam war) – achieved 93 confirmed kills but believed to have over 200 unconfirmed kills. With a telescopic scoped .50 caliber M2 Browning heavy machine gun, he set a world record for the longest recorded sniper kill at 2,286 m (2,500 yd) which stood for 35 years until 2002.959697
- Chuck Mawhinney (Vietnam war) – 103 confirmed and 216 probable kills.citation needed
- Adelbert F. Waldron (Vietnam war) – achieved 109 confirmed kills.citation needed
- Master Sgt. Gary Gordon and Sgt. First Class Randy Shughart (Somalia: Operation Gothic Serpent) - were Delta Force snipers who were awarded the Medal of Honor for their fatal attempt to protect the injured crew of a downed helicopter during the Battle of Mogadishu. This action was later dramatized in the film Black Hawk Down.
- South Armagh Sniper (1990–1997) killed 9 British soldiers.
- British Army CoH Craig Harrison of the Household Cavalry successfully engaged two Taliban machine gunners south of Musa Qala in Helmand Province in Afghanistan in November 2009 at a range of 2,475 m (2,707 yd), using a L115A3 Long Range Rifle rifle chambered in .338 Lapua Magnum. These are the longest recorded and confirmed sniper kills in history.9899100101
- Canadian Corporal Rob Furlong, formerly of the PPCLI (Operation Anaconda, Afghanistan) - achieved a recorded and confirmed sniper kill at 2,430 m (2,657 yd) in 2002 using a .50 caliber (12.7 mm) McMillan TAC-50 rifle.102
- Canadian Master Corporal Arron Perry, formerly of the PPCLI (Operation Anaconda, Afghanistan) - briefly held the record for the longest-ever recorded and confirmed sniper kill at 2,310 m (2,526 yd) in 2002 after eclipsing US Marine Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock's previous record established in 1967. Perry used a .50 caliber (12.7 mm) McMillan TAC-50 rifle.102
- Canadian Master Corporal Graham Ragsdale using a .308 registered 20 confirmed kills over ten days during Operation Anaconda.
- U.S. Navy Chief Chris Kyle of SEAL Team Three had 255 kills, 160 of which are officially confirmed by the Pentagon, during four deployments to Iraq between 2003 and 2009. Kyle holds the title of deadliest marksman in US military history. During the Second Battle of Fallujah alone, when US Marines fought running battles in the streets with several thousand insurgents, he killed 40 people. For his deadly track record as a marksman during his deployment to Ramadi, the insurgents named him 'Al-Shaitan Ramad' - the Devil of Rahmadi - and put a $20,000 bounty on his head. His most legendary shot came outside Sadr City in 2008 when he shot an insurgent with a rocket launcher near an Army convoy with his .338 Lapua Magnum rifle at 1,920 m (2,100 yd).103 Kyle was honorably discharged in 2009 when in February 2, 2013, was killed at a shooting range along with another victim in Texas by a Marine veteran suffering from PTSD.
- British Army Corporal Christopher Reynolds of the 3d. battalion the Royal Regiment of Scotland, the Black Watch, shot and killed a Taliban commander at a range of 1,853 m (2,026 yd) using a .338 Lapua Magnum (8.6 mm) L115A3 rifle.104
- U.S. Marine Corps Staff Sergeant Steve Reichert - Killed an Iraqi insurgent and possibly injuring two more hiding behind a brick wall with a shot from 1 mile in Lutayfiyah, Iraq on April 9, 2004. Reichert was using a Barrett M82A3 .50BMG rifle loaded with Raufoss Mk 211 multipurpose rounds. During the same engagement Reichert eliminated an Iraqi machine gunner pinning down a squad of Marines from a distance of 1,614 m (1,765 yd).105
- U.S. Marine Corps Gunnery Sergeant Bryan Falldorf - Killed 2 insurgent snipers from a CH-53 helicopter at a range of 1,086 and 1,240 meters with a Barrett M82A1 .50 bmg rifle, Afghanistan, November 10, 2005.
- U.S. Army Staff Sergeant Jim Gilliland - Previously held the record for the longest recorded confirmed kill with a 7.62×51mm NATO rifle at 1,250 m (1,367 yd) with a M24, while engaging an Iraqi insurgent sniper in Ramadi, Iraq on September 27, 2005.106
- U.S. Army Staff Sergeant Timothy L. Kellner - regarded as one of the top snipers still active in the U.S. Army with 78 confirmed kills during Operation Iraqi Freedom and 3 in Haiti.107
- Sri Lankan Army Sniper, Corporal I.R. Premasiri alias ‘Nero’, of the 5th Battalion in the Gajaba Regiment has 180 confirmed L.T.T.E. terrorist kills.108
- Iraqi insurgent Juba, a sniper who features in several propaganda videos. Juba has allegedly shot 37 American soldiers, although whether Juba is a real individual is unknown. He may be a constructed composite of a number of insurgent snipers.109
- Corporal Ben Roberts-Smith VC MG of the Australian Special Air Service Regiment was awarded the Medal of Gallantry for his actions in 2006 during Operation Perth in the Chora Valley of Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan. In that action, patrol sniper Roberts-Smith prevented an outnumbered patrol from being overrun by Anti-Coalition Militia with sniper fire.110 Subsequently in early 2011, he became the second Australian to be awarded the Victoria Cross on Operation Slipper in Afghanistan. As part of the Shah Wali Kot Offensive in June 2010; having provided sniper over-watch for ground forces from a helicopter with a M14 EBR rifle, he was air assaulted into a firefight and subsequently eliminated machine gun positions.111
- U.S. Army Staff Sergeant Justin Morales - As part of the U.S. Army CIST (Counter Insurgent Sniper Team) in Iraq, he recorded 27 confirmed kills with a M24 7.62×51mm NATO rifle. From 2005 to 2006, Morales and his team in Balad, Iraq was tasked with seeking out insurgents placing IEDs along Main Supply Routes and Alternate Supply Routes.112
- U.S. Army SPC Christopher Dale Abbott- As part of a U.S. Army Counter IED team (CIEDT) in Iraq in 2007-2008, he recorded 22 confirmed kills with a M24 7.62×51mm NATO rifle for a period of only 7 months before being injured and sent out of theater. Being a Military Police Officer attached to assist the 25th Infantry Division out of Hawaii, he and his team were tasked with seeking out insurgents placing IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) along frequently used supply routes.113
- Jäger (military)
- List of sniper rifles
- Operation Foxley - plan to kill Adolf Hitler using a sniper
- Sniper Alley
- Snipers of the Soviet Union
- Special forces
- Valdes, Robert. "How Military Snipers Work — What Does a Sniper Really Do?". Howstuffworks. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- "Snipe". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- Plaster 2007
- Plaster 1993
- Senich 1988
- Senich 1982
- Shore 1988, p. 316
- Freigegeben ab 12 Jahren (January 2, 2008). "Snipers during the First and Second World Wars": info taken from: Zeitgeschichte - Spezialeinheiten im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Scharfschützen (Documentary film) (in German). EMS GmbH. Event occurs at 57mins. EAN: 4020974153959.
- Gregory Mast; Hans Halberstadt (January 2007). To Be a Military Sniper. Zenith Imprint. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7603-3002-9. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Alexander Rose (21 October 2008). American Rifle: A Biography. New York: Random House Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-440-33809-3. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Andy Dougan (1 June 2006). Through the Crosshairs: A History of Snipers. Da Capo Press, Incorporated. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7867-1773-6. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Robert Leckie (24 August 2010). George Washington's War: The Saga of the American Revolution. New York: HarperCollins. p. 513. ISBN 978-0-06-201536-5. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- "Whitworth Rifle".
- "Minutes of proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Volume 19" By Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain)
- Pegler, Martin (2011). Out of Nowhere: A history of the military sniper, from the Sharpshooter to Afghanistan. Osprey Publishing. Retrieved 2013-11-18.
- “Minutes of proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers". Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain), 1860, p.12
- Rhea, Gordon C. (1997). The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern, May 7-12, 1864. Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-8071-2136-8. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- David Eicher (14 March 2005). Civil War Battlefields: A Touring Guide. Taylor Trade Publications. pp. 73–75. ISBN 978-1-58979-181-7. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- John F. Cummings, III (June 2011). Spotsylvania County. Arcadia Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7385-8246-7. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Gallagher, Gary (1 February 2010). Spotsylvania Campaign. North Carolina: UNC Press Books. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-8078-9837-6. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Plaster 2007, p. 5
- Pegler 2006
- "Lovat Scouts, Sharpshooters - United Kingdom".
- Hesketh-Prichard, H.V. Sniping in France. pp. Chapter XI. ISBN 0-85052-426-1.
- Parker 1924, pp. 211–212
- Parker, Eric. Hesketh Prichard. p. 212.
- Hesketh-Prichard, H.V. Sniping in France. pp. Chapter 5. ISBN 0-85052-426-1.
- Hesketh-Prichard, H.V. Sniping in France. pp. Chapter 2. ISBN 0-85052-426-1.
- Prichard & Vernon 2004, pp. 10,19
- Sniping in France by Major H. Hesketh-Prichard (1920)
- Gilbert 1996, p. 45
- Brookesmith 2007, p. 77
- Sniping in France by Major H. Hesketh-Prichard (1920) p. 239dead link
- "The Sniper Log Book—World War II". Snipercentral.com. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- Rayment, Sean (2006-04-30). "The long view". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 30 March 2009.
- Peter R. Senich: German Sniper 1914-45, Page 91
- "Снайперское движение в РККА | История снайперского искусства". Shotgun.com.ua. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- Masters 2012
- "Hotshot sniper in one-and-a-half mile double kill". The Sunday Times. 2 May 2010.
- "Super sniper kills Taliban 1.5 miles away".
- "QuickTarget Unlimited Lapua Edition exterior ballistics software". Web.archive.org. 2009-06-29. Archived from the original on 2009-06-29. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- Lapua: Downloads: Lapua Bullets CD Datadead link
- "L96 Sniper Rifle and L115A3 Long Range Rifle". Mod.uk. 2007-02-20. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- "Weather Underground History for Kandahar, Afghanistan - Month of November 2009". Wunderground.com. 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- "The Sniper, SWAT Teams Grow In Number". CBS News. January 25, 2001. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- "Gastonia Police Department - Sniper School". Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- "Police sniper watches from roof, Sydney". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. September 6, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- Scanlon, James J. (2010). "The Columbus Ohio Police". The Columbus Ohio Police. Retrieved May 7, 2010. - News footage of sniper shooting gun out of a persons hand
- "ATK.com". ATK.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- Gaijinass (May 6, 2010). "The way of the Gun: USMC S/S". Gaijinass. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Gavrilov, Yuri "Take a bead: Army gets sniper schools" Rossiiskaya gazeta 19 October 2011.
- Plaster 2006, p. 346
- Pardini, Sèverine (August 2, 2007). "J'ai fait mouche sur son arme à 80 mètres pour le sauver (ENG:I hit his weapon at 80 meters to save him)". laprovence.com. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- U.S. Army Snipers Accused of 'Baiting' Iraqi Insurgents, Fox News September 25, 2007 "sworn statements and testimony in the cases of two other accused Ranger snipers indicate that the Army has a classified program that encourages snipers to "bait" potential targets and then kill whoever takes the bait", "The transcript of a court hearing for two of the three accused snipers makes several references to the existence of a classified "baiting" program"
- U.S. Aims To Lure Insurgents With 'Bait', Washington Post
- U.S. Snipers Accused of 'Baiting' Iraqis, Pauline Jelinek and Robert Burns, The Associated Press, Tuesday, September 25, 2007
- Hans Halberstadt (18 March 2008). Trigger Men: Shadow Team, Spider-Man, the Magnificent Bastards, and the American Combat Sniper. St. Martin's Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-312-35472-5. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Martin Pegler (20 September 2011). Out of Nowhere: A history of the military sniper, from the Sharpshooter to Afghanistan. Osprey Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-84908-875-6. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Duffy, Michael (August 22, 2009). "Encyclopedia - Snipers". firstworldwar.com. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- Page, Lewis (November 28, 2008). "Snipers - Cowardly assassins, or surgical soldiers?". The Register. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- GlobalSecurity.org (April 27, 2005). "Sniper and countersniper tactics, techniques, and procedures". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
- Bray, Hiawatha (October 4, 2005). "Robotic-vacuum maker, BU team up on anti-sniper device". The Boston Globe.
- Petri Sarjanen (1998). Valkoinen kuolema: Talvisodan legendaarisen tarkka-ampujan Simo Häyhän tarina. ISBN 952-5170-05-5
- Dockery, Kevin (3 July 2007). Stalkers and Shooters: A History of Snipers. New York: Penguin Group US. pp. 170–171. ISBN 978-1-4406-2890-0. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Taylor 1997, p. 132 - "In 1971, the Provisional IRA shot dead forty-two British soldiers. In 1972, this figure rose to sixty-four, most of them killed by snipers."
- Jackson, Mike (2006). Operation Banner: An Analysis of Military Operations in Northern Ireland. MoD, Army Code 71842
- Craig Roberts; Charles W. Sasser (1 July 2004). Crosshairs on the Kill Zone: American Combat Snipers, Vietnam through Operation Iraqi Freedom. Pocket Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4165-0362-0. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Pat Farey; Mark Spicer (1 May 2009). Sniping: An Illustrated History. MBI Publishing Company. pp. 225–227. ISBN 978-0-7603-3717-2. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Gilbert, Adrian (1996). "The Sniper Today". Sniper: Master of Terrain, Technology, And Timing, He Is A Hunter Of Human Prey And The Military's Most Feared Fighter. St. Martin's Press. pp. 245–247. ISBN 978-0-312-95766-7. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Diamond, John (July 27, 2006). "Insurgent snipers sent after troops". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- Holmes, Paul (October 29, 2006). "U.S. military probes sniper threat in Baghdad". Reuters news service. Archived from the original on 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- Ponder, Jon (October 25, 2006). "Iraqi Insurgent Snipers Target U.S. Medics, Engineers and Chaplains". Pensito Review. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- Pickup, Oliver (March 15, 2011). "British sniper takes out TWO Taliban with a single bullet: Extraordinary images show how crack shot killed insurgents". Daily Mail (London).
- "Bravest of the brave: Soldiers volunteer as targets to flush out sniper who is shooting colleagues". Daily Mail (London). March 14, 2011.
- Ian Drury (2011-07-09). "Taliban sniper kills 2 British soldiers with 1 devastating shot in Afghanistan". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Rebels share firepower as snipers menace Tripoli". Reuters. August 24, 2011.
- "International News | World News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "AFP: Violence kills 29 across Syria: activists". Google.com. 2012-01-30. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Takeda Shingen (1521 - 1573) - The Takeda expand". The Samurai Archives. August 16, 2004. Retrieved 2008-04-03. "Shingen was either wounded by a sniper or fell sick (possibly with TB); a point modern scholars are divided on."
- Plaster 2007, pp. 39–45, 53–55.
- Stuart Hadaway Rifleman Thomas Plunkett: 'A Pattern for the Battalion.'
- "Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising". New York Times. June 25, 1896. ISSN 0093-1179.
- West, James E.; Peter O. Lamb; illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell (1932). He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout. Brewer, Warren and Putnam.
- "England's American Scout". New York Times (London Chronicle). May 5, 1901. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Hamilton, J. C. M. (2008): Gallipoli Sniper: The life of Billy Sing. Sydney: Pan Macmillan Australia. (ISBN 978-1-4050-3865-2)
- Sakaida & Hook 2003, pp. 31–32
- (Russian)Biography at the website on Heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia
- "top WWII snipers". Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- "Osprey Men-at-Arms 424 : The Chinese Army 1937-1949 : World War II and Civil War". Militaryfocus.com. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- Pegler 2006, p. 265
- "Hulme, Alfred Clive", Te Ara
- "A sniper's tale". The Sydney Morning Herald. April 26, 2004.
- Lance Cpl. George J. Papastrat (March 29, 2007). "Range complex named after famous Vietnam sniper". Marine Corps News. Retrieved 2008-03-24. "...famous Hathcock shot that killed an enemy from more than 2,500 yards (2,300 m) away..."dead link
- "Sniper Rifles". GlobalSecurity. Retrieved 2008-03-24. "When a 24-year old Marine sharpshooter named Carlos Norman Hathcock II chalked up the farthest recorded kill in the history of sniping - 2,500 yards (1.42 miles, a distance greater than 22 football fields) in February 1967 he fired a Browning M2 .50 Cal. Machine Gun."
- Sgt. Grit (2006). "Marine Corps Sniper Carlos N. Hathcock II". Retrieved 2008-03-24. "Viet Cong shot dead by a round fired from a scope-mounted Browning M-2 .50 caliber machine gun at the unbelievable range of 2,500 yards (2,300 m)."
- Smith 2010
- Chandler 2010
- Alpert 2010
- Drury 2010
- Friscolanti, Michael (May 15, 2006). "We were abandoned". Maclean's. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- 255 confirmed kills: Meet Navy SEAL Chris Kyle... the deadliest sniper in US history Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- British sniper describes moment he shot Taliban commander... from two kilometres away. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- "Marine Sniper Receives Bronze Star Medal for Valor". Defense.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- The Washington Times, U.S. Army sniper nails record shot, 11:16 p.m., Sunday, January 15, 2006
- "The Sniper Log Book". snipercentral.com. 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2010.
- Army told no heavy weapons, not Prabha By Tissa Ravindra Perera. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- Reuters (October 29, 2006). "U.S. military probes sniper threat in Baghdad". alertnet.org. Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2010.
- Nicholson, Brendan (23 April 2011). "You think I'm brave? Meet my mates: Ben Roberts-Smith". theaustralian.com.au (The Australian). Retrieved 11 February 2012. "The Taliban clearly aimed to surround or overrun the patrol. Armed with a sniper rifle with telescopic sight, Roberts-Smith moved out about 50m from the position to protect a flank. Under fire from two groups coming from different directions, he crouched behind a rock and remembers seeing splinters flying as bullets hammered it. "The guys on my right were shooting at me and we were having a bit of a three-way gunfight," he says. "Then Matt got on to them and gave them stick from above. That took the emphasis off me. It broke up their formation. "I felt that Matt had probably saved my life during that contact because he put himself up in that position and he was able to suppress the enemy that was engaging me from the flank that I couldn't see. He took a lot of the heat off me. "If he hadn't done that, they would have taken all day to work out a pretty effective shot." Roberts-Smith fired single shots at the insurgents moving up the hill to break up their attack but he was concerned he would run out of ammunition. "One well-aimed shot is just as effective as a burst of machinegun fire - especially if it hits them," he says. "If you're running forward and you see a round hit the ground right in front of you, you look for cover and that stops your advance.""
- Nicholson, Brendan (24 January 2011). "Battlefield mateship worthy of VC". theaustralian.com.au (The Australian). Retrieved 11 February 2012. "Roberts-Smith and three other soldiers, all crack shots trained as snipers, were aboard another helicopter covering the landing from above. "We were circling around the assault force trying to provide them with sniper fire to cover them, engaging the machineguns," he says."
- John Pike. "Sniper Rifles". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- John D. "Sniper Rifles". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- Alpert, Lukas (May 2, 2010). "Sniper kills Qaeda-from 1½ mi. away". New York Post. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Bartlett, Derrick (April 12, 2005). "Sniper Tactics: Going for the Gun". Retrieved January 26, 2006.
- Brookesmith, Peter (2007). Sniper: training, techniques and weapons (2007 ed.). St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-36290-4. - Total pages: 192
- Chandler, Neil (May 2, 2010). "Sniper's Taliban shots earn him place in military record books". The Daily Star. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Drury, Ian (May 2, 2010). "The super sniper: Hero picks off two Taliban from a mile and a half away". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Gilbert, Adrian (1996). Sniper: The Skills, the Weapons, and the Experiences (1996 ed.). St. Martin's Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-312-95766-7. - Total pages: 352
- Law, Clive M. (2005). Without Warning: Canadian Sniper Equipment of the 20th Century. Service Publications. ISBN 1-894581-16-4.
- Pegler, Martin (2006). Out of Nowhere: A History of the Military Sniper (2006 ed.). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-140-3. - Total pages: 352
- Parker, Eric (1924). Hesketh Prichard, D.S.O., M.C.: hunter: explorer: naturalist: cricketer: author: soldier; a memoir (1924 ed.). T. F. Unwin ltd. - Total pages: 261
- Plaster, Maj. John L. (1993). The ultimate sniper: an advanced training manual for military & police snipers (1993 ed.). Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0-87364-704-5. - Total pages: 453
- Plaster, Maj. John L. (2006). The ultimate sniper: an advanced training manual for military & police snipers (2006 ed.). Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-494-8. - Total pages: 584
- Plaster, Maj. John L. (2007). The History of Sniping and Sharpshooting (2007 ed.). Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-632-4. - Total pages: 704
- Prichard, Hesketh; Vernon, Hesketh (2004). Sniping in France 1914-18: With Notes on the Scientific Training of Scouts, Observers, and Snipers (2004 ed.). Helion & Company Limited. ISBN 978-1-874622-47-5. - Total pages: 143
- Sakaida, Henry; Hook, Christa (2003). Heroines of the Soviet Union 1941-45 (2003 ed.). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-598-3. - Total pages: 64
- Senich, Peter R. (1982). The German sniper, 1914-1945 (1982 ed.). Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0-87364-223-1. - Total pages: 445
- Senich, Peter R. (1988). The Complete Book of U.S. Sniping (1988 ed.). Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0-87364-460-0. - Total pages: 280
- Shore, C. (1988). With British Snipers to the Reich (1988 ed.). Desert Pubns. ISBN 978-0-87947-122-4. - Total pages: 351
- Smith, Michael (May 2, 2010). "Hotshot sniper in one-and-a-half mile double kill". London: The Sunday Times. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Taylor, Peter (1997). Behind the mask: the IRA and Sinn Fein (1997 ed.). TV Books. ISBN 978-1-57500-061-9. - Total pages: 431
- Strong, Charles (2011). Kill Shot: The Deadliest Snipers of All Time (2011 ed.). Ulysses Press. ISBN 978-1-56975-862-5. - Total pages: 192
- Pegler, Martin (2006). Out of Nowhere: A History of the Military Sniper (2006 ed.). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-140-3. - Total pages: 352
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sniper.|
|Look up sniper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Sniper History during World War II
- Snipers of WWII
- Sniping in France, by Major H. Hesketh-Prichard
- World War II German Sniper Training Film on YouTube