Somali Armed Forces
|Somali Armed Forces
Ciidamada Qalabka Sida
القوات المسلحة صومالية
Flag of the Federal Republic of Somalia
|Service branches|| Somali National Army1
Somali Air Force1
Somali Police Force1
National Intelligence and Security Agency1
|Commander-in-Chief||Hassan Sheikh Mohamud|
|Minister of Defense||Mohamed Sheikh Hassan|
|Chief of Army||Dahir Adan Elmi|
|2,261,704 (2010 est.; males)
2,217,584 (2010 est.; females), age 18–49
|1,328,567 (2010 est.; males)
1,386,971 (2010 est.; females), age 18–49
|99,919 (2010 est.; males)
99,771 (2010 est.; females)
|Percent of GDP||0.9% (2005)|
|Foreign suppliers|| European Union
The Somali Armed Forces (SAF) are the military forces of Somalia,2 officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia.3 Headed by the President as Commander in Chief, they are constitutionally mandated to ensure the nation's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.4
The SAF was initially made up of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Police Force.5 In the post-independence period, it grew to become among the larger militaries in Africa.6 After the start of the civil war in 1991, the Somali National Army and all related military and security forces disbanded.7 In 2004, the gradual process of reconstituting the military was put in motion with the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG). As of January 2014, the security sector is overseen by the Federal Government of Somalia's Ministry of Defence, Ministry of National Security, and Ministry of Interior and Federalism.8 The Somaliland, Puntland and Khaatumo regional governments maintain their own security and police forces.
According to CQ Press' Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations, Somalia's defense forces as of 2013 include the Somali National Army, Somali Air Force, Somali Navy, Somali Police Force and National Intelligence and Security Agency.1
- 1 History
- 2 Somali National Army
- 3 Somali Air Force
- 4 Somali Navy
- 5 Somali Police Force
- 6 Leadership
- 7 Military ranks 1977
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Historically, Somali society conferred distinction upon warriors (waranle) and rewarded military acumen. All Somali males were regarded as potential soldiers, except for the odd religious cleric (wadaado).9 Somalia's many Sultanates each maintained regular troops. In the early Middle Ages, the conquest of Shewa by the Ifat Sultanate ignited a rivalry for supremacy with the Solomonic dynasty.
Many similar battles were fought between the succeeding Sultanate of Adal and the Solomonids, with both sides achieving victory and suffering defeat. During the protracted Ethiopian-Adal War (1529–1559), Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi defeated several Ethiopian Emperors and embarked on a conquest referred to as the Futuh Al-Habash ("Conquest of Abyssinia"), which brought three-quarters of Christian Abyssinia under the power of the Muslim Adal Sultanate.1011 Al-Ghazi's forces and their Ottoman allies came close to extinguishing the ancient Ethiopian kingdom, but the Abyssinians managed to secure the assistance of Cristóvão da Gama's Portuguese troops and maintain their domain's autonomy. However, both polities in the process exhausted their resources and manpower, which resulted in the contraction of both powers and changed regional dynamics for centuries to come. Many historians trace the origins of hostility between Somalia and Ethiopia to this war.12 Some scholars also argue that this conflict proved, through their use on both sides, the value of firearms such as the matchlock musket, cannons and the arquebus over traditional weapons.13
At the turn of the 20th century, the Majeerteen Sultanate, Sultanate of Hobyo, Warsangali Sultanate and Dervish State employed cavalry in their battles against the imperialist European powers during the Campaign of the Sultanates.
In Italian Somaliland, eight "Arab-Somali" infantry battalions, the Ascari, and several irregular units of Italian officered dubats were established. These units served as frontier guards and police. There were also Somali artillery and zaptié (carabinieri) units forming part of the Italian Royal Corps of Colonial Troops from 1889 to 1941.
Just prior to independence in 1960, the Trust Territory of Somalia sought and obtained UN permission to establish a national army to defend the nascent Somali Republic's borders. The Somali Police Force's Mobile Group (Darawishta Poliska or Darawishta) was subsequently formed. April 12, 1960 has since been marked as Armed Forces Day.14 British Somaliland became independent on 26 June 1960 as the State of Somaliland, and the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) followed suit five days later.15 On July 1, 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.16
After independence, the Darawishta merged with the Somaliland Scouts of the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the 5,000 strong Somali National Army (SNA). The new military's first commander was Colonel Daud Abdullaahi Hersi, a former officer in the British military administration's police force, the Somalia Gendarmerie.9 Officers were trained in Britain, Egypt and Italy. Despite the social and economic benefits associated with military service, the armed forces began to suffer chronic manpower shortages only a few years after independence.17
Merging the British Somaliland protectorate and the Italian Somaliland colony was rendered more difficult by the fact that the two former territories had hitherto been institutionally managed as separate states. The distribution of power between the two regions and among the major clans in both areas was a bone of contention. In December 1961, a group of British-trained northern junior army officers revolted after southern officers of higher rank were assigned to command their units. The rebels were subsequently detained by other northern soldiers of NCO rank, although dissatisfaction in the north lingered.18
The force was expanded and modernized after the rebellion with the assistance of Soviet and Cuban advisors. The Library of Congress writes that '[i]n 1962 the Soviet Union agreed to grant a US$32 million loan to modernise the Somali army, and expand it to 14,000 personnel. Moscow later increased the amount to US$55 million. The Soviet Union, seeking to counter United States influence in the Horn of Africa, made an unconditional loan and fixed a generous twenty-year repayment schedule.'
The army was tested in 1964 when the conflict with Ethiopia over the Somali-inhabited Ogaden erupted into warfare. On 16 June 1963, Somali guerrillas started an insurgency at Hodayo, in eastern Ethiopia, a watering place north of Werder, after Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie rejected their demand for self-government in the Ogaden. The Somali government initially refused to support the guerrilla forces, which eventually numbered about 3,000. However, in January 1964, after Ethiopia sent reinforcements to the Ogaden, Somali forces launched ground and air attacks across the border and started providing assistance to the guerrillas. The Ethiopian Air Force responded with punitive strikes across its southwestern frontier against Feerfeer, northeast of Beledweyne and Galkayo. On 6 March 1964, Somalia and Ethiopia agreed to a cease-fire. At the end of the month, the two sides signed an accord in Khartoum, Sudan, agreeing to withdraw their troops from the border, cease hostile propaganda, and start peace negotiations. Somalia also terminated its support of the guerrillas.9
During the power vacuum that followed the assassination of Somalia's second president, Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, the military staged a coup d'état on 21 October 1969 (the day after Shermarke's funeral) and took over office.19 Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who had succeeded Hersi as Chief of Army in 1965,9 was installed as President of the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC), the new government of Somalia.19 The country was renamed the Somali Democratic Republic, and Barre became the spokesman and leader of the new Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC). In 1971, he announced the regime's intention to phase out military rule.
In July 1976, the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the army consisted of 22,000 personnel, 6 tank battalions, 9 mechanised infantry battalions, 5 infantry battalions, 2 commando battalions, and 11 artillery battalions (5 anti-aircraft).20 Two hundred T-34 and 50 T-54/55 main battle tanks had been estimated to have been delivered. The IISS emphasised that 'spares are short and not all equipment is serviceable.' Three divisions (the 21st, 54th, and 60th)21 were formed, and later took part in the Ogaden War. While the IISS did not list them in July 1976, there is evidence that they were formed as early as 1970 or earlier: Mohamud Muse Hersi has been listed by somaliaonline.com as commander of the 21st Division from 1970 to 1972.22
Under the leadership of General Abdullah Mohamed Fadil, Abdullahi Ahmed Irro and other senior Somali military officials were mandated by Barre's government in 1977 with formulating a national strategy in preparation for the Ogaden campaign in Ethiopia.23 This was part of a broader effort to unite all of the Somali-inhabited territories in the Horn region into a Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn).24 At the start of the offensive, the SNA consisted of 35,000 soldiers,25 and was vastly outnumbered by the Ethiopian forces. Somali national army troops seized the Godey Front on July 24, 1977, after the SNA's 60th Division brigades defeated the 4th Ethiopian Infantry Division.26 Godey's capture allowed the Somali side to consolidate its hold on the Ogaden, concentrate its forces, and advance further to other regions of Ethiopia.27 The invasion reached an abrupt end with the Soviet Union's sudden shift of support to Ethiopia, followed by almost the entire communist world siding with the latter. The Soviets halted their previous supplies to Barre's regime and increased the distribution of aid, weapons, and training to Ethiopia's newly-communist Derg regime. General Vasily Ivanovich Petrov was assigned to restructure the Ethiopian Army.28 The Soviets also brought in around 15,000 Cuban troops to assist the Ethiopian military. By 1978, the Somali forces were pushed out of most of the Ogaden, although it would take nearly three more years for the Ethiopian Army to gain full control of Godey.27
Following the 1977-78 Ogaden campaign, Caabud-Waaq became the base for the SNA's 21st Division.29 The shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre regime to seek allies elsewhere. It eventually settled on Russia's Cold War arch-rival, the United States, which had been courting the Somali government for some time. The U.S. eventually gave extensive military support.
After fallout from the unsuccessful Ogaden campaign of the late 1970s, the ruling socialist government of the Somali Democratic Republic under Major General Barre began arresting government and military officials under suspicion of participation in the abortive 1978 coup d'état.3023 Most of the people who had allegedly helped plot the putsch were summarily executed.31 However, several officials managed to escape abroad where they formed the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), the first of various dissident groups dedicated to ousting Barre's regime by force.32 Among these opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) and Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA), a Gadabuursi group which had been formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement (SNM) Isaaq militia.33
In 1984, the government attempted to solve the manpower shortage problem by instituting obligatory military service.17 Men of eighteen to forty years of age were to be conscripted for two years. Opposition to conscription and to the campaigns against guerrilla groups resulted in widespread evasion of military service. As a result, during the late 1980s the government normally met manpower requirements by impressing men into military service. This practice alienated an increasing number of Somalis, who wanted the government to negotiate a peaceful resolution of the conflicts that were slowly destroying Somali society.
In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) became increasingly authoritarian and arbitrary. This caused opposition to his regime to grow. Barre in turn tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle.34 He thereafter filled key positions in the army and security forces with members of three Darood clans closely related to his own reer: the Marehan, Dulbahantes, and Ogaadeens. According to Compagnon (1992), Generals and Colonels were part of Barre's personal patronage network and had to remain loyal to him and his family, whether they temporarily held ministerial posts or were in military service.35 The critical posts of commander of the 2nd Tank Brigade and 2nd Artillery Brigade in Mogadishu were both held by Marehan officers, as were the posts of commander of the three reserve brigades in Hargesia in the north.36
By 1987 the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency estimated the army was 40,000 strong (with Ethiopian army strength estimated at the same time as 260,000).37 The President, Mohamed Siad Barre, held the rank of Major General and acted as Minister of Defence. There were three vice-ministers of national defence. From the SNA headquarters in Mogadishu four sectors were directed: 26th Sector at Hargeisa, 54th Sector at Garowe, 21st Sector at Dusa Mareb, and 60th Sector at Baidoa. Thirteen divisions, averaging 3,300 strong, were divided between the four sectors - four in the northernmost and three in each of the other sectors. The sectors were under the command of brigadiers (three) and a colonel (one).
By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerillas, especially in the northern regions. The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988.34 According to Daniel Compagnon, after that year's summer, a period began that was characterized by political repression against targeted clans. Former soldiers and units in the disintegrating military also engaged in private violence, and the distinction with public coercion became blurred.38
In September 1990, Human Rights Watch reported that the rebel forces had briefly captured the Mudug province's capital Galkayo in mid-November 1989. They reportedly seized a lot of military equipment at the 4th Division Headquarters, including tanks, 30 mobile anti-aircraft guns and rocket launchers. However, the rebels were unable to take most of this equipment so they incinerated it. Government forces thereafter launched massive reprisals against civilians residing in the regions corresponding with the 21st, 54th, 60th and 77th military sectors. The impacted towns and villages included Gowlalo, Dagaari, Sadle-Higlo, Bandiir Adley, Galinsor, Wargalo, Do'ol, Halimo, Go'ondalay and Galkayo.39
The various rebel movements eventually succeeded in ousting the government altogether in the ensuing civil war that broke out in 1991. The Somali National Army and all related military and security forces concurrently disbanded, with indeterminate elements reconstituted as irregular regional forces and clan militias.7 In 1992, the 15-member Security Council imposed an arms embargo via United Nations Security Council Resolution 733 in order to stop the flow of weapons to feuding militia groups.40
From 2004–2004, Ismail Qasim Naji served as the military chief of the Transitional National Government (TNG).41 He was given the rank of Major General. During this time, the TNG was opposed militarily and politically by the rival Somalia Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SRRC), backed by Hussein Mohamed Farrah Aidid (son of the late faction leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid), Mohamed Dhere, and others. Eventually the leadership of the SRRC and the TNG reconciled.
After a two-year consultation process, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in 2004 by Somali politicians in Nairobi under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The process also led to the establishment of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), and concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as President.42 The TFG thereafter became Somalia's internationally recognized government.43
In the first half of 2005, disagreements arose between Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi and Parliament Speaker Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden over where to base the TFG. Ghedi preferred Jowhar while Adan favored Baidoa.44 In an effort to persuade President Yusuf, Adan and a group of legislators and ministers visited Mogadishu to mobilize support from the local business community.45 The two leaders, President Yusuf and members of parliament also met in Kenya to work out a compromise.44 Concurrently, the TFG sent official delegations to Jowhar and Baidoa to assess the suitability of each city as a temporary headquarters for the TFG before an eventual relocation of government offices to Mogadishu.46 In June–July 2005, the Transitional Federal Government established an interim seat in Jowhar due to ongoing insecurity in the capital.47 The TFG later moved its temporary headquarters to Baidoa.42
In order to stabilize the security situation, President Yusuf requested that the African Union deploy military forces in Somalia. However, as the AU lacked the resources to do so over the short term, Ahmed enlisted soldiers from his own constituency. Ethiopia concurrently provided military training for the new troops. These developments along with the U.S. funding the ARPCT coalition of faction leaders alarmed many individuals in south-central Somalia, and provided the ascendant Islamic Courts Union (ICU) with substantial recruitment opportunities.45
A battle for Mogadishu followed in the first half of 2006 in which the ARPCT confronted the ICU.48 However, with local support, the ICU captured the city in June of the year. It then expanded its area of control in south-central Somalia over the following months, assisted militarily by Eritrea.45 In an effort at reconciliation, TFG and ICU representatives held several rounds of talks in Khartoum under the auspices of the Arab League. The meetings ended unsuccessfully due to uncompromising positions retained by both parties.42 Hardline Islamists subsequently gained power within the ICU, prompting fears of a Talibanization of the movement.49
In December 2006, Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to assist the TFG against the advancing Islamic Courts Union,50 initally winning the Battle of Baidoa. On December 28, 2006, the allied forces recaptured the capital from the ICU.51 The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule.48 Ethiopian and TFG forces forced the ICU from Ras Kamboni between January 7–12, 2007. They were assisted by at least two U.S. air strikes.52 On January 8, 2007, for the first time since taking office, President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed entered Mogadishu from Baidoa to engage in consultations with local business, religious and civil society representatives as the TFG moved its base to the national capital.53 The interim administration had just established control over much of the central and southern parts of the country.51 Government members and officials from the International Contact Group on Somalia conurrently began planning broad-based reconciliation talks, deployment of a peacekeeping force, disarmament, and a national development strategy.53 According to AMISOM, the TFG gained widespread acceptance and made significant progress in the areas of political institutionalization.42
On 20 January 2007, with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1744, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) was formally authorised, which would provide much-needed backing for central government forces.54 On 10 February 2007, Abdullahi Ali Omar became Chief of Army for the Transitional Federal Government. He had previously been the Chief of Staff of the armed forces of Puntland.55 700 Ugandan troops, earmarked for AMISOM, were landed at Mogadishu airport on 7–8 March 2007.56
In Mogadishu, residents belonging to the same Hawiye clan as the ousted ICU resented the Islamic Courts Union's defeat.57 They distrusted the TFG, which was at the time dominated by individuals from the Darod clan, believing that it was dedicated to the advancement of Darod interests in lieu of the Hawiye. Additionally, they feared reprisals for massacres committed in 1991 in Mogadishu by Hawiye militants against Darod civilians, and were dismayed by Ethiopian involvement.58 Critics of the TFG likewise charged that its federalist platform was part of a plot by the Ethiopian government to keep Somalia weak and divided.59 During its first few months in the capital, the TFG was initially restricted to key strategic points, with the large northwestern and western suburbs controlled by Hawiye rebels.60 In March 2007, President Ahmed announced plans to forcibly disarm militias in the city.58 According to the ISA, a coalition of local insurgents led by Al-Shabaab subsequently launched a wave of attacks against the TFG and Ethiopian troops.61 The allied forces in return mounted a heavy-handed response.62 HRW alleged that all of the warring parties were responsible for widespread violations of the laws of war, as civilians were caught in the ensuing crossfire. Insurgents reportedly deployed militants and established strongholds in heavily populated neighborhoods, launched mortar rounds from residential areas, and targeted public and private individuals for assassination and violence. Although TFG forces played a secondary role to the Ethiopian troops, they were in turn alleged to have failed to efficaciously warn civilians in combat zones, impeded relief efforts, plundered property, and mistreated detainees during mass arrests. Ethiopian forces were similarly reported to have indiscriminately fired mortars, rockets and artillery shells into densely populated areas, looted property, and in some instances shot and executed civilians.61
Al-Shabaab and other radical elements of the ICU subsequently regrouped and continued their insurgency. As a truce in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government led by Sharif Sheikh Ahmed announced that it would re-implement shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.63 However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.64
In April 2009, various international donors at a UN-sponsored conference pledged over $250 million to help improve security in the country. The funds were earmarked for AMISOM and supporting Somalia's security, including the build-up of a security force of 6,000 members as well as an augmented police force of 10,000 men.65 In June 2009, the Somali military received 40 tonnes worth of arms and ammunition from the U.S. government to assist it in combating the insurgency.66
In November 2010, a new technocratic government was elected to office, which enacted numerous reforms. Among these, in its first 50 days in office, the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers, and initiated the implementation of a full biometric register for the security forces within a window of four months.67 By August 2011, the new government and its AMISOM allies had managed to capture all of Mogadishu from the Al-Shabaab militants.68
In October 2011, following a weekend preparatory meeting between Somali and Kenyan military officials in the town of Dhobley,69 a coordinated operation between the Somali Armed Forces and the Kenya Defence Forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia.7071 The mission was officially led by the Somali army, with the Kenyan forces providing a support role.71 In early June 2012, Kenyan troops were formally integrated into AMISOM.72 According to China Daily, regional analysts expected the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.73
In January 2012, Somali government forces and their AMISOM allies launched offensives on Al-Shabaab's last foothold on the northern outskirts of Mogadishu.74 The following month, Somali forces fighting alongside AMISOM seized Baidoa from the insurgent group.75 By June 2012, the allied forces had also captured El Bur,76 Afgooye,77 Afmadow,78 and Balad.79
The Federal Government of Somalia was established in August/September 2012. By November of the year, the new administration had, according to UN Special Envoy to Somalia Augustine Mahiga, managed to secure control of around 85% of the country.80
At the behest of the Somali federal government, the United Nations Security Council later unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 during its 6 March 2013 meeting to suspend the 21-year arms embargo on Somalia. The endorsement officially lifts the purchase ban on light weapons for a provisional period of one year, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles, howitzers and cannons.40
On 13 March 2013, Dahir Adan Elmi was appointed Chief of Army at a transfer ceremony in Mogadishu, where he replaced Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini. Abdirisaq Khalif Hussein was appointed as Elmi's new Deputy Chief of Army.81
In early March 2014, Somali security forces and AMISOM troops launched an intensified military operation to remove Al-Shabaab from the remaining areas in southern Somalia under its control.82 According to Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, the government subsequently launched stabilization efforts in the newly liberated areas, which included Rab Dhuure, Hudur, Wajid and Burdhubo. The Ministry of Defence was providing ongoing reassurance and security to the local residents, and supplying logistical and security support. Additionally, the Ministry of Interior was prepared to support and put into place programs to assist local administration and security. A Deputy Minister and several religious scholars were also dispatched to all four towns to coordinate and supervise the federal government's stabilization initiatives.83 By March 26, the allied forces had liberated ten towns within the month, including Qoryoley and El Buur.8485 UN Special Representative for Somalia Nicholas Kay described the military advance as the most significant and geographically extensive offensive since AU troops began operations in 2007.86
As of 1 June 1989, the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated that the Army comprised four corps and 12 division headquarters.87 At the time, the military had decreased considerably in size.88 The IISS noted that these formations 'were in name only; below establishment in units, men, and equipment. Brigades were of battalion size.'87 Other units and formations listed included four tank brigades, 45 mechanized and infantry brigades, 4 commando brigades, 1 surface-to-air missile brigade, 3 field artillery brigades, 30 field artillery battalions, and one air defence artillery battalion.
The following were the Somali National Army's major weapons in 1981:5
|Type||Description||Country of Manufacture||Inventory|
|Centurion||Main battle tank; 105mm gun||Great Britain||40|
|T-34||Medium tank; 85mm gun||Soviet Union||60|
|T-54/55||Main battle tank; 100mm quick firing gun; most transferred 1974-1976||Soviet Union||40|
|Armoured personnel carriers|
|BTR-40||9-passenger wheeled APC||Soviet Union||50|
|BTR-50||12-passenger tracked APC||Soviet Union|
|BTR-60||10-12-passenger wheeled APC||Soviet Union|
|BTR-152||12-passenger wheeled APC||Soviet Union||150|
|Fiat 6614||10-passenger wheeled APC||Italy||200|
|Fiat 6616||Armored car; 20mm gun||Italy|
|130mm||Field gun, towed||Soviet Union||80|
|122mm||Field gun, towed||Soviet Union|
|122mm||Howitzer, towed||Soviet Union|
|100mm||Anti-tank gun/field gun, towed||Soviet Union||150|
|85mm||Anti-tank gun, towed||Soviet Union|
|76mm||Divisional gun, towed||Soviet Union|
|120mm||Heavy mortar||Soviet Union||n/a|
|82mm||Medium mortar||Soviet Union||n/a|
|106mm||B-11 recoilless rifle||China||n/a|
|23mm||ZU-23-2-type, towed||Soviet Union|
|MILAN||Surface-to-surface, man-portable, anti-tank guided weapon||France/West Germany||100|
Previous arms acquisitions included the following equipment, much of which was unserviceable ca. June 1989:87 293 main battle tanks (30 Centurion from Kuwait89 123 M47 Patton, 30 T-34, 110 T-54/55 from various sources). Other armoured fighting vehicles included 10 M41 Walker Bulldog light tanks, 30 BRDM-2 and 15 Panhard AML-90 armored cars (formerly owned by Saudi Arabia). The IISS estimated in 1989 that there were 474 armoured personnel carriers, including 64 BTR-40/BTR-50/BTR-60, 100 BTR-152 wheeled armored personnel carriers, 310 Fiat 6614 and 6616s, and that BMR-600s had been reported. The IISS estimated that there were 210 towed artillery pieces (8 M-1944 100mm, 100 M-56 105mm, 84 M-1938 122mm, and 18 M198 155 mm towed howitzers). Other equipment reported by the IISS included 82mm and 120mm mortars, 100 Milan and BGM-71 TOW anti-tank guided missiles, rocket launchers, recoilless rifles, and a variety of Soviet air defence guns of 20mm, 23mm, 37mm, 40mm, 57mm, and 100mm calibre. As of 1 June 1989, the IISS also estimated that Somali army surface-to-air defense equipment included 40 SA-2 Guideline missiles (operational status uncertain), 10 SA-3 Goa, and 20 SA-7 surface-to-air missiles.87
Military exercises between the United States and the Siad Barre regime continued during the 1980s. The 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit participated in Exercise Eastern Wind in August 1987 in the area of Geesalay.90
After the start of the civil war in 1991, the Somali National Army disbanded.7 Much equipment was left in situ, deteriorating, and was sometimes discovered and photographed by intervention forces in the early 1990s.
In April 2013, former Prime Minister of Somalia Abdi Farah Shirdon signed a military agreement with the government of Djibouti. The Djiboutian Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed subsequently presented Shirdon with 15 armoured military vehicles. The delivery is Somalia's first receipt of weapons since the UN Security Council lifted the arms embargo on the nation.91
On April 9, 2013, the U.S. government likewise approved the provision of defense articles and services by the American authorities to the Somali Federal Government.92 In March 2014, Somali Armed Forces commander General Dahir Adan Elmi accepted 15 vehicles donated to the Somali military by the U.S. Department of State. The equipment is earmarked for the newly-trained Commandos at the Jaseera training center in Mogadishu. Additionally, General Elmi indicated that the arms receipt is the first part in a series of support from the U.S. authorities and Somalia's other international partners.93
In November 2009, the European Union announced its intention to train two Somali battalions (around 2,000 troops), which would complement other training missions and bring the total number of better-trained Somalian soldiers to 6,000.94 The two battalions were expected to be ready by August 2011.95 On 21 April 2011, 1,000 recruits completed training in Uganda as a part of the agreement with the EU.96
According to the International Crisis Group, powerful vested interests and corrupt commanders were as of February 2011 the largest obstacles in the way of reforming the army. Attempts to improve the military's equipment were impeded by allegations that some of those arms were sold by officers. The ICG also suggested that AMISOM's efforts at assisting in formalizing the military's structure and providing training to the estimated 8,000 SNA soldiers were problematic. Resistance reportedly continued to the establishment of an effective chain of command, logical military formations and a credible troop roster. Although General Mohamed Gelle Kahiye, the respected former army chief, attempted to instill reforms, he was marginalized and eventually dimissed.98
On 31 August 2011, as part of the EU military training program, 900 Somali soldiers graduated from the Bihanga Military Training School in the Ibanda District of Uganda.99100 150 personnel from the EU took part in the training process, which trained around 2,000 Somali troops per year.100
On 16 September 2011, President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed laid down the foundation for a new military camp for the Somali National Army (SNA) in the Jazeera District of Mogadishu. The $3.2 million construction project was funded by the EU and was expected to take six months to complete.101
In February 2012, Somali Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali and Italian Defence Minister Gianpaolo Di Paola agreed that Italy would assist the Somali military as part of the National Security and Stabilization Plan (NSSP),102 an initiative designed to strengthen and professionalize the national security forces.2 The agreement would include training soldiers and rebuilding the Somali army.102
In November 2012, enforcement of the Somalia-Turkey military pact officially began. Outlining training, technical and scientific cooperation, the treaty includes joint-service exercises between both national militaries and exchanges of delegations and personnel. It also encompasses training by the Turkish Military Medical Academy and Mapping General Command, between the gendarmerie and coast guard, as well as in-field training and education at national military installations and institutions. Additionally, the agreement includes provisions for the mutual exchange of information vis-a-vis military history, publications and museology.103
In January 2013, Somalia's reconstituted Cabinet began a formal assessment and recovery process of its assets, which include ships and planes that are believed to be held in Italy, Germany and Yemen.104
As of March 2013, the Somali National Army reportedly consists of six trained brigades, two of which are presently deployed. Each brigade comprises three to six battalions of around 1000 soldiers each, or 18,000 to 36,000 troops in total. Of these, an estimated 6,000 to 12,000 soldiers are currently in service.105
In February 2014, Somali Army Chief of Staff Brigadier General Dahir Adan Elmi signed a followup military agreement in Mogadishu with a delegation from the Turkish Ministry of Defense. The pact stipulates that the government of Turkey will soon launch a training regimen in Somalia for a portion of the Somali National Army. Some SNA soldiers will also receive training in Turkey.106
In August 2011, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia announced the creation of a new Special Force. Consisting of 300 trained soldiers, the unit was initially mandated with protecting relief shipments and distribution centers in Mogadishu. Besides helping to stabilize the city, the new protection force is also tasked with combating banditry and other vices.107
On 8 February 2014, the Federal Government concluded a six-month training course for the first Commandos (Danab) slated to operate nationally since 1991. According to Minister of Defence Mohamed Sheikh Hassan, the training regimen had been jointly carried out by Somali military experts as well as some foreign trainers. Army Chief of Staff Brigadier General Dahir Adan Elmi also indicated that the U.S. government had assisted in implementing the training course, and that the new Commandos hail from different parts of the county. The Commandos will have full military equipment and will be headquartered at the former Balli Dogle air base (Walaweyn District, Lower Shebelle).108
The National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) is the national intelligence agency of the Federal Republic of Somalia. It was officially established in January 2013 by the new Somali federal government in place of the defunct National Security Service (NSS).109110 Headquartered in Mogadishu, NISA is mandated with firming up on security.109 It is assisted in this capacity by AMISOM.110 According to the former Minister of State for the Presidency Abdulkadir Moallin Noor, the CIA also provided training to NISA officials during the latter agency's formative stages.111 Among other deployments, NISA agents have conducted security operations against Al-Shabaab elements in the capital.112
The Somali Air Force (SAF), also known as the Somali Air Corps (SAC), was originally established with Italian aid in the early 1960s. It emerged from the Italian "Corpo di Sicurezza della Somalia", which existed between 1950 and 1960, during the trusteeship period just prior to independence. The most important pieces of the SAF's original equipment were eight North American F-51D Mustangs, Douglas C-47s and MiG 23s, which remained in service until 1968. The SAF operated most of its aircraft from bases near Mogadishu, Hargeisa and Galkayo. An air defence force equipped with Soviet surface-to-air missiles and anti-aircraft guns was in existence by 1992.113
The following was the Somali Air Force's major equipment in 1981:15
|Type||Description||Country of Manufacture||Inventory|
|MiG-17 Fresco||Mach 0.9 fighter-bomber||Soviet Union||9|
|MiG-21 Fishbed||Mach 2.1 fighter-bomber with AA-2 Atoll anti-aircraft missiles||Soviet Union||3|
|Shenyang F-6||Mach 1.3 fighter-bomber||China||30|
|Il-28 Beagle||Subsonic jet light bomber||Soviet Union||3|
|SF-260W||Single-engine light attack craft||Italy||6|
|An-2||Single-engine light transport||Soviet Union||3|
|An-24/-26||Twin-turboprop transport||Soviet Union||3|
|C-47||Twin-engine transport||United States||3|
|C-45||Twin-engine light transport||United States||1|
|Mi-4||Twelve-seat transport||Soviet Union||4|
|Mi-8||Twin-engine medium transport||Soviet Union||8|
|AB-204||General utility helicopter||United States/Italy||1|
|AB-212||General utility helicopter||United States/Italy||4|
|P.148||Single-engine, two-seat primary trainer||Italy||6|
|Yak-11||Single-engine, twos-seat advanced trainer||Soviet Union||20|
|MiG-15 UTI||Two-seat advanced jet trainer||Soviet Union||4|
|SM-1019||Single-engine training, observation, and light attack aircraft||Italy||62|
|1Serviceability extremely low.
2On order or being delivered, 1981.
In February 2012, Italy agreed to assist the Somali military to revitalize the Somali Air Force.102 On October 29, 2012, 40 senior SAF and Somali National Army officers participated in the three-day Improving Understanding and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law (IHL) workshop in Djibouti. Organized by AMISOM as part of the Somali Armed Forces' National Security Stabilization Plan, the program offered a refresher course on the essentials of IHL. Officials from Somalia's Ministry of Defence also took part, with the Djibouti Chief of Defence Forces opening the workshop.2
According to CQ Press' Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations, Somalia's reconstituted air force as of 2013 is led by Maj. Gen. Nur Ilmi Adawe.1
The Somali Navy was formed after independence in 1960. Prior to 1991, it participated in several joint exercises with the United States, Great Britain and Canada. It subsequently disbanded following the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia during that year.9 In the 2000s, the central government began the process of re-establishing the Somali Navy.114
The following was the Somali Navy's major equipment in 1981:5
|Type||Description||Country of Manufacture||Inventory|
|Fast attack craft|
|Osa II-class||FAC (missile) with four SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles; transferred 1975||Soviet Union||2|
|Mol-class||FAC (torpedo) with four 21-inch tubes; transferred 1976||Soviet Union||4|
|P6-class||FAC (torpedo) with two 21-inch tubes; transferred 1968||Soviet Union||4|
|Poluchat I-class||Large patrol craft; transferred 1965-66||Soviet Union||5|
|Polnochniy-class||Landing craft (tank); transferred 1976||Soviet Union||1|
|T-4-class||Landing craft (medium); transferred 1968-69||Soviet Union||4|
In June 2009, Somali naval forces were re-established with a new commander appointed, Admiral Farah Omar Ahmed. Up to 500 marines were training in Mogadishu with their training expected to finish in December 2009. They were the first batch of an expected 5000 strong navy force.115
In 2011, a visiting Somali delegation to Turkey tabled a request for two search-and-rescue ships and six coast guard boats. Worth some 250 million euros, the gesture was intended to turn the new Somali navy into a stronger naval force capable of curbing piracy and protecting its coastline.116
Following a Transitional Federal Government-Puntland cooperative agreement in August 2011 calling for the creation of a Somali Marine Force, of which the already established Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) would form a part, the Puntland administration resumed training of PMPF naval officials.117
On June 30, 2012, UAE Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Mohammed Gargash announced that his administration would contribute $1 million toward enhancing Somalia's naval security capacity. The funds would enable the Somali authorities in collaboration with international partners to acquire the boats, equipment and communication gear necessary for the rebuilding of the coast guard. A central operations naval command was also slated to be set up in Mogadishu.118
On August 7, 2012, Prime Minister Ali announced that his government was set to re-establish the Somali Navy. Speaking to reporters in the capital, the Premier indicated that his administration wanted to create a well-trained national marine force capable of efficiently patrolling Somalia's territorial waters and putting an end to the illegal plunder of the country's resources by foreign companies and nations. He also indicated that he had asked the international community to support the Somali government's extant efforts aimed at developing its maritime defensive capacity, including the possibility of acquiring speed boats and warships to more effectively secure the country's extensive seaboard.114
According to CQ Press' Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations, Somalia's reconstituted navy as of 2013 is led by Adm. Farah Omar Ahmed Qare.1
In 1960, the British Somaliland Scouts joined with the Police Corps of Somalia to form a new Somali Police Force, which consisted of about 3,700 men. The authorities also organized approximately 1,000 of the force as the Darawishta Poliska, a mobile group used to keep peace between warring clans in the interior. Since then, the government has considered the SPF a part of the armed forces. It was not a branch of the SNA, however, and did not operate under the army's command structure. Until its dissolution in 1976, the Ministry of Interior oversaw the force's national commandant and his central command. After that date, the SPF came under the control of the presidential adviser on security affairs.
The first police academy to be built in Somalia for several years opened on 20 December 2005 at Armo, 100 kilometres south of Bosaso.119 The Somali police also has a criminal investigations department in Mogadishu.
The United Nations continued to support the activities of the Somali Police Force, including the formulation of a strategic development plan. UNPOS facilitated the procurement of equipment and furniture for 10 police stations in Mogadishu and police headquarters and provided training to 38 Somali Police Force drivers and 5 fleet managers. UNDP continued to pay police stipends to 5,388 Somali Police Force officers on duty in Mogadishu, Baidoa and Galmudug, courtesy of the Government of Japan and the European Union. A total of 4,463 Somali Police Force officers were registered in Mogadishu using the biometric registration system, completing the registration for the capital.
According to the constitution, the President of Somalia serves as the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. Following the counsel of the Cabinet, he or she has the power to appoint and dismiss the federal-level military commanders. He or she may also declare a state of emergency and war where necessary, in conformance with the law.4
|No.||Name||Took command||Left command|
|1||Abdiqasim Salad Hassan||21 October 2000121||14 October 2004122|
|2||Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed||14 October 2004123||29 December 2008122|
|3||Sharif Sheikh Ahmed||31 January 2009124||20 August 2012125|
|4||Hassan Sheikh Mohamud||16 September 2012126||Present|
|No.||Name||Took command||Left command|
|1||Mohamed Abdi Gandhi||21 February 2009127|
|2||Yusuf Mohammed Siad||9 June 2010128|
|3||Abdihakim Mohamoud Haji-Faqi||12 November 2010129||20 July 2011130|
|4||Hussein Arab Isse||20 July 2011130||4 November 2012131|
|5||Abdihakim Mohamoud Haji-Faqi||4 November 2012131||17 January 20148|
|6||Mohamed Sheikh Hassan||17 January 20148||Present|
|No.||Name||Took command||Left command|
|1||Maj.Gen Ismail Qasim Naji||14 April 2005132||10 February 200755|
|2||Maj.Gen Abdullahi Ali Omar||10 February 200755||21 July 2007133|
|3||Brig.Gen Salah Hassan Jama||21 July 2007133||11 June 2008134|
|4||Maj.Gen Said Dheere Mohamed||11 June 2008134||15 May 2009135|
|5||Maj.Gen Yusuf Osman Dhumal||15 May 2009135||10 December 2009136|
|6||Brig.Gen Mohamed Gelle Kahiye||6 December 2009136||18 September 2010137|
|7||Brig.Gen Ahmed Jimale Gedi||18 September 2010||28 March 2011|
|8||Maj.Gen Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini||28 March 2011138||13 March 2013139|
|9||Brig.Gen Dahir Adan Elmi||13 March 2013139||Present|
- Martino, John (2013). Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations 2013. CQ Press. p. 1462. ISBN 1452299374.
- "Press Release: AMISOM offers IHL training to senior officials of the Somali National Forces". AMISOM. Retrieved 20 March 2013. "In accordance with AMISOM's mandate to build the capacity of the Somalia National Army including through assisting in the implementation of the National Security Stabilization Plan (NSSP), we are gathered here today to contribute to strengthening and professionalizing of the Somali Armed Forces by introducing the essential rules of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) binding on Somalia."
- "The Federal Republic of Somalia - Provisional Constitution". Retrieved 13 March 2013. "Article 1 - The Federal Republic of Somalia: Somalia is a federal, sovereign, and democratic republic founded on inclusive representation of the people, a multiparty system and social justice."
- "The Federal Republic of Somalia - Provisional Constitution". Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Somalia: A Country Study - Army Ranks and Insignia]". Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- See discussion in Abdullah A. Mohamoud, State collapse and post-conflict development in Africa : the case of Somalia (1960-2001). West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue University Press, c2006
- Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.19.
- "SOMALIA PM Said "Cabinet will work tirelessly for the people of Somalia"". Midnimo. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Library of Congress Country Study, Somalia, The Warrior Tradition and Development of a Modern Army, research complete May 1992.
- Saheed A. Adejumobi, The History of Ethiopia, (Greenwood Press: 2006), p.178
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc, Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 1, (Encyclopaedia Britannica: 2005), p.163
- David D. Laitin and Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State (Boulder: Westview Press, 1987).
- Cambridge illustrated atlas, warfare: Renaissance to revolution, 1492-1792 By Jeremy Black pg 9
- "Puntland Forces mark 50th anniversary of Somali Armed". Garowe Online. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Encyclopaedia Britannica: 2002), p. 835
- "The dawn of the Somali nation-state in 1960". Buluugleey.com. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
- Library of Congress Country Study, Somalia, Manpower, Training, and Conditions of Service (Thomas Ofcansky), research complete May 1992.
- Library of Congress Country Studies Somalia, Problems of National Integration, Library of Congress, research completed May 1992.
- Metz, Helen C. (ed.) (1992), "Coup d'Etat", Somalia: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, retrieved 21 October 2009.
- IISS Military Balance 1976-77, p.44
- Abdullahi Yusuf Irro once commanded the 60th.
- Ahmed III, Abdul. "Brothers in Arms Part I". WardheerNews. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Lewis, I.M.; The Royal African Society (October 1989). "The Ogaden and the Fragility of Somali Segmentary Nationalism". African Affairs 88 (353). Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- Gebru Tareke, "The Ethiopia-Somalia War", p. 638.
- Urban, Mark (1983). "Soviet intervention and the Ogaden counter-offensive of 1978". The RUSI Journal 128 (2): 42–46. doi:10.1080/03071848308523524.
- Gebru Tareke, "From Lash to Red Star: The Pitfalls of Counter-Insurgency in Ethiopia, 1980-82", Journal of Modern African Studies, 40 (2002), p. 471
- Lockyer, Adam. "Opposing Foreign Intervention’s Impact on the Course of Civil Wars: The Ethiopian-Ogaden Civil War, 1976-1980". Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- IRIN Special Report on Central Somalia, 13 May 1999.
- ARR: Arab report and record, (Economic Features, ltd.: 1978), p.602.
- New People Media Centre, New people, Issues 94–105, (New People Media Centre: Comboni Missionaries, 2005).
- Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.25.
- Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M. (1996). The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy. HAAN Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 187420991X.
- "Somalia — Government". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Daniel Compagnon, 'Political decay in Somalia: From Personal Rule to Warlordism,' Refuge, Vol 12, No. 5, November–December 1992, 9, cited in Mohamoud, 2006, p.127
- 'Somalia: Military Politics,' Africa Confidential, 27, No. 22, October 26, 1986, 1-2.
- Defense Intelligence Agency, 'Military Intelligence Summary, Vol IV, Part III, Africa South of the Sahara', November 1987, 12
- Daniel Compagnon, 'Political decay in Somalia: From Personal Rule to Warlordism,' Refuge, Vol 12, No. 5, November–December 1992, 9
- Human Rights Watch
- "UN eases oldest arms embargo for Somalia". AAP. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "The Lives of 18 American Soldiers Are Not Better Than Thousands of Somali Lives They Killed, Somalia's TNG Prime Minister Col. Hassan Abshir Farah says". Somalia Watch. 2002-01-22. Retrieved 2007-01-17.
- "Background and Political Developments". AMISOM. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Wezeman, Pieter D. "Arms flows and conflict in Somalia". SIPRI. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- "Somalis Support Museveni On 'African Solution'". Somaliweyn. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 60–61.
- "Report of the Chairperson of the Commission on the outcomes of the Fact-finding/Reconnaissance Mission to Somalia and the IGAD military planning meetings". African Union. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Transitional government relocates to Jowhar, Central Somalia". UNICEF. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". Globalpolicy.org. August 14, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 67.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- "Profile: Somali's newly resigned President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed". News.xinhuanet.com. December 29, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report N°147 – December 23, 2008, 26.
- Majtenyi, Cathy (8 January 2007). "Somali President in Capital for Consultations". VOA. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Williams, Paul D. "Into the Mogadishu maelstrom: the African Union mission in Somalia." International Peacekeeping 16.4 (2009): 516.
- "Somalia’s army commander sacked as new ambassadors are appointed". Shabelle Media Network. 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- More Ugandan troops arrive in Mogadishu, Xinhua via People's Daily Online, March 8, 2007.
- "Power vacuum in Somalia as factions fight". Garowe Online. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- McGregor, Andrew (April 26, 2007). "The Leading Factions Behind the Somali Insurgency". Terrorism Monitor V (8): 1–4. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Menkhaus, Ken. "Somalia: What Went Wrong?". The Rusi Journal. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Cedric Barnes, and Harun Hassan, "The rise and fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts." Journal of Eastern African Studies 1, no. 2 (2007), 158.
- "Somalia comes full circle". ISA. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Leggiere, Phil. "Somalia: The Next Challenge - Homeland Security Today". Center for American Progress. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Shariah in Somalia – Arab News
- Online, Garowe (2011-01-12). "Somalia President, Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term". Garoweonline.com. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- Donors pledge over $250 million for Somalia
- Reuters, US gives Somalia about 40 tons of arms, ammunition
- "Security Council Meeting on Somalia". Somaliweyn.org.
- Independent Newspapers Online (2011-08-10). "Al-Shabaab ‘dug in like rats’". Iol.co.za.
- Kenya launches offensive in Somalia
- "Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission". Standardmedia.co.ke.
- Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi
- "Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe Online. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Kenya agrees to join AMISOM". China Daily. 2011-12-07.
- "Al-Shabaab Evicted from Mogadishu". Somalia Report. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "Ethiopian forces capture key Somali rebel stronghold". Reuters. 22 February 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- Ethiopian troops seize main rebel town in central Somalia
- "Somali al-Shabab militant stronghold Afgoye 'captured'". BBC. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Somalia forces capture key al-Shabab town of Afmadow". BBC. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Somali forces capture rebel stronghold". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Sethi, Aman (2 November 2012). "Call to bolster Somalia mission". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Shabelle.net, Somalia changes its top military commanders
- "Somalia: Federal Govt, AMISOM troops clash with Al Shabaab". Garowe Online. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- "SOMALIA: PM hosts meeting with International Community diplomats on stabilisation efforts". Raxanreeb. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "SOMALIA: The capture of Qoryooley is critical for the operations to liberate Barawe, Amisom head says". Raxanreeb. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- "SOMALIA: Elbur town falls for Somali Army and Amisom". Raxanreeb. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Somalia, AU troops close in on key Shebab base". AFP. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- IISS Military Balance 1989-90, Brassey's for the IISS, 1989, 113.
- History and Dvelopment of the Armed Forces
- "Arms Trade Register". SIPRI. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- United States Marine Corps, REstoring Hope in Somalia with the Unified Task Force, 63.
- "Djibouti donates armoured vehicles to Somalia". Sabahi. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "U.S. eases arms restrictions for Somalia". UPI. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "SOMALIA: U.S donates military vehicles to newly trained Somali Commandos". Raxanreeb. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- Donors pledge over $250 million for Somalia
- 1000 Somali Recruits Complete training in Uganda
- Turkey, Somalia sign military training pact
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: The Transitional Government on Life Support, Africa Report 170, 20 February 2011, p.16
- "900 newly trained Somali soldiers dispatched from Ugandan military school". Bar-Kulan. 2 September 2011.
- "Special Forces In Mogadishu". Hiiraan Online. 7 September 2011.
- "President Sharif Opens Military Camp in Capital". SomaliaReport. 16 September 2011.
- "PM meets Italian Defence minister, IFAD director and addressed Rome 3 students". Laanta. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- "Turkey-Somalia military agreement approved". Today's Zaman. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Somali government looking to recover foreign assets". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Kwayera, Juma (9 March 2013). "Hope alive in Somalia as UN partially lifts arms embargo". Standard Digital. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "SOMALIA: Ministry of Defense signs an agreement of military support with Turkish Defense ministry". Raxanreeb. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Khalif, Abdulkadir (14 August 2011). "Somalia to set up aid protection force". Africa Review. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Mohyaddin, Shafi’i (8 February 2014). "Somalia trains its first commandos after the collapse of the central government". Hiiraan Online. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Somalia Re-Opens its National Intelligence & Security Agency". Walta Info. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- "PRESS RELEASE: AU Special Representative reaffirms AMISOM's continued support to the Somali National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA)". African Union. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "CIA using secret Somalia facility, prison: report". AFP. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Somalia: Mogadishu security operation nets 27 Al Shabaab members". Garowe Online. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Somalia, A Country Study, 1992/3, 205.
- "Somalia to Make Task Marine Forces to Secure Its Coast". Shabelle Media Network. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Somalia gets new navy force after years of absence
- Somalia: Puntland President Speech at Constitutional Conference in Garowe
- "UAE committed to contribute US$1 million to support Somali naval security capabilities, says Gargash". UAE Interact. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- New Police Academy Opens in Somalia
- United Nations Security Council, Report of the Secretary-GEneral on Somalia, 31 JAnuary 2013, S/2013/69, para 28 p.6
- Rulers - October 2000 - Somalia
- Rulers - December 2008 - Somalia
- Rulers - October 2004 - Somalia
- Rulers - January 2009 - Somalia
- Rulers - August 2012 - Somalia
- Rulers - September 2012 - Somalia
- Somalia's new government dominated by former opposition members
- "Somalia's defence minister Yusuf Mohammed Siad resigns". BBC News. 2010-06-09.
- "Somali PM names new cabinet". Xinhua. November 13, 2010. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- Rulers - July 2011 - Somalia
- Rulers - November 2012 - Somalia
- "Somali cabinet fills key posts". Al-Jazeera. 2005-04-14. Retrieved 2007-01-17.
- Peaceful day for Somalia reconciliation conference
- Somalia's Interim President Appoints New Chief of Staff for the Armed Forces
- Somali president names new military chief amid insurgent push
- Somalia fires heads of police force and military
- Somali president fires top commanders
- "Salad Gabeyre Kediye Was a Brigadier General In The Somali Military And A Revolutionary". Banaadir Weyne. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Somalia changes its top military commanders". Shabelle Media Network. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Defense Intelligence Agency, 'Military Intelligence Summary, Vol IV, Part III, Africa South of the Sahara', November 1987
- International Crisis Group, Somalia: The Transitional Government on Life Support, Africa Report 170, 20 February 2011.
- Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Abuses by Transitional Federal Government Forces in 'So Much to Fear: War Crimes and Devastation in Somalia', December 2008
- Library of Congress Somalia Country Study 1992
- Abdullah A. Mohamoud, State collapse and post-conflict development in Africa : the case of Somalia (1960-2001). West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue University Press, c2006 (DT407 M697 S).
- Williams, Paul D. "Into the Mogadishu maelstrom: the African Union mission in Somalia." International Peacekeeping 16.4 (2009): 514-530.
- Brian Crozier, The Soviet Presence in Somalia, Institute for the Study of Conflict, London, 1975
- Irving Kaplan, Area Handbook for Somalia, American University, 1969 and 1977.
- Air Combat Information Group, Somalia, 1980-1996
- Somalia: Foreign Military Assistance SomaliNet
- "Weapons at War", a World Policy Institute Issue Brief by William D. Hartung, , May 1995, chapter III: Strengthening Potential Adversaries (12th paragraph), Somalia.