Spanish cuisine is a way of preparing varied dishes, which is enriched by the culinary contributions of the various regions that make up the country. It is a cuisine influenced by the people who, throughout history, have conquered the territory of that country.
- 1 History from ages
- 2 Spanish regional variation: typical dishes
- 3 Other Spanish dishes
- 4 Selected list of Spanish chefs
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Spain as a territory of the Roman Empire.
The Romans introduced the custom in Spain consumption and collecting mushrooms, a custom which is still preserved in many parts of Spain, spetialy in the north. The Romans along with the Greeks introduced viticulture, it also appears that the extension of the vine along the Mediterranean seems to be due to colonization of the Greeks.
The Visigoths introduced brewing. The change came in 711 AD, when Muslim troops composed of Arabs and Berbers crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, invading the Iberian Peninsula. With this new term, new ingredients were introduced from Persia and India.
The cuisine of Al-Andalus had the usual ingredients: rice, sorghum, sugar cane, spinach, eggplant, watermelon, lemon, peach, orange and almonds. It is common for modern dishes possess Berber and Arab roots.
The "New World"
The discovery of America, in 1492, initiated the advent of new culinary elements, such as tomato, cucumber, potato, pepper, paprika and cocoa or chocolate. The latter caused a furor in the Spanish society in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, being in Spain where mixed (first time) with sugar to remove its natural bitterness. Other ingredients traveled to the Americas, such as rice, grapes, olives and much of cereals.
Andalusian cuisine is twofold: the rural and coastal. Of all the Spanish regions, this region is the most olive oil used in culinary preparations. The dish has achieved more international fame is the Gazpacho. It is a kind of cold soup made with five vegetables, bread, vinegar, water, salt and olive oil. Other cold soups are: the pulley, the Zoque, salmorejo, etc.
Are frequent snacks made with olives. Among the meat preparations include: flamenquín, the pringá, oxtail and often gypsy (also called Andalusian tripe). Among the hot soups include: cat soup (made with bread), the dog stew (fish soup with orange juice), the gray crumbs ... Among the fish dishes include: fried fish, the cod pavías, and parpandúas. Among the culinary customs found the typical Andalusian breakfast traditionally considered characteristic of laborers and, today extending throughout Spain.
The Aragonese cuisine has a basically rural and mountain origin. The central part of Aragon, the flattest, is the richest in culinary specialties. Being land of lambs raised on the slopes of the Pyrenees, one of its most famous dishes is roast lamb (asado de ternasco) (with garlic, salt and bacon fat), having the lamb to the shepherd, the heads of lamb and Highlanders asparagus (lamb tails). The pork dishes are also very popular, among them are: lean with tomato (in Spanish: magras con tomate), roasted pork leg and crullers (in Spanish: almojábanas de cerdo). Among the recipes made with bread are: Pastor crumbs, crumbs with chocolate, scolded (cakes with sardines or herring) and goguera. Among the highlights sauces: garlic-oil.
Legumes are very important and most popular vegetables are borage and thistle. In the field of very famous cured ham from Teruel and Huesca inlay. Among the cheeses Tronchon highlights. There are very typical jams, the most popular Fruits of Aragon and the Maraschino cherries.
The asturian cuisine is an archaic and full food history, deeply rooted in Celtic traditions of northern Europe. One of its most famous dishes is the Asturian bean stew, which is the traditional stew of the region, made with white beans, sausages like chorizo and morcilla and pork. Another recipe well known are the beans with clams, hare and partridge. They also highlight the Asturian stew pot and vigil. Are popular pig slaughtering and products as chosco, tripe Asturias and buns preñaos.
Among meat dishes are: the governed meat, cachopo and stew. Livestock has provided a great reputation on the Asturian cheeses, which are very popular in the rest of Spain. Among them, the most rerpesentativo is Cabrales Cheese (cheese "pestiferous fragrance"), developed in the regions near the Picos de Europa. Among the desserts are the frisuelos, rice pudding, carbayones, and cider.
The Balearic cuisine has purely Mediterranean characteristics. The islands have been conquered several times throughout its history by the French and the English, which has left some culinary influences. At present are well known: the spicy sausage and rice brut, cheese Mahon, Mahon Gin ("pellofa") and mayonnaise. Among the dishes are tumbet, variat frit and roast suckling pig.
The cuisine of the Basque Country is a wide and varied range of ingredients and preparations. The culture of eating is very strong among the inhabitants of this region. Highlights include meat and fish dishes. Among fish, cod is produced in various preparations: bacalao al pil pil, cod Bilbao, etc.. Are also common anchovy, bream, bonito, etc.. Among the most famous dishes is the seafood changurro. Among the meats are: the beef steaks, pork loin with milk, fig leaf quail, marinated goose, etc.
The Canary Islands have a particular food because of its insular nature and its location in the Atlantic. Food consumption is based on the gofio own food of the Guanches, the result of different toasted grains.
Among the most typical fruits are: Platanos de Canarias, yams, mangoes, persimmons, etc.. The fish dishes are well placed and is usually accompanied by a sauce called mojo, known as mojo picon. There several cooked like stew. Prominent among gastronomy: wrinkled potatoes, almogrote, frangollo, rabbit in salmorejo, stewed goat, etc.. The most popular sweets are: trout potato or pumpkin, roasted maize meal nougat, etc.. Among the wines, the best known is the Malvasia wine.
A popular Cantabrian dish is cocido montañés, a rich stew made with beans, cabbage and pork. Seafood is widely used and bonito is present in the typical sorropotún or marmite. Recognized quality meats are Tudanca veal and game meat. Cantabrian pastries include sobaos and quesadas pasiegas. Dairy products include Cantabrian cream cheese, smoked cheeses, picón Bejes-Tresviso and quesucos de Liébana. Orujo is the Cantabrian pomace brandy. Cider (sidra) and chacolí (known as txakoli in Basque Country) wine are increasing in popularity.12 Cantabria has two wines labelled DOC: Costa de Cantabria and Liébana.
In this region, the culinary habits reflect the origin of foods by shepherds and peasants. Al-Manchara means, in Arabic, "Dry Land" indicating the arid lands and the quality of its dishes. It is said that the best of La Mancha cuisine cookbook is the book Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes. Predominantly wheat and grains: bread, soups, gazpacho manchego, crumbs, porridge, etc.. One of the most abundant ingredients in Manchego cuisine is garlic, leading some dishes: ajoarriero, the ajopuerco and garlic marinade.
In Castile and León characteristic dishes include morcilla; Valladolid (a black pudding made with special spices); judión de la granja; sopa de ajo (garlic soup); Cochinillo asado (roast piglet); lechazo (roast lamb); botillo del Bierzo; hornazo from Salamanca; Jamón de Guijuelo (a cured ham from Guijuelo, Salamanca); Salchichas de Zaratán and other sausages; Serrada cheese; Burgos's soft cheese; and, Ribera del Duero wines.
The cuisine of Catalonia is based in a rural culture, being very extensive and a great culinary wealth. Notably was in Catalonia where the first cookbook was written in Spain. It has a triple cuisine: seafood, mountain and interior. Among the most popular dishes include: escudella and tomato bread. They are famous dishes: tortilla beans, coca recapte, farigola soup and snails. Among the sauces are: the romesco sauce, aioli, bouillabaisse of Catalan origin, Samfaina and picada.
Among the pickled pork are: the sausage (white and black), the salami and pepperoni of Vic. Among the fish dishes are: the suquet, stewed cod and black rice. Among the vegetable dishes, the most famous are the calçots and the roasted vegetables. Among the desserts are: Catalan cream, carquiñoles, panellets, the Kings Tortel, kink and neulas.
La Riojais recognized by the use of meats such as pork, and their cold cuts made after the traditional slaughter. The lamb is perhaps the second most popular meat product in this region (Sarmiento chops) and finally, veal, common in mountain areas. The most famous dish is Rioja potatoes and fry. Lesser known are: Holy lunch and egg garlic.
The cuisine of Extremadura is austere, with dishes prepared by pastors. It is very similar to the cuisine of Castilla. Extremadura cuisine is abundant in all matters relating to pork, saying that the region is one of the best breeding pigs in Spain, thanks to the acorns that grow in their fields: Iberian pig herds raised in the fields Montánchez characteristic by his dark skin and black, thin legs. This type pig breeds exclusively in Spain and Portugal. Iberian pork sausages are common, like pork stews (cocido extremeño).
In the field of meat found lamb stew. It is known that usually cook the lizard. Highlights include game meats such as wild boar, partridge, pheasant or venison. Between milk cheeses are well known, particularly serene cake and wedding cake. Among the desserts are: fried milk, perrunillas, fritters, flowers, etc.
Galician cuisine is known in Spanish territory from emigration of its inhabitants. One of the most noted is the Galician soup dishes. It also highlights the pork with turnip tops, popular laconadas. Another remarkable recipe is the Chestnuts broth, which is commonly consumed in winter days. It is popular pig slaughtering and products.
The seafood dishes are very famous and rich variety. Among the preparations are: the Galician empanada, the Galician octopus, scallops, crab, the crabs, barnacles, etc.. Among the abundant milk include: cheese nipple. Among alcoholic drinks include orujo. There are famous sweets in the Iberian Peninsula as the Tarta de Santiago and Blood Crepes (Pancakes).
Notably not start having identity in the Court in 1561, when Philip II moved the capital to Madrid. Since then, due to immigration, many of Madrid's culinary dishes are modifications from other Spanish regions. Madrid, due to the influx of visitors since the nineteenth century, was one of the first cities to introduce the concept of restaurant, having in it some of the earliest examples.
Among dairy products are: rice pudding, the meringue milk, cheese and curd. Some fruits and vegetables are: Aranjuez strawberries and melons. Madrid has a rich religious confectionery, candies found between: French toast, chocolate con churros and buñuelos.
The cuisine of the region of Murcia has two sides with the influence of Manchego cuisine. The region of Murcia is famous for its fruit production varied. Among the most outstanding dishes are: Murcia tortilla, zarangollo, mojete, eggplants cream, pipirrana, etc.. A typical sauce of this area is the cabañil garlic, used to accompany meat dishes.
Among the culinary preparations are: the michirones (dried beans cooked with bay leaves, hot peppers and garlic). Among the cooked include: the gypsy pot, cooked with balls, mondongo, etc.. Among meat products Murcia find black pudding, which is flavored with oregano, and Murcia cake that is made with ground beef. Among the fish and seafood are: the golden salt, the Mar Menor prawns and octopus baked. Rices are common and among them are: the cauldron, the pavement rice, rice with rabbit and snails, rice scribe, and the widower rice.
The desserts are very abundant, among them are: paparajotes Orchard, stuffed pastries and various pastries. This region also has wine appellation of origin, as the wine from Jumilla, Bullas wine and wine Yecla.
The gastronomy of Navarra has many similarities with the Aragonese cuisine. Two of his dishes flag are: trout to Navarre and cochifrito, although we must not forget the lamb chilindrón. Among the dishes is the Garbure. There are very curious recipes such as the Carlists eggs.
Salted products are common and, between them, include: chorizo de Pamplona, stuffing and sausage. The lamb and beef have, at present, designations of origin. Within the dairy include: Roncal cheese, the curd or Idiazabal cheese. Among the most typical alcoholic drinks are: the claret and pacharán.
The cuisine of Valencia has two components: one that highlights the products of the field (rural) and other coastal, which highlights seafood. One of the most popular dishes is paella. Not forgetting the rice crust, fideuá and throw rice, baked rice, and rice with beans and turnips.
The coastal towns supplying the region with fish and popular dishes like "all i pebre" typical of the Albufera of Valencia, or fish stew. Among the desserts are: coffee liqueur, chocolate Alicante, the arnadí and horchata. Notably, during Christmas, in this region, are made nougat from Alicante and Jijona, are also produced known peladillas (almonds wrapped in a thick layer of caramel).
- Ferran Adrià of El Bulli, Girona (closed).3
- Juan Mari Arzak, Arzak, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa (1989).4
- Santi Santamaría, El Raco, Can Fabes, Barcelona (1994).5
- Martín Berasategui Berasategui Lasarte, Guipúzcoa (2001).6
- Carme Ruscalleda Sant Pau Sant Pol de Mar, Barcelona (2006).7
- José Andrés Minibar by José Andrés Washington D.C.. Andres is a student of Adrià. He hosts Made in Spain on PBS.8
- Karlos Arguiñano, celebrity television chef.9
- Sergi Arola, La Broché, Arola and Sergi Arola Gastro. Arola is a student of Adrià who has been awarded two Michelin stars.10
- Penelope Casas, New York-born cookbook author.111213
- María Mestayer de Echagüe (Bilbao b. 1878 d. 1956), also known as "Marquesa de Parabere", the author of a two-volume cooking encyclopaedia entitled La Cocina Completa. There are sections dedicated to the pantry and table etiquette.14
- Ángel Muro, a 19th-century food expert and author of the book Practicón.15
- Simone and Ines Ortega, authors of 1080 recetas (1080 Recipes).16
- Manuel Maria Puga and Parga, an early 20th century food expert and author of La cocina práctica.17
- Ilan Hall, Casa Mono, Manhattan, NY, winner of Top Chef Season 2 18
- Joan Roca, Jordi Roca i Fontané and Josep Roca i Fontané. El Celler de Can Roca, "Rocambolesc", "Can Roca", "Mas Marroch" and "Cap Roig", in the province of Girona, and he restaurant "Roca Barcelona" in the province of Barcelona. Three Michelin stars in 2009. In 2013 "El Celler de Can Roca" is selected as the best restaurant in the world by Restaurant magazine.
- List of Spanish dishes
- Spanish wine
- Agriculture in Spain
- List of Spanish cheeses
- Flattop grill
- Barreda F. The chacoli Santander in the 13th to 19th centuries. Maxtor Editorial Library. 1943. 2001 edition, first reprint. ISBN 84-95636-84-0.
- "'Vignobles et vins du Nord-Ouest de l'Espagne, Alain Lemps." "The txakoli of Burgos Valle de Mena wants OJ" 2005. Accessed 19 January 2008.
- "A laboratory of taste." The New York Times sunday supplement 10 August 2003.
- Hughes H. "Frommer's 500 places for food and wine lovers." John Wiley & Sons 2009 p110. ISBN 0470480645, 9780470480649. Accessed at Google Books 18 January 2014.
- Keown D. "A companion to Catalan culture." Tamesis Books 2011 p247. ISBN 1855662272, 9781855662278.
- Facaros D. and Pauls M. "Bilbao and the Basque lands." New Holland Publishers 2008 p190. ISBN 1860114008, 9781860114007.
- Ruscadella C. "Carme Ruscadella's mediterranean cuisine." Salsa Books 2007. ISBN 8496599159, 9788496599154.
- "Biography." Jose Made In Spain website. Accessed 18 January 2014.
- Barlow J. "Everything but the squeal." Clic-books.com 2014 p83. Accessed at Google Books 18 January 2014.
- Stone P. "Frommer's Barcelona". John Wiley & Sons 2011. ISBN 1119994497, 781119994497.
- Casas P. The foods and wines of Spain. (1982).
- Parsons R. "Penelope Casas, pioneer of English-language Spanish cookbooks, dies." LA Times 19 August 2013.
- "Penelope Casas, Spanish food author, dies at 70." The New York Times 18 August 2013. Accessed 9 September 2013.
- "The immigrants' universe." Xlibris Corporation 2010 p128. ISBN 1456811940, 9781456811945.
- Richardson P. "A Late Dinner: Discovering the Food of Spain." Bloomsbury Publishing 2008 p68. ISBN 0747593809, 9780747593805.
- Anderson L. "Cooking Up the Nation: Spanish Culinary Texts and Culinary Nationalization in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century." Boydell & Brewer Ltd 2013 p2. ISBN 1855662469, 9781855662469.
- Puga y Parga M. "La covina práctica." Everest Galicia, 2001. ISBN 8440305109, 9788440305107.
-  Dead link July 2012.
- This article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, which was accessed in the version of 9 January 2006.
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