The Spanish general election of 1977 took place on 15 June 1977. It was the first election since the death of Francisco Franco. The previous general election was held in 1936, prior to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
Voting was on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The elections were held using closed listproportional representation in 52 electoral districts corresponding to the 50 provinces of Spain and the African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. The largest districts Barcelona, Madrid and Valencia elected 32, 31 and 15 members respectively. Other districts elected from 3 to 12 members. The exceptions were Ceuta and Melilla, which were single member districts. Seats were allocated using the D'Hondt method and only lists that polled 3% of the total vote (which included votes "en blanco" i.e., for none of the above) were eligible for seats. With the exception of the Communist Party of Spain, none of the parties that had supported the Second Republic or those descended from them were legalised until after the elections, and were therefore rendered ineligible to take part.1
The elections took place against the backdrop of a poor economic situation in Spain.2 They were marred by demonstrations against alleged irregularities and bombings in many areas. In Barcelona, 2,000 demonstrators gathered outside the building housing the local election board. They claimed they had not been included in the census, which would have given them the right to vote. Two policemen were also hurt when a Molotov cocktail was thrown at their vehicle. In Seville, three people, including two policemen, suffered minor injuries when a bomb exploded at the magistrates' court. Additionally four explosions occurred in Pamplona and two in Cordoba.3
The election results were a disappointment for the Communist Party, which fell short of its goal of 30 to 40 deputies.4