South Kensington tube station

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South Kensington
London Underground
Station entrance with portico and ornamental ironwork signage above stating "Metropolitan and District Railways", "South Kensington station".
Entrance to Pelham Street
South Kensington is located in Central London
South Kensington
South Kensington

Location of South Kensington in Central London
Location South Kensington
Local authority Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
Managed by London Underground
Number of platforms 4
Fare zone 1

London Underground annual entry and exit
2009 Decrease 28.243 million1
2010 Increase 29.780 million2
2011 Increase 30.610 million3
2012 Increase 32.500 million3

1868 Opened (MR)
1868 Started (MDR)
1872 Started "Outer Circle" (NLR)
1872 Started "Middle Circle" (H&CR/MDR)
1900 Ended "Middle Circle"
1906 Opened (GNP&BR)
1908 Ended "Outer Circle"
1949 Started (Circle line)

Lists of stations
Portal icon London Transport portalCoordinates: 51°29′39″N 0°10′26″W / 51.4941°N 0.1738°W / 51.4941; -0.1738

South Kensington is a London Underground station in Kensington, west London. It is served by the District, Circle and Piccadilly lines. On the District and Circle lines, the station is between Gloucester Road and Sloane Square, and on the Piccadilly Line, it is between Gloucester Road and Knightsbridge. It is in Travelcard Zone 1. The main station entrance is located at the junction of Old Brompton Road (A3218), Thurloe Place, Harrington Road, Onslow Place and Pelham Street. Subsidiary entrances are located in Exhibition Road giving access by pedestrian tunnel to the Natural History, Science and Victoria and Albert Museums. Also close by are the Royal Albert Hall, Imperial College London, the Royal College of Music, the London branch of the Goethe-Institut and the Ismaili Centre.

The station is in two parts: sub-surface platforms opened in 1868 by the Metropolitan Railway and the Metropolitan District Railway as part of the companies' extension of the Inner Circle route eastwards from Gloucester Road to Westminster and deep level platforms opened in 1906 by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway. A variety of underground and mainline services have operated over the sub-surface tracks, which have been modified several times to suit operational demands with the current arrangement being achieved in the 1960s. The deep-level platforms have remained largely unaltered, although the installation of escalators in the 1970s to replace lifts improved interchanges between the two parts of the station. Parts of the sub-surface station and the Exhibition Road pedestrian tunnel are Grade II listed.

History

Sub-surface station

The station was opened on 24 December 1868 by the Metropolitan Railway (MR, later the Metropolitan line) and the Metropolitan District Railway (MDR, later the District line). The MR had previously opened an extension from Praed Street (now Paddington) to Gloucester Road on 1 October 1868 and opened tracks to South Kensington to connect to the MDR when the MDR opened the first section of its line to Westminster.4 The original South Kensington station, designed by the MR's engineer John Fowler,5 had two platforms although it was intended that this would be supplemented as MDR services extended.6

View along station platform with timber and glass canopy over supported on cast-iron columns. To the left a disused platform without track is visible
Platform 2 eastbound District and Circle Line with disused platform visible on left
Diagram of original and current layout of platforms of sub-surface station showing changes in platform usage and numbering and change in location of tracks
Original and current layout of platforms

On 1 August 1870, the MDR opened additional tracks between Gloucester Road and South Kensington. On 10 July 1871, the MDR opened its own facilities at South Kensington.4 The enlarged station had two through platforms for each company and a bay platform for terminating MR trains from the west. The junction between the two companies' tracks was also moved from the west side of the station to the east side.7

On 1 February 1872, the MDR opened a northbound branch from its station at Earl's Court to connect to the West London Extension Joint Railway (WLEJR, now the West London Line) at Addison Road (now Kensington (Olympia)).4 From that date the Outer Circle service began running over the MDR's tracks. The service was run by the North London Railway (NLR) from its terminus at Broad Street (now demolished) in the City of London via the North London Line to Willesden Junction, then the West London Line to Addison Road and the MDR to Mansion House – at that time the eastern terminus of the MDR.8

From 1 August 1872, the Middle Circle service also began operations through South Kensington, running from Moorgate along the MR's tracks on the north side of the Inner Circle to Paddington, then over the Hammersmith & City Railway (H&CR) track to Latimer Road, then, via a now demolished link, on the WLEJR to Addison Road and the MDR to Mansion House. The service was operated jointly by the H&CR and the MDR.8

On 4 May 1885, the MDR opened a pedestrian subway running from the station beneath the length of Exhibition Road, giving sheltered access to the newly built museums for a toll of 1 penny. Although it had cost £42,614 to construct (approximately £3.9 million today),9 it was closed on 10 November 1886 and afterwards was opened only occasionally for special museum events. In 1890, the South Kensington and Paddington Subway (SK&PS), a proposed cut-and-cover railway planned to run from South Kensington to Paddington station, offered to purchase the under-used pedestrian subway for use as the first section of its tunnel. At 18 feet (5.5 m) wide and 11 feet (3.4 m) high the subway could have accommodated two tracks without difficulty, but the SK&PS's controversial plan to excavate a trench across Hyde Park was opposed and the railway withdrew its private bill from Parliament in March 1891.10 The MDR continued to open the subway intermittently and charged a toll until 1908, when it was opened permanently for free.11 On 30 June 1900, the Middle Circle service was withdrawn between Earl's Court and Mansion House,12 and, on 31 December 1908, the Outer Circle service was also shortened to terminate at Earl's Court.13 In 1907, the current arcaded station entrance was opened to a design by George Sherrin.14

In 1949, the Metropolitan line-operated Inner Circle route was given its own identity on the tube map as the Circle line.4 In June 1957, the reversing bay track was taken out of use and the track bed was later filled to connect the two island platforms.15 The eastbound MR platform (Number 1) and westbound MDR platform (Number 4) were taken out of use in January 1966 and March 1969 respectively.16 The tracks for these platforms were also removed and platform 4 was subsequently demolished in the early 1970s to allow escalators to be provided to the Piccadilly line.16 The widened island platform is now served by the District and Circle Lines in both directions. Following the closure of platforms 1 and 4, platform 3 was renumbered as 1. The current arrangement has trains running in opposite directions to the original layout. During service disruption or engineering works, trains can also run Eastbound from Platform 1. The arcaded station entrance and shops, the brick retaining walls to the sub-surface platforms and the Exhibition Road pedestrian tunnel are Grade II listed structures.1718

Deep-level station

A two-storey red-glazed building with a single rectangular window on the lower floor and three large semi-circular windows on the upper floor flanked by two small circular windows. A white band between the floor levels displays "South Kensington station".
Former Piccadilly line South Kensington station building

By the beginning of the 20th century, the MDR had been extended to Richmond, Ealing Broadway, Hounslow West and Wimbledon in the west and to New Cross Gate in the east. The southern section of the Inner Circle was suffering considerable congestion between South Kensington and Mansion House, between which stations the MDR was running an average of 20 trains per hour with more in the peak periods.19

To relieve the congestion, the MDR planned an express deep-level tube line starting from a connection to its sub-surface tracks west of Gloucester Road and running to Mansion House. The tunnels were planned to run about 60 to 70 feet (18–21 m) beneath the existing sub-surface route with only one intermediate stop at Charing Cross (now Embankment). Parliamentary approval was obtained in 1897 but no work was done.2021 In 1898, the MDR took over the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR) which had a route planned from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus. The route was modified to join the MDR deep-level route at South Kensington.22

Following the purchase of the MDR by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London in 1902, the planned MDR and B&PCR lines were merged with a third proposed route from the Great Northern and Strand Railway. The MDR deep-level route was revised at its western end to continue to Earl's Court and surface to the east of Barons Court.23

The deep-level platforms were opened on 15 December 1906 by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR, now the Piccadilly line) which ran between Finsbury Park and Hammersmith.4 The platforms are placed eastbound above westbound and were originally served by lifts from street level stopping at both platform levels. Eastbound GNP&BR trains and MDR trains would have shared the same platform with the two routes separating at a junction immediately to the east of the station. Westbound trains would have had separate platforms at the lower level with the routes merging at a junction west of the station. Although construction of the section of the MDR tube route east of South Kensington had been postponed, a partial, 120-foot (37 m) long, section of the westbound MDR platform was built along with the two for GNP&BR use. Though closed-off from the rest of the station, it was linked to the lift lobby and was tiled to match the other platforms. Enlarged tunnel sections for the junctions were constructed with the original running tunnels and remain visible from passing trains.24 A new surface building on Pelham Street for the lifts was designed by Leslie Green with the GNP&BR's distinctive ox-blood red glazed terracotta façade.25

The unused westbound tunnel was used during World War I to store art from the Victoria & Albert Museum and china from Buckingham Palace and, from 1927 to 1939, was used as a signalling school. During World War II it contained equipment to detect bombs falling in the River Thames which might require the emergency floodgates on the under-river tunnels to be closed.26

In the early 1970s the lifts to the Piccadilly line platforms were replaced by escalators, with one pair being provided between the ticket hall and a new intermediate level, where it met a linking passageway to the Circle and District line platforms, and three being provided from there to a lower concourse between the levels of the two Piccadilly line platforms. Stairs up and down from the lower concourse connect to the platforms. The stairs and passage to the westbound platform are located in the disused MDR westbound platform tunnel.26 With the introduction of escalators, the GNP&BR station building was taken out of use.

Future proposals

Many stations on the Circle line which were originally constructed in opening cuttings have been subject to air-rights developments where cuttings have been roofed over with buildings built above.note 1 South Kensington station and the adjacent shop premises occupy a site of approximately 0.77 hectares (1.9 acres)27 and proposals for redevelopment of the station and the site have been made a number of times since 1989 without success.28note 2 In July 2009, architects John McAslan and Partners examined development options for Transport for London and proposed a mixed-use scheme retaining the station's existing entrances, arcade and adjacent shops with a new residential block above the ticket office and residential development along the Pelham Street and at the Thurloe Square end of the station. The ticket hall would be enlarged and the open air platforms would be retained.30

Services

The station is in London fare zone 1. On the District and Circle lines, the station is between Gloucester Road and Sloane Square, and on the Piccadilly line, it is between Gloucester Road and Knightsbridge. South Kensington is the easternmost interchange between these three lines. Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but generally District line trains operate every 2–6 minutes from approximately 05:15 to 00:30 eastbound and 05:45 to 00:45 westbound; they are supplemented by Circle line trains every 8–12 minutes from approximately 05:30 to 00:30 clockwise and 05:40 to 00:15 anticlockwise. Piccadilly line trains operate every 2–6 minutes from approximately 05:40 to 00:25 eastbound and 05:50 to 00:40 westbound.3132

On the Piccadilly line 1973 Stock is used. On the Circle line S Stock is used and on the District line D78 Stock. Both sub-surface lines also use S Stock, which is being introduced to replace the D78 Stock by 2016.333435

Transport links

London bus routes 14, 49, 70, 74, 345, 360, 414, 430, C1, and night routes N74 and N97 serve the station.3637

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ An example of an air rights development is adjacent Gloucester Road station where the Circle and District line platforms were roofed over in the 1990s for the construction of a shopping mall and an apartment building.
  2. ^ Previous redevelopment proposals have been designed by Scott, Brownrigg & Turner (1989), Terry Farrell & Partners (1997 & 2002) and Francis Machin (2006).29

References

  1. ^ "Customer metrics: entries and exits: 2009". London Underground performance update. Transport for London. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "Customer metrics: entries and exits: 2010". London Underground performance update. Transport for London. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures" (XLS). London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Rose 1999.
  5. ^ "Photograph details, 1998/87142". London Transport Museum. Transport for London. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  6. ^ Horne 2006, p. 9.
  7. ^ Horne 2006, p. 13.
  8. ^ a b Horne 2006, p. 15.
  9. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2013), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  10. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 50–51.
  11. ^ Wolmar 2005, p. 114.
  12. ^ Horne 2006, p. 30.
  13. ^ Horne 2006, p. 44.
  14. ^ "Photograph details, 2000/13635". London Transport Museum. Transport for London. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  15. ^ Horne 2006, p. 79.
  16. ^ a b Horne 2006, p. 91.
  17. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1392067)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 June 2011 .
  18. ^ English Heritage. accessdate=12 June 2011 "Details from listed building database (1392462 accessdate=12 June 2011)". National Heritage List for England .
  19. ^ Wolmar 2005, p. 108.
  20. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 70–71.
  21. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26881. pp. 4481–4483. 10 August 1897. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
  22. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 85.
  23. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 215.
  24. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 218–219.
  25. ^ Wolmar 2005, p. 175.
  26. ^ a b Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 220.
  27. ^ McAslan 2009a, p. 7.
  28. ^ McAslan 2009a, p. 9.
  29. ^ McAslan 2009c, pp. 44–45.
  30. ^ McAslan 2009d, pp. 56–57.
  31. ^ "Timetables". Transport for London. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  32. ^ "First and last Tube". Transport for London. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  33. ^ "S Stock trains take to Circle line". Global Rail New. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  34. ^ "District pips Circle to the post". Modern Railways. vol. 70 (issue 781): p. 12. October 2013. 
  35. ^ Waboso, David (December 2010). "Transforming the tube". Modern Railways (London). pp. 42–45. 
  36. ^ "Buses from South Kensington". Transport for London. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  37. ^ "Night buses from South Kensington". Transport for London. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 

Bibliography

External links

Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
towards Edgware Road
Circle line
towards Hammersmith (via Tower Hill)
District line
towards Upminster
Piccadilly line
towards Cockfosters
    Former routing    
Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
Piccadilly line
Former route (1906-1934)
towards Cockfosters







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