Soan valley near Adiala, Pakistan
The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic (ca. 500,000 to 125,000 BP) in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent.1 Contemporary to the Acheulean, it is named after the Soan Valley in the Sivalik Hills, Pakistan. Soanian sites are found along the Sivalik region in present-day India, Nepal and Pakistan.2
On Adiyala and Khasala about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Rawalpindi terrace on the bend of the river hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. At Chauntra hand axes and cleavers were found.
No human skeletons of this age have yet been found, however, tools up to two million years old have been recovered. In the Soan River Gorge many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Some of these fossils are on display at the Pakistan Museum of Natural History in Islamabad.
The term "Soan Culture" was first used by Hellmut De Terra in 1936,3 however, D. N. Wadia had identified the presence of these archaeological implements in 1928.4
- V. A. Ranov; D. Dorj; Lu Zün-E (1999). In Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson. History of civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-81-208-1407-3. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Kenneth Oakley (30 April 2007). Frameworks for Dating Fossil Man. Transaction Publishers. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-0-202-30960-6. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Hellmut De Terra (1969). Early man: as depicted by leading authorities at the International symposium, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, March 1937. Ayer Publishing, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-8369-1184-8. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Ahmad Hasan, Dani. Prehistoric Pakistan'.
- Armand, J. The Middle Pleistocene Pebble Tool Site of Durkadi in Central India.
- Armand J. (1985). "The Emergence of the Handaxe Tradition in Asia, with Special Reference to India". In V. N. Misra, Peter S. Bellwood. Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory: proceedings of the international symposium held at Poona, December 19–21, 1978. BRILL. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-90-04-07512-2. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- Lal, B. B., A Decade of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archaeology in India, 1951-1960.