South India

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South India
Thumbnail map of India with South India highlighted
South India shown in red
Population 252,621,765
Area 635,780 km2 (245,480 sq mi)
Population density 397 /km2 (1,030 /sq mi)
States and territories States:
Tamil Nadu
Karnataka
Andhra Pradesh
Kerala
Territories:
Lakshadweep
Puducherry
Capital cities (2011) Of States:
Chennai
Bangalore
Hyderabad
Thiruvananthapuram
Of Territories:
Kavaratti
Pondicherry
Top 15 most populous cities (2011) 1. Chennai
2. Bengalore
3. Hyderabad
4. Coimbatore
5. Madurai
6. Visakhapatnam
7. Vijayawada
7. Hubballi
9.Mysuru
10.Tiruchirappalli
11.Salem
12.Thiruvananthapuram
13. Kochi
14. Kozhikode
15. Guntur
Official languages Andhra Pradesh:
Telugu
Urdu

Karnataka:
Kannada

Kerala:
Malayalam
English

Tamil Nadu:
Tamil
English
Lakshadweep:
Malayalam
English

Puducherry:
Tamil
French
Malayalam
Telugu
Birth rate 20.4
Mortality rate 7.7
Infant mortality rate 48.4

^* Lakshadweep and Puducherry are Union territories of India and under the direct command of the President of India

French and English are official languages of Puducherry. See also Official languages of India.
Jog Falls are the highest plunge waterfalls in India.
precinct of a temple with sculptures on either side
Sculptures inside Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple – the oldest existing temple in the city
Photo of brown cone-topped temple ruins
Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka, built successively by the kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635780 km² or 245476.030 mi²). The region is also known as Dravida as is used in the national anthem.1 South India is frequently called as the Hindu heartland of India by prominent travel guides.234

South India lies in the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad are the largest and most industrialised cities in the region. Chennai is termed as Gateway of South India, being one of the largest metropolitan cities in India.

A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the languages: Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire.

After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics,56 economic disparity, illiteracy and poverty continue to affect the region much like the rest of the country. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties.

South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.7

Etymology

Apart from the English language terms South India and Peninsular India, southern India has been known by several other historic names. Adi Shankara coined the name Dravida in the 8th century as he called himself Dravida Shishu, meaning a child from South India (see etymology of Dravida). The term Deccan, an Anglicised form of the word "Dakhhin" which is a derived from the word dakshina meaning south, refers only to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau, a volcanic plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas.8 The Carnatic is an English term derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād", meaning high country. The terms Karnād and Carnatic have long overgrown particular association with the plateau and refer to all of South India, including the coasts, the western of which is named the Carnatic coast. The name Karnātaka is derived from the same root.9

History

Vembanad, the largest lake in Kerala

Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with neolithic cultures in Southern India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; however, there does not appear to be a fully developed Bronze Age preceding the Iron Age in South India.10 South India was a crossroads of the ancient world, linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. The southern coastline from Karwar to Kodungallur near Kochi was the most important trading shore in the Indian subcontinent resulting in intermingling between locals and traders.11 The South Indian Malabar Coast and the people of the Sangam age traded with the Graeco-Roman world. They were in contact with the Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews, and Chinese.12

Traditionally the South Indian coastline along the Arabian Sea was described as a part of Sapta Konkan referring to the diverse regions along coastal southwest India.13

Buddhism was at its peak during 4th century BCE to 8th century CE in South India.

The state of Andhra Pradesh has the majority of Buddhist remnant sites (approximately 160) both documented and undocumented. Buddhism reached East Asian countries from the seaports of Andhra Desa.

There were several significant rulers and dynasties in southern Indian history. Dynasties such as Cheras, Cholas, Pallavas, Pandyas, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, Kadambas of Banavasi, Western Ganga Dynasty, Chalukya dynasty of Badami, Western Chalukyas, Eastern Chalukya, Hoysalas, Kakatiya dynasty, and Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha have ruled over South India.

The late medieval period saw the rise of Muslim power in South India. The defeat of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal by Tughlaq forces of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE heralded a new chapter in South Indian history. The struggle of the period was between the Bahmani Sultanate based in Gulbarga (and later, Bidar) and the Vijayanagara Empire with its capital in Vijayanagara in modern Hampi.

With the fall of Vijayanagara and the break-up of the Bahmani sultanate, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda and Hyderabad became the dominant power in the region. Qutb Shahi dominance continued until the middle of the 17th century, when the Mughals under Aurangzeb made determined inroads into the Deccan. Following Aurangzeb’s death, Mughal power weakened, and South Indian rulers gained autonomy from Delhi. The Wodeyar kingdom of Mysore, the Asaf Jahis of Hyderabad, and Marathas all gained power.

In the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British initiated a protracted struggle for military control of South India. Shifting alliances between the two European powers and the local powers marked the period, with mercenary armies being employed by all sides causing general anarchy. The Vellore Mutiny on 10 July 1806, was the last major act of resistance. After the British army crushed the attempt, the British consolidated power over present-day South India. This allowed them to conquer much of the Indian subcontinent, over the next 50 years. The British allowed the French to retain possession of Pondichéry. The four Anglo-Mysore wars and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars saw Mysore, Pune and Hyderabad allying themselves with the British or the French. South India during the British colonial rule was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad state, Mysore, Thiruvithamcoore (also known as Travancore), Kochi (also known as Cochin or Perumpadapu Swaroopam), Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. British residents were stationed in the capitals of the important states to supervise and report on the activities of the rulers.

The States Reorganisation Act (1956) created new states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu) by reorganising parts of British-era Madras state along linguistic lines. Additionally, the enclaves of French India, which were ceded to India in the 1950s, were constituted into the union territory of Puducherry.

Geography

Shivanasamudra Falls on the Kaveri River near Mysore.

South India is a peninsula in the shape of a vast inverted triangle, bounded on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the north by the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The Narmada flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The Satpura ranges define the northern spur of the Deccan plateau. The Western Ghats, along the western coast, mark another boundary of the plateau. The narrow strip of verdant land between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is the Konkan region. The Western Ghats continue south, forming the Malenadu (Canara) region along the Karnataka coast, and terminate at the Nilgiri mountains, an inward (easterly) extension of the Western Ghats. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadu with northern Kerala and Karnataka, encompassing the Palakkad and Wayanad hills, and the Satyamangalam ranges, and extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastern Ghats, on the western portion of the Tamil Nadu – Andhra Pradesh border. The Tirupati and Annamalai hills form part of this range. The low lying coral islands of Lakshadweep are off the south-western coast of India. Sri Lanka lies off the south-eastern coast, separated from India by the Palk Strait and the chain of low sandbars and islands known as Rama's Bridge. The Andaman and Nicobar islands lie far off the eastern coast of India, near the Tenasserim coast of Burma. The southernmost tip of mainland India is at Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin) on the Indian Ocean.

The Deccan plateau is the vast elevated region bound by the C-shape defined by all these mountain ranges. No major elevations border the plateau to the east, and it slopes gently from the Western Ghats to the eastern coast. The plateau is watered by the east flowing Godavari and Krishna rivers. The other major rivers of the Deccan plateau are the Pennar and the Tungabhadra, a major tributary of the Krishna. Vaigai and Thamirabarani River are major rivers which emerge from the southern part of the Western ghats, flow eastward and empty into the Bay of Bengal. The three major river deltas of South India, the Kaveri, the Godavari and the Krishna, are located along the Bay of Bengal. These major rivers provided irrigation to much of the land which provided food grain to Southern India. In particular the coastal detla regions traditionally constituted the rice bowls of South India.

The region has a very tropical climate with the monsoons playing a major part. The South – West Monsoon accounts for most of the rainfall in the region and much of it falls from about June to October. The south-west monsoon starts from Kerala during June and moves up towards the northern parts of India. Tamil Nadu and southeast Andhra Pradesh receive rains from the North – East Monsoon from about November to February. Much of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka has a distinct dry season from about October – May when there is not much rainfall. This region also experiences cooler nights from October to March while the days are pleasantly warm. In the northern parts of the region temperatures can fall below 10 degrees Celsius on occasions at night during this time. Days are very hot from March to June when temps can go over 40 degrees. The southern coastal region has an average minimum temperature of 20 degrees and maximum of 35 degrees.

Flora and fauna

There is a wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from its varied climates and geography. Deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats while tropical dry forests and scrub lands Deccan thorn scrub forests are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have high altitude rain forests called the South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The Malabar Coast moist forests are found on the coastal plains.14 The Western Ghats itself is a biodiversity hotspot.15

Some of India's famous protected areas are found in South India. These include Project Tiger reserves Periyar National Park, Kalakad – Mundanthurai and Nagarjunsagar Wildlife Sanctuary. Important ecological regions of South India are the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, located at the conjunction of the borders of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the Nilgiri Hills including Mudumalai National Park, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park Silent Valley National Park, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Nugu Wildlife Sanctuary and the Anamalai Hills including the Eravikulam National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary and the adjacentThe Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park of the Western Ghats. Important bird sanctuaries including Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary, Neelapattu Sanctuary and Pulicat Sanctuary are home to numerous migratory and local birds.

Other protected ecological sites include the backwaters like the Pulicat Lake in Andhra Pradesh, Pitchavarum in Tamil Nadu and the famed backwaters of Kerala formed by the Vembanad Lake, the Ashtamudi Lake and the Kayamkulam Lake.

Banana, Musaparadisiaca and Moringa oleifera are found extensively in Lakshadweep while coconut plantations provide economic support to the islands. Lashadweep has been declared a bird sanctuary by the Wildlife Institute of India.16 Crabs, chiefly hermit crabs, parrot fish and butterfly fish are also found on the islands.citation needed

Subdivisions

The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important sancturies in India.
Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh

South India consists of the four southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the Lakshadweep archipelago. Together with Puducherry, each South Indian state has an elected state government, while the Lakshadweep islands are centrally administered by the President of India. The modern states of South India were created as a result of the States Reorganisation Actcitation needed (1956), which established states and union territories based on linguistic boundaries. As a result of this act:

Each subregion is further divided into districts; the region of South India has over 100 districts. Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India, while the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the states ruling party or coalition (the role of the Governor is largely ceremonial).

Demographics

 
 
 
 
Proto-Dravidian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-South-Dravidian
 
Proto-South-Central Dravidian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Tamil-Kannada
 
 
 
Proto-Telugu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Tamil-Toda
 
Proto-Kannada
 
Proto-Telugu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Tamil-Kodagu
 
Kannada
 
Telugu
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Tamil-Malayalam
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Tamil
 
Malayalam
 
 
 
 
 
Tamil
This tree diagram depicts the genealogy of the primary Dravidian languages spoken
in South India.

The estimated population of South India is 252 million: which is around one fifth of the total population of India, as per the 2011 census of India. South India has made significant progress in demographic indicators, when compared to the rest of India. For instance, of the three demographic related targets of the Millennium Development Goals, which are expected to be achieved by 2015: Kerala and Tamilnadu had already achieved the goals, related to improvement of maternal health and of reducing infant mortality and child mortality, by 2009. The Total fertility rate, was less than the replacement level of 2.1 for all the states in the South India, by 2009. Kerala and Tamilnadu had the lowest TFRs for India, of 1.7.17 As a result population of South India as a percentage of India, is reducing. Also in absolute numbers, the population numbers of South India, are stabilising, and perhaps shrinking over the long term.

The largest linguistic groups in South India include the Telugus, Tamils, Kannadigas, and Malayalis. About 80% of South Indians follow Hinduism. Islam has the second-highest number of followers in the region, with 11%, while 8% follow Christianity. Kerala has the highest number of Christians, of all the states in the Indian Union. As per the 2001 census, Kerala had 6,057,427 Christians:18 which constituted around one fourth of all Christians in India, which was estimated to be 24,080,016.19 Kerala is particularly noted for St. Thomas Christians.citation needed

Population Pyramid in South India (2011 & 2051 forecasted)20
Vaishnava temple of 1268 CE (Hoysala architecture) at Somanathapura in Karnataka

The average literacy rate of South India is approximately 73%, considerably higher than the Indian national average of 60%.21 Kerala leads the nation with a literacy rate of 93.91%. The sex ratio in South India is fairly equable at 997; Kerala is the only state in India with a favourable sex ratio of 1,083 women per 1000 men.22 The population density of the region is approximately 463. Scheduled Castes and Tribes form 18% of the population of the region. Agriculture is the major employer in the region – 47.5% of the population is involved in agrarian activities. About 60% of the population lives in permanent housing structures. 67.8% of South India has access to tap water. Wells and springs are other major forms of water supply.

Sangameshwar Temple at Alampur, Andhra Pradesh

The languages of South India are the Dravidian represented by Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam, besides Gondi and other minor dialects, and the Austro-Asiatic by the Munda languages.23 South India's predominant language family is Dravidian, a family of approximately seventy-three languages24 spoken in South Asia.25 The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 divided states in India along linguistic lines and led to the creation of separate states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in areas where Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil respectively were dominant.

Tamil (2004), Telugu (2008), Kannada (2008) and Malayalam (2013), the four major Dravidian languages, were granted classical language status by the government. In the 2001 Census, Telugu had the third largest base of native speakers in India (74 million), after Hindi and Bengali.26Tamil had the fourth largest base of native speakers in India (66 million). Kannada has about 44 million native speakers,26 while Malayalam which has 33 million native speakers was accorded the status of classical language in 2013.2728 Each of these languages is listed as an official language of India, per the Official Languages Act (1963).

Urdu is spoken by over half of the 25 million Muslims in southern India.2829 South Indian Muslims in some regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka speak a dialect of Urdu called Dakhni, while some in the Dakshina Kannada region of Karnataka and regions in Kerala speak Beary bashe.30 Both Dakhni and Beary bashe are influenced by other South Indian languages.28 Tulu, a Dravidian language prevalent in coastal Kerala and Karnataka, is spoken by about 1.5 million people in the region, while Konkani, an Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by over half a million people in the region. English is also widely spoken in urban areas of South India.31

Economy

India's economy after independence in 1947 conformed to a socialist framework, with strict governmental control over private sector participation, foreign trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). Through 1960–1990, South Indian economies experienced mixed economic growth. In the 1960s, Kerala achieved above average economic growth, while Andhra Pradesh's economy declined during this period. Similarly, Kerala experienced economic decline in the 1970s while the economies of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka consistently exceeded national average growth rates after 1970. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were noted by some to be more reform-oriented in terms of economic policy when compared to other Indian states.32 Over the last decade South India has grown at 8% annually. Future economic growth will be shackled by relatively low proportion of active age population to the number of dependents. Over 48% of South India's population is engaged in agriculture, which is largely dependent on seasonal monsoons22 Some of the main crops cultivated in South India include paddy, sorghum, pearl millet, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, chilli, and ragi. Areca, coffee, tea, vanilla, rubber, pepper, tapioca, and cardamom are cultivated on the hills, while coconut grows in abundance in coastal areas. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of rice in India,33 while Karnataka produces 70% of India's coffee. Frequent droughts in northern Karnataka, Rayalaseema and Telangana have left farmers debt-ridden, forcing them to sell their livestock and sometimes even to commit suicide.34 The region also suffers from water scarcity, especially during summer. Since the liberalisation of the Indian economy, South India has seen a decrease in revenue from agriculture and agriculture related services.citation needed

Traditionally, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have been home to large, public sector industries (referred to as Public Sector Undertakings, or PSUs), with both states posting above average growth rates in this sector following economic liberalisation. Bangalore and Chennai, the IT hubs of India are home to software giants. Bangalore, also known as the Silicon Valley of India, hosts majority of the IT companies of the world.citation needed Chennai, the Detroit of South Asia, accounts for about 35% of India's overall automotive components35 while the registered headquarters of 39% of all Central PSUs in South India are located in Karnataka and 25% each in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.citation needed Additionally, the growth of information technology (IT) hubs in the region have spurred economic growth and attracted foreign investments and job seekers from other parts of the country. Bangalore and Chennai, the IT hubs of India are home to software giants. In fiscal 2006–2007, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka attracted the third and fourth highest total FDI approvals in India, respectively, totalling to over INR417 billion (US$7.0 billion)36 Software exports from South India grossed over INR640 billion (US$11 billion) in fiscal 2005–06.37

Economic and demographic indicators38
Parameter South India National
Per capita net state domestic product (SDP) INR27027.75 (US$450) INR23222 (US$390)
Percentage share in total FDI approved (1993–2003) 5.48 NA
Average annual growth of SDP 5.6 5.6
Percentage of population below poverty line 17.41 26.10
Percentage of urban population 32.82 27.81
Percentage of households with electricity 89.32 67.9
Literacy rate 72.87 62.839

Politics

Politics in South India is dominated by a mix of regional parties and larger national political parties like the Indian National Congress (INC), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). With the exclusion of Karnataka, each state has at least two parties dominating politics in that state.citation needed.

The Politics of Karnataka is dominated by three major political parties, the Indian National Congress, the Janata Dal (Secular) and the Bharatiya Janata Party. The Indian National Congress is in power in the state since May 2013. Sidharamayya of INC is the current chief minister. The Janata Dal has been far more successful in Karnataka than it has been in national politics. National political parties such as the BJP and INC have experienced more comparative success in Karnataka than they have in other states of South India. Karnataka's political environment is dominated by two rival caste groups – the Vokkaligas and the Lingayats.40 Karnataka consists of 28 parliamentary constituencies from which 28 members of parliament get elected to the Lok Sabha. Several politicians and bureaucrats from Karnataka have served at the center at various times in different capacities. Deve Gowda, who hails from Hassan served as the Prime minister of India in 1996. C.K. Jaffer Sharief from Bangalore is a veteran Congressman and 9-time MP and former Minister of Railways of Government of India.B. D. Jatti from Bijapur served as the Vice President and also as acting President in the past. S. Nijalingappa was Congress I president.

Pre-independence politics in the Madras Presidency was dominated by the Justice Party and the Indian National Congress. The Justice party was formed in 1917 to represent the interest of non-Brahmins: petitioning the imperial administrative bodies and British politicians for more representation for non-Brahmins in administration and in the government. When the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms started allowing elected representatives to take part in governance, the Justice party took part and won its first direct elections in 1920. During the pre war period, up to 1937, the Justice Party was in power for thirteen out of the seventeen years. It was the main political alternative to the nationalist Indian National Congress in the Madras presidency, up to the beginning of the Second World War. The Indian National Congress swept to power in the Madras Presidency legislative assembly election, 1937, under the leadership of C.Rajagopalachari. Periyar Ramasami who started the Dravidian movement was elected leader of the Justice Party in 1938. In 1944, Periyar who had started the Self-Respect Movement transformed the party into a social organisation, renaming the party Dravidar Kazhagam:and withdrew from electoral politics. The initial aim was the secession of Dravida Nadu from the rest of India on independence.41 Following independence from British rule in 1947, Periyar strongly believed that the party should not participate in elections in the newly created Indian republic, something his closest followers disagreed with. In 1948, C. N. Annadurai, a follower of Periyar and a Joint Secretary of Dravidar Kazhagam parted ways with Periyar to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam political party.41 The Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu led to the rise of the DMK, which formed its first government in 1967- inaugurating the "Dravidian era" of Tamil Nadu politics. Dravidian parties have been ruling the state since these elections. In 1972 a split in the DMK resulted in the formation of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), led by M. G. Ramachandran. Dravidian parties continue to dominate Tamil Nadu electoral politics - with the national parties, usually aligned as junior partners to the major dravidian parties, AIADMK and DMK.42 These "Dravidian politics" incorporates elements of Tamil Nationalism and seem to have has struck root only in Tamil Nadu.43

Tamil Nadu has also contributed to a number of Indian Presidents. The list would include C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor General of India, post independence of 1947: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first Indian Vice President and President during a tumultuous period of 1962 to 1967, which saw three prime ministers, two wars and the anti Hindi agitation in Tamil Nadu: R. Venkataraman, who had the unique distinction of working with four prime ministers, during his term from 1987 to 1992, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, the first Indian scientist to be elected as a President. Prominent politicians from Tamil Nadu who have influenced national politics include K. Kamaraj, who was credited to being a "king maker" who ensured the selection of Prime Ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi: and Chidambaram Subramaniam, who is credited with the political leadership of the Green Revolution : which lead to self-sufficiency in food production in India, during the decades of the 1960s/1970s.

Former Telugu actor Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (NTR) broke the dominance of the INC in Andhra Pradesh politics. NTR successfully challenged the INC's supremacy in the state and his party was voted into power a total of four times. In 1996, a year after winning the state assembly election by a landslide, a dispute between NTR, his wife Lakshmi Parvati and his immediate family resulted in a split in the TDP. Concerned over undue influence over NTR and his policies, the bulk of the party favoured the family under the leadership of NTR's son-in-law, N Chandrababu Naidu, who later became Chief Minister of the state. At present, INC and TDP are the major political contenders in the state.

Prominent leaders from Andhra Pradesh who left their mark on Indian national politics would include V. V. Giri, the first president to be voted as a "dissident candidate" in 1969: and his opponent Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, the only President to be elected unopposed in 1977.P. V. Narasimha Rao, the Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996, is credited with introducing the current policies of economic liberalisation in India44

Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF, led by the Indian National Congress) and the Left Democratic Front (LDF, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist)). Kerala numbers among India's most left-wing states. An interesting phenomenon of Kerala politics is the alternate election of Congress and the Communists to power.

E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the first elected chief minister of Kerala, in 1957, is sometimes credited as being the leader of the first democratically elected communist government in the world. He is credited with building the Communist Party of India (Marxist) into a major political force. K. R. Narayanan was the first Malayali and the first Dalit to be elected to the post of President in 1997.

Palani Murugan Temple,Palani, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu.
Yakshagana of Karnataka state, a form of song and dance theater
a Kuchipudi dancer performing on stage
A Bharatanatyam dancer.

Culture and heritage

Annamalaiyar Temple (Pancha Bhoota Stalas and, specifically, the element of fire or Agni), Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu India.
Tirumala Temple and Vaikuntam Queue Complex (main Srinivasa temple in India)(semicircular building in the foreground) as seen from Srivari Padalu on Narayanagiri hill, Tirupathi, Andhra pradesh
A Telugu Woman wearing Sari and Vaddanam
The Mahamagam Festival is a holy festival celebrated once in twelve years in Tamil Nadu. Mahamagam Festival, which is held at Kumbakonam. This festival is also called Kumbamela of South.4546
Nasranis or Syrian Christians of Kerala in ancient days (from an old painting). Photo published in the Cochin Government Royal War Efforts Souvenir in 1938
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, a famous temple in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.
The Golden temple of Mahalakshmi, Vellore

According to some experts, the weltanschauung of South Indians is essentially the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body, and motherhood, which is exemplified through their dance, clothing, and sculptures.474849505152 South Indian women traditionally wear the Saree while the men wear either a white pancha or a colourful lungi with typical batik patterns.

Rice is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South Indian meals. Coconut is an important ingredient in Kerala whereas Andhra Pradesh cuisine is characterised by pickles and spicy curries. Hyderabadi cuisine a legacy of the past, is popular for its Biryani. Dosa, Idli, Uttapam are popular throughout the region. There are large coffee estates in southern Karnataka and parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

The traditional music of South India is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tyagayya, Annamacharya, Bhakta Ramadasu, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri, Kshetrayya, Subbaraya Shastri, Mysore Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal. The contemporary singer Dr. K. J. Yesudas is a cultural ambassador of Carnatic music.Thiruvarur Bakthavathsalam is a cultural ambassador of carnatic instrumentals. The motion picture industry has emerged as an important platform in South India, over the years portraying the cultural changes, trends, aspirations and developments experienced by its people. Some movie classics like Nammukku paarkkaan munthiri thoppukal (1986) by Padmarajan, Adi Shankara (1984) by director G V Iyer, and Perumthachan (1990) by Ajayan have gained worldwide acclaim. When it comes to cinema, due to the difference in languages compared to northern India, Bollywood does not have much of an audience in the region. Rather films in the language native to each state are dominant, this includes Tamil cinema, Telugu cinema, Kannada cinema and Malayalam cinema. South India is home to several distinct dance forms – the Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, Vilasini Natyam, Kathakali, Yakshagana, Theyyam, Ottamthullal, Margamkali, Oppana, Kerala Natanam and Mohiniaattam.

The earliest epigraphic record of the Telugu language dates to the late 6th century CE. However, there have been proposals of traces of Telugu recorded before that date. Some Telugu words appear in the Maharashtri Prakrit anthology of poems (the Gatha Saptashati) collected by the 1st century BCE Satavahana King Hāla.citation needed

South India has an independent literary tradition going back over 2500 years. The first known literature of South India are the poetic Sangams, which were written in Tamil between 2500 to 2100 years ago. These include the oldest South Indian epics of Silappatikaram and Manimekalai written in Tamil. Tamil Buddhist commentators of the tenth century CE Nemrinatham make references to Kannada literature of the fourth century CE. Distinct Malayalam and Telugu literary traditions developed in the following centuries.

South India has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the pure dravida (Tamil) style of Tamil Nadu and the Vesara style (also called Karnata dravida style) present in Karnataka. The inspirational temple sculptures of Srirangam, Chidambaram, Kanchipuram, Mahabalipuram, Thiruvannamalai, Tanjore, Madurai, Rameswaram, Sri Kalahasti, Tirupati, Hampi, Badami, Bhattiprolu, Simhachalam, Pattadakal, Aihole, Belur, Halebidu, Lakkundi, Shravanabelagola, and the mural paintings of Travancore and Lepakshi temples, also stand as a testament to South Indian culture. The paintings of Raja Ravi Varma are considered classic renditions of many a scenes of South Indian life and mythology. The temple at Srirangam is the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world, while Rameswaram is considered as one of the holiest temple in India.

The main spiritual traditions of South India include both Shaivite and Vaishnavite branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist and Jain philosophies had been influential several centuries earlier. Shravanabelagola in Karnataka is a popular pilgrimage center for Jains. Ayyavazhi is spread significantly across the southern parts of South India.53 Its followers are more densely populated in South Tamil Nadu54 and Kerala.55

There is a large Muslim community in South India, particularly in the Malabar Coast, which can trace its roots to the ancient maritime trade between Kerala and Omanis and other Arabs. The Muslims in Kerala of Arab descent are called Jonaka Mappila.

Christianity has flourished in coastal South India from the times of St. Thomas the Apostle who came to Kerala in 52 and established the Syrian Christian tradition today called as Saint Thomas Christians or Nasrani Mappila.565758596061626364 Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world. They are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the time of King Solomon.62656667 The Jews from Kerala are called Yuda Mappila or Cochin Jews. The oldest surviving Jewish synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations is the Paradesi Synagogue in Kochi, Kerala. The cities of South India are home to the Anglo-Indian community, the Eurasian descendants of the Europeans – Portuguese, Dutch, British, Danish and French – who had acquired territory in peninsular India.68

See also

Notes

  1. ^ John McLeod (2002). A History of India. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31459-4. ISSN 1096-2905. 
  2. ^ Amy Karafin, Anirban Mahapatra. South India. Lonely Planet. 
  3. ^ Kang San Tan, Jonathan Ingleby, Simon Cozens (2011). Understanding Asian Mission Movements. Wide Margin. p. 112. 
  4. ^ Pippa de Bruyn, Keith Bain, David Allardice, Shonar Joshi (2010). Frommer's India. John Wiley & Sons. p. 313. 
  5. ^ The Better Half. Outlook India. 16 July 2007
  6. ^ Also A Head for Numbers. Outlook India. 16 July 2007
  7. ^ National Family Health Survey
  8. ^ "Dictionary definitions of 'Deccan' from Answers.com". Retrieved 15 September 2006. 
  9. ^ "Origins of the word 'Carnatic' in the Hobson Jobson Dictionary.". Retrieved 15 September 2006. 
  10. ^ Agarwal, D.P. "Urban Origins in India", 2006. Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University
  11. ^ T. K. Velu Pillai, 1940; Wilfred Schoff 1912 "Periplus Maris Erythraei" (trans) 1912, Menachery, G 1998; James Hough 1893; K.V. Krishna Iyer 1971
  12. ^ (Bjorn Landstrom, 1964; Miller, J. Innes. 1969; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; & Koder S. 1973; Leslie Brown, 1956
  13. ^ Studies in Skanda Purāṇa, by Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, published 1996 Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1260-3
  14. ^ "Indo-Malayan Terrestrial Ecoregions". Retrieved 15 April 2006. 
  15. ^ "Biodiversity Hotspot – Western Ghats & Sri Lanka, Conservation International". Retrieved 15 April 2006. 
  16. ^ List of Proposed Wildlife Sanctuaries in India. Wildlife Institute of India.
  17. ^ "Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates". India: Office of Registrar General. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  18. ^ [1] –Government of India
  19. ^ 2001 census data –Government of India
  20. ^ Structural Transformation in South India http://www.clytics.com/wp-0005.html
  21. ^ "CIA factbook". Retrieved 11 April 2006. 
  22. ^ a b "Census India Maps". Retrieved 11 April 2006. 
  23. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri., "A History of South India"7th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  24. ^ Language Family Trees – Dravidian. Ethnologue.
  25. ^ Robert Caldwell., "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages" 3rd ed. rev. and edited by J.L. Wyatt, T. Ramakrishna Pillai. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN 81-206-0117-3
  26. ^ a b Press Information Bureau English Releases
  27. ^ Classical status for Malayalam - The Hindu
  28. ^ a b c "Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues −2001".Office of the Registrar General. Government of India
  29. ^ "Socio-cultural aspects", Office of the Registrar General, Government of India
  30. ^ Upadhyaya, U. Padmanabha. Coastal Karnataka: Studies in Folkloristic and Linguistic Traditions of Dakshina Kannada Region of the Western Coast of India. Udupi: Rashtrakavi Govind Pai Samshodhana Kendra, 1996. P- ix, ISBN 81-86668-06-3, First All India Conference of Dravidian Linguistics, Thiruvananthapuram, 1973
  31. ^ "Language in India". 
  32. ^ "PATTERNS AND DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN INDIAN STATES", Indian Council For Research on International Economic Relations. September 2004
  33. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Online". Retrieved 10 April 2006. 
  34. ^ Farooq, Omer (3 June 2004). "BBC". BBC News. Retrieved 10 April 2006. 
  35. ^ "Madras, the Detroit of South Asia". rediff.com. 25 October 2000
  36. ^ "Foreign Direct Investment". Government of India.
  37. ^ "BusinessLine article on Tamil Nadu Software Exports". Retrieved 5 October 2006. 
  38. ^ Also A Head For Numbers. Outlook India. 16 July 2007
  39. ^ India. World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 20 March 2008
  40. ^ Price, Pamela. "Ideological Elements in Political Instability in Karnataka...". University of Oslo
  41. ^ a b "Periyar Movement- Periyar.org". Retrieved 19 April 2006. 
  42. ^ Wyatt, AKJ (September–October 2002). "New Alignments in South Indian Politics: The 2001 Assembly Elections in Tamil Nadu". Asian Survey (University of California Press) 42 (5): 733–753. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.5.733. Retrieved 19 February 2008. 
  43. ^ Hasan, Zoya (2 February 2003). "The democratisation of politics". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 April 2008. 
  44. ^ SA Aiyar (26 June 2011). "Unsung hero of the India story". Times of India. "Twenty years ago, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister and initiated economic reforms that transformed India." 
  45. ^ "http://blessingsonthenet.com/". 
  46. ^ Fairs and Festivals of India. p. 326. 
  47. ^ Beck, Brenda. 1976. "The Symbolic Merger of Body, Space, and Cosmos in Hindu Tamil Nadu." Contributions to Indian Sociology 10(2): 213-43.
  48. ^ Bharata (1967). The Natyashastra [Dramaturgy], 2 vols., 2nd. ed. Trans. by Manomohan Ghosh. Calcutta: Manisha Granthalaya.
  49. ^ Boulanger, Chantal; (1997) Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping, Shakti Press International, New York. ISBN 0-9661496-1-0
  50. ^ Dehejia, Vidya, Richard H. Davis, R. Nagaswamy, Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2002) The Sensuous and the Sacred: Chola Bronzes from South India. ISBN 0-295-98284-5
  51. ^ Kallarasa Virachita Janavasya Ed: G.G. Manjunathan. Kannada Adhyayana Samsthe, University of Mysore, Mysore 1974
  52. ^ Wadley, Susan, ed. 1980. The Powers of Tamil Women. Syracuse: Syracuse U. Press.
  53. ^ Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, 2000, Page 100, "At present thousands of Pathis (Nizhal Thangals) are seen throughout South India."
  54. ^ Dina Thanthi (Tamil Daily), Nagercoil Edition, 4 March 2007, Page 23: "The Ayyavazhi followers are highly populated in the districts of Chennai, Virudunagar, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari."
  55. ^ Tha. Krishna Nathan's, Ayyaa vaikundarin vaazvum sinthanaiyum (Tamil), (Thesis in Madurai Kamaraj University), Thinai Veliyeettagam, Chapter – 4, page 83.
  56. ^ Menachery G (1973) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, B.N.K. Press, vol. 2, ISBN 81-87132-06-X, Lib. Cong. Cat. Card. No. 73-905568; B.N.K. Press – (has some 70 lengthy articles by experts on the origins, development, history, culture of these Christians, with some 300 plus photographs).
  57. ^ Menachery G (ed) (1982) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, B.N.K. Press, vol. 1;
  58. ^ Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol. I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. ISBN 81-87133-05-8.
  59. ^ Mundadan, A. Mathias. (1984) History of Christianity in India, vol.1, Bangalore, India: Church History Association of India.
  60. ^ Podipara, Placid J. (1970) "The Thomas Christians". London: Darton, Longman and Tidd, 1970. (a readable and exhaustive study of the St. Thomas Christians).
  61. ^ Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
  62. ^ a b Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur.
  63. ^ Koder S. 'History of the Jews of Kerala".The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. G. Menachery,1973.
  64. ^ T.K Velu Pillai, (1940) "The Travancore State Manual"; 4 volumes; Trivandrum)
  65. ^ Koder, S. "History of the Jews of Kerala". The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, ed. G. Menachery, 1973.
  66. ^ Lord, James Henry. (1977) The Jews in India and the Far East. 120 pp.; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN 0-8371-2615-0
  67. ^ Katz, Nathan; & Goldberg, Ellen S; (1993) The Last Jews of Cochin: Jewish Identity in Hindu India. Foreword by Daniel J. Elazar, Columbia, SC, Univ. of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-847-6
  68. ^ Edgar Thurston, Eurasians of Madras and Malabar,p.71

References and bibliography

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  • Craddock, Norma. 1994. Anthills, Split Mothers, and Sacrifice: Conceptions of Female Power in the Mariyamman Tradition. Dissertation, U. of California, Berkeley.
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  • Mundalan, A. Mathias. (1984) History of Christianity in India, vol.1, Bangalore, India: Church History Association of India.
  • Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
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  • David de Beth Hillel (1832) "travels"; madras publication;
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  • Koder S. 'History of the Jews of Kerala". The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. G. Menachery,1973.
  • Vellian Jacob (2001) Knanite community: History and culture; Syrian church series; vol. XVII; Jyothi Book House, Kottayam
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