Photovoltaic in Germany

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Price of PV systems (rooftop, up to 100 kW) in Germany1
Average insolation in Germany. Solar Radiation Map: Global Horizontal Irradiation Map, SolarGIS 2011

Germany is the world's top photovoltaics (PV) installer, with a solar PV capacity of 35.996 gigawatts (GW) at the end of February 2014.2 The German new solar PV installations increased by about 7.6 GW in 2012, and solar PV provided 18 TWh (billion kilowatt-hours) of electricity in 2011, about 3% of total electricity.3 Some market analysts expect this could reach 25 percent by 2050.4 Germany has a goal of producing 35% of electricity from renewable sources by 2020 and 100% by 2050.5

Large PV power plants in Germany include Senftenberg Solarpark, Finsterwalde Solar Park, Lieberose Photovoltaic Park, Strasskirchen Solar Park, Waldpolenz Solar Park, and Köthen Solar Park.

Overview

The GermanGW of installed solar PV capacity by 2030,6 to be reached with an annual increase of 2.5–3.5 GW,7 and a goal of 80% of electricity from renewable sources by 2050.8 From 3.5 GW to 4 GW are expected to be installed in 2013. Solar power in Germany has been growing considerably due to the country's feed-in tariffs for renewable energy which were introduced by the German Renewable Energy Act. Prices of PV systems have decreased more than 50% in 5 years since 2006.1

As of 2012, the FiT costs about 14 billion euros (US$18 billion) per year for wind and solar installations. The cost is spread across all rate-payers in a surcharge of 3.6 €ct (4.6 ¢) per kWh9 (approximately 15% of the total domestic cost of electricity).10 On the other hand, as expensive peak power plants are displaced, the price at the power exchange is reduced due to the so-called merit order effect.11

German electricity generation on May 25 and May 26, 2012

Germany set a world record for solar power production with 24.1 GW produced at midday on April 17, 2014.12

A feed-in tariff is the most effective means of developing solar power.13 It is the same as a power purchase agreement, but is at a much higher rate. As the industry matures, it is reduced and becomes the same as a power purchase agreement. A feed-in tariff allows investors a guaranteed return on investment - a requirement for development. A primary difference between a tax credit and a feed-in tariff is that the cost is born the year of installation with a tax credit, and is spread out over many years with a feed-in tariff. In both cases the incentive cost is distributed over all consumers. This means that the initial cost is very low for a feed-in tariff and very high for a tax credit. In both cases the learning curve reduces the cost of installation, but is not a large contribution to growth, as grid parity is still always reached.14

Accommodating high percentages of wind and solar

Germany had not installed adequate storage to accommodate high percentages of wind and solar power and in 2012 is exporting peak generation to neighboring countries.15

Approximately 9 GW of photovoltaic plants in Germany are being retrofitted to shut down if the frequency increases to 50.2 Hz, indicating an excess of electricity on the grid. The frequency is unlikely to reach 50.2 Hz during normal operation, but can if Germany is exporting power to countries that suddenly experience a power failure. This happened in 2003 and 2006.161718 The frequency of the grid is available on the Internet.

Statistics

Increases in installed solar PV power capacity and generation in recent years is shown in the table below.1920 The solar PV power in Germany has been increasing exponentially for the last 20 years, with a doubling time of 1.5 years.

Change in Germany's total solar PV.
Solar PV as percentage of total consumption. Note the logarithmic y axis.
Year Capacity (MW) Annual yield (GWh) % of consumption
1990 2 1.0 <0.001
1991 2 1.0 <0.001
1992 6 4.0 0.001
1993 9 3.0 0.001
1994 12 7.0 0.001
1995 18 7.0 0.001
1996 28 12 0.002
1997 42 18 0.003
1998 54 35 0.006
1999 70 30 0.005
2000 114 60 0.01
2001 176 76 0.01
2002 296 162 0.03
2003 435 313 0.05
2004 1,105 557 0.09
2005 2,056 1,282 0.2
2006 2,899 2,220 0.4
2007 4,170 3,075 0.5
2008 6,120 4,420 0.7
2009 10,566 6,583 1.1
2010 17,554 11,729 1.9
2011 25,039 19,599 3.2
2012 32,643 26,380 4.4
2013 35,692 30,000 5.0
Photovoltaics (MW)21
State 2010 2011
Baden-Württemberg 2,741 3,581
Bavaria 6,323 8,067
Berlin 31 46
Brandenburg 564 1,546
Bremen 14 25
Hamburg 14 22
Hesse 897 1,207
Lower Saxony 1,511 2,284
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 249 520
North Rhine-Westphalia 1,961 2,812
Rhineland-Palatinate 867 1,175
Saarland 163 223
Saxony 527 888
Saxony-Anhalt 408 856
Schleswig-Holstein 674 953
Thuringia 298 519

Photovoltaic power stations

Largest German photovoltaic power stations (20 MW or larger)22
PV Power station Nominal Power23
in MWp
Annual
Yield
in GWh
Capacity
factor
Notes
Solarpark Meuro22 166 70 MW completed 2011, 166 MW in 2012
Neuhardenberg Solar Park2224 145 Completed September 2012
Templin Solar Park2225 128.48 Completed September 2012
Brandenburg-Briest Solarpark 91
Solarpark Finow Tower 84.7 Completed in 2010, 2011
Eggebek Solar Park 83.6 Completed 2011
Senftenberg Solarpark26 82 Phase II and III completed 2011, another 70 MW phase planned
Finsterwalde Solar Park 80.7 Phase I completed 2009,
phase II and III 2010 2728
Lieberose Photovoltaic Park 71.8 5329 0.11 2009 2930
Solarpark Alt Daber22 67.8 71.4 Completed 2011
Strasskirchen Solar Park22 54 57 0.12
Walddrehna Solar Park 52.3 Completed June 2012
Waldpolenz Solar Park 5231 52 0.11 550,000 First Solar thin-film CdTe modules. Completed December 2008 3132
Tutow Solar Park 52 Tutow I completed in 2009, II in 2010, III in 2011
Kothen Solar Park 45 2009
Jura Solar Park 43 Completed 201433
Fürstenwalde Solar Park 39.64 36.5 2011
Reckahn Solar Park 36 2011
Lauingen Energy Park 25.7 26.9834 Completed in 2010
Pocking Solar Park 22
Mengkofen Solar Park 21.7
Rothenburg Solar Park 20
Other notable photovoltaic (PV) power plants35
DC Peak Power Location Description Annual yield Capacity factor Coordinates
  12 MW Arnstein 1408 SOLON mover
(see Erlasee Solar Park)
14,000 MWh 0.13 50°0′10″N 9°55′15″E / 50.00278°N 9.92083°E / 50.00278; 9.92083 (Erlasee Solar Park)
  8.4 MW Gottelborn Solar Park
  6.3 MW Mühlhausen 57,600 solar modules
(see Bavaria Solarpark)
6,750 MWh 0.12 49°09′29″N 11°25′59″E / 49.15806°N 11.43306°E / 49.15806; 11.43306 (Bavaria Solarpark)
  6 MW Rote Jahne Solar Park36
  5 MW Bürstadt 30,000 BP Solar modules 4,200 MWh 0.10 49°39′N 8°28′E / 49.650°N 8.467°E / 49.650; 8.467
  5 MW Espenhain 33,500 Shell Solar modules 5,000 MWh 0.11 51°12′N 12°31′E / 51.200°N 12.517°E / 51.200; 12.517
  4 MW Merseburg 25,000 BP solar modules
(see Geiseltalsee Solarpark)
3,400 MWh 0.10 51°22′N 12°0′E / 51.367°N 12.000°E / 51.367; 12.000 (Geiseltalsee Solarpark)
  4 MW Hemau 32,740 solar modules 3,900 MWh 0.11 49°3′N 11°47′E / 49.050°N 11.783°E / 49.050; 11.783
  3.3 MW Dingolfing Solara, Sharp and Kyocera solar modules 3,050 MWh 0.11 48°38′N 12°30′E / 48.633°N 12.500°E / 48.633; 12.500
  1.9 MW Guenching Sharp solar modules
(see Bavaria Solarpark)
- 49°16′N 11°34′E / 49.267°N 11.567°E / 49.267; 11.567 (Bavaria Solarpark)
  1.9 MW Minihof Sharp solar modules
(see Bavaria Solarpark)
- n.a.

Companies

A portion of the Waldpolenz Solar Park

Major German solar companies include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b BSW-Solar – Statistische Zahlen der deutschen Solarstrombranche (Photovoltaik), Oct 2011
  2. ^ Bundesnetzagentur – Photovoltaikanlagen: Datenmeldungen sowie EEG-Vergütungssätze (in German)
  3. ^ "German solar power output up 60 pct in 2011". Reuters. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  4. ^ "Another Sunny Year for Solar Power". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. 
  5. ^ Germany's Grid and the Market: 100 Percent Renewable by 2050?
  6. ^ Property Wire (2010-04-22). "Germany Reducing Incentives For Solar Property Investment". NuWire Investor. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  7. ^ Lang, Matthias (21 November 2011). "New German 7.5 GWp PV Record by End of 2011". German Energy Blog. Retrieved 9 January 2012. 
  8. ^ Germany
  9. ^ Lang, Matthias (14 October 2011). "2012 EEG Surcharge Increases Slightly to 3.592 ct/kWh". German Energy Blog. Retrieved 9 January 2012. 
  10. ^ Electricity
  11. ^ Morris, Craig (2 February 2012). "Merit order effect of PV in Germany". Renewables International. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  12. ^ EEX-Transparenzplattform – Tatsächliche Produktion Solar
  13. ^ The U.S. Needs a Feed-in Tariff
  14. ^ PV Learning Curves:Past and Future Drivers of Cost Reduction
  15. ^ Energiewende
  16. ^ The “50.2 Hz” problem for photovoltaic power plants
  17. ^ Timeline of the mains frequency
  18. ^ Impact of Large-scale Distributed Generation on Network Stability During Over-Frequency Events & Development of Mitigation Measures
  19. ^ Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit – Zeitreihen zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland (December 2013)
  20. ^ Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie – Erneuerbare Energien im Jahr 2013 (February 2014; provisional data)
  21. ^ Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2016 pg. 70
  22. ^ a b c d e f PV Resources.com (2009). World's largest photovoltaic power plants
  23. ^ Note that nominal power may be AC or DC, depending on the plant. See AC-DC conundrum: Latest PV power-plant ratings follies put focus on reporting inconsistency (update)
  24. ^ Lima Group: BV Neuhardenberg
  25. ^ CFB News: Commerz Real Acquires Germany’s Largest Solar Park
  26. ^ SolarServer: 78 MW of the world’s largest solar photovoltaic plant connected to grid in Senftenberg, Germany
  27. ^ Good Energies, NIBC Infrastructure Partners acquire Finsterwalde II and Finsterwalde III
  28. ^ Implementation of the 39 MWp – „Solar Park Finsterwalde II and Finsterwalde III“
  29. ^ a b Lieberose solar farm becomes Germany's biggest, World's second-biggest
  30. ^ Germany Turns On World's Biggest Solar Power Project
  31. ^ a b Germany's largest Solar parks connected to the grid (19 Dec 08)
  32. ^ Large photovoltaic plant in Muldentalkreis
  33. ^ Photovoltaik in Oberfranken: IBC SOLAR stellt Jura-Solarpark mit insgesamt 43 MW fertig
  34. ^ Lauingen Energy Park
  35. ^ World's largest photovoltaic power plants
  36. ^ Construction Complete on 6 MW Thin-Film PV Installation in Germany Renewable Energy Access, 5 April 2007.

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