|Peseta española (Spanish)|
|ISO 4217 code||ESP|
|Central bank||Bank of Spain|
|Source||Cámara Gipuzcoa, 1998|
|Since||19 June 1989|
|Fixed rate since||31 December 1998|
|Replaced by €, non cash||1 January 1999|
|Replaced by €, cash||1 January 2002|
|€ =||166.386 ₧|
because of inflation, céntimos were retired from circulation in 1983.
|Symbol||₧ (rare, see article)|
|Nickname||perra chica (0.05 ₧),
perra gorda (0.10 ₧),
pela (1 ₧),
duro (5 ₧),
talego (1,000 ₧),
kilo (1,000,000 ₧)
|Freq. used||5, 25, 50, 100, 500 ₧|
|Rarely used||1, 10, 200 ₧|
|Freq. used||1,000, 2,000, 5,000 ₧|
|Rarely used||10,000 ₧|
|Printer||Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre|
|Mint||Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre|
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.
The peseta (//; Spanish: [peˈseta]; Galician: [peˈseta]; Catalan: pesseta, IPA: [pəˈsɛtə] or [peˈseta]; Basque: pezeta, IPA: [pes̻eta], Asturian: [peˈseta]) was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002. Along with the French franc, it was also a de facto currency used in Andorra (which had no national currency with legal tender).
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2012)|
The name of the currency comes from pesseta, the diminutive form of the word peça, which is a Catalan word that means piece or fraction. The first non-official coins which contained the word "peseta" were made in 1808 in Barcelona.
Traditionally, there was never a single symbol or special character for the Spanish peseta. Common abbreviations were "Pt", "Pta", "Pts" and "Ptas", and even using superior letters: "Ptas".
Common earlier Spanish models of mechanical typewriters had the expression "Pts" on a single type head (₧), as a shorthand intended to fill a single type space (
₧) in tables instead of three (
Later, Spanish models of IBM electric typewriters also included the same type in its repertoire.
When the first IBM PC was designed circa 1980, it included a "peseta symbol" ₧ in the ROM of the Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA) and Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) video output cards' hardware, with the code number 158. This original character set chart later became the MS-DOS code page 437.
In order to guarantee the interchange with previous encodings (namely, the code page 437 in this case), the international standard Unicode includes this character as U+20A7 PESETA SIGN in its Currency Symbols block. Other than that, the use of the "peseta symbol" standalone is extremely rare, and has been outdated since the adoption of the euro in Spain.
The peseta was subdivided into 100 céntimos or, informally, 4 reales. The last coin of any value under one peseta was a 50 centimo coin issued in 1980 to celebrate Spain's hosting of the 1982 FIFA World Cup. 1 The last 25 centimos coin (or real) was dated 1959, the ten centimos also dated 1959; both coins bore the portrait of Franco. The 1 centimo coin was last minted in 1913 and featured King Alfonso XIII.2 The half-centimo was last minted in 1868 and featured Queen Isabel II.3
The peseta was introduced in 1869 after Spain joined the Latin Monetary Union in 1868. The Spanish Law of June 26, 1864 decreed that in preparation for joining the Latin Monetary Union (set up in 1865), the peseta became a subdivision of the peso with 1 peso duro = 5 pesetas. The peseta replaced the escudo at a rate of 5 pesetas = 1 peso duro = 2 escudos.
The political turbulence of the early twentieth century (especially during the years after the World War I) caused the monetary union to break up, although it was not until 1927 that it officially ended.
In 1959, Spain became part of the Bretton Woods System, pegging the peseta at a value of 60 pesetas = 1 U.S. dollar. In 1967, the peseta followed the devaluation of the British pound, maintaining the exchange rate of 168 pesetas = 1 pound and establishing a new rate of 70 pesetas = 1 U.S. dollar.
The peseta was replaced by the euro in 2002, following the establishment of the euro in 1999. The exchange rate was 1 euro = 166.386 pesetas.
In 1869 and 1870, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 céntimos, and 1, 2 and 5 pesetas. The lowest four denominations were struck in copper (replaced by bronze from 1877), with the 20, 50 céntimos, 1 and 2 pesetas struck in .835 silver and the 5 pesetas struck in .900 silver. 5 and 10 cent coins were quickly nicknamed as "perra chica" (small dog) and "perra gorda" (fat dog) respectively, as people then were unable to recognize the shape of the lion in them, misunderstanding it for a dog.4 The 5 pesetas coin was nicknamed "duro" (hard). 5 pesetas coins were called "duros" by every generation until the withdrawal of the peseta in 2002.
Gold 25 pesetas coins were introduced in 1876, followed by 10 pesetas in 1878. In 1889, 20 pesetas coins were introduced, with production of the 25 pesetas ceasing. In 1897, a single issue of gold 100 pesetas was made. Production of gold coins ceased in 1904, followed by that of silver coins in 1910. The last bronze coins were issued in 1912.
Coin production resumed in 1925 with the introduction of cupro-nickel 25 céntimos. In 1926, a final issue of silver 50 céntimos was made, followed by the introduction of a holed version of the 25 céntimos in 1927.
In 1934, the Second Spanish Republic issued coins for 25 and 50 céntimos and 1 peseta. The 25 céntimos and silver 1 peseta were the same size and composition as the earlier Royal issues, whilst the 50 céntimos was struck in copper. In 1937, an iron 5 céntimos coins was introduced along with a brass 1 peseta, nicknamed "La Rubia" (the blonde), as it issued a woman's face in a golden-colored alloy.5 The last Republican issue was a holed, copper 25 céntimos in 1938.
During the Civil War, a number of local coinages were issued by both Republican and Nationalist forces. In 1936, the following pieces were issued by the Nationalists:
|Cazalla de Sierra||10 céntimos|
|Arahal||50 céntimos, 1 & 2 pesetas|
|Lora del Rio||25 céntimos|
|La Puebla de Cazalla||10 & 25 céntimos|
The following issues were made by Republican forces in 1937:
|Arenys de Mar||50 céntimos, 1 peseta|
|Asturias and Leon||50 céntimos, 1 & 2 pesetas|
|Euskadi||1 & 2 pesetas|
|Ibi||25 céntimos, 1 peseta|
|L'Ametlla del Vallès||25 & 50 céntimos, 1 peseta|
|Menorca||5, 10 & 25 céntimos, 1 & 2½ pesetas|
|Nulles||5, 10, 25 & 50 céntimos, 1 peseta|
|Santander, Palencia and Burgos||50 céntimos, 1 peseta|
|Segarra de Gaià (currently Santa Coloma de Queralt6)||1 peseta|
The Nationalists issued their first national coins in 1937. These were holed, cupro-nickel 25 céntimos minted in Vienna. Following the end of the Civil War, the Nationalist government introduced aluminium 5 and 10 céntimos in 1940, followed by aluminium-bronze 1 peseta coins in 1944.
In 1947, the first 1 peseta coins bearing the portrait of Francisco Franco were issued. Nickel 5 pesetas followed in 1949. In 1949, holed cupro-nickel 50 céntimos were introduced, followed by aluminium-bronze 2½ pesetas in 1954, cupro-nickel 25 & 50 pesetas in 1958 & smaller aluminium 10 and 25 céntimos in 1959. Silver 100 pesetas were issued between 1966 and 1969, with aluminium 50 céntimos introduced in 1967.
Following the accession of King Juan Carlos, the only change to the coinage was the introduction of cupronickel 100 pesetas in 1976. However, more significant changes occurred in 1982. The 50 céntimos was discontinued, with aluminium 1 & 2 pesetas as well as aluminium-bronze 100 pesetas introduced. Cupronickel 10 pesetas were introduced in 1983. Cupronickel 200 pesetas were introduced in 1986, followed by aluminium-bronze 500 pesetas in 1987. In 1989, the size of the 1 peseta coin was significantly reduced (making it the smallest, lightest coin in Europe and perhaps the world) and aluminium-bronze 5 pesetas were introduced. Aluminium-bronze 25 pesetas and smaller 50 pesetas were introduced in 1990, along with larger 200 pesetas.
|1 ₧||0.006 (0.01)||14 mm||0.55 g||Aluminium|
|5 ₧||0.03||17.5 mm||3 g||Aluminium bronze|
|10 ₧||0.06||18.5 mm||4 g||Cupronickel|
|25 ₧||0.15||19.5 mm||4.25 g||Aluminium bronze|
|50 ₧||0.30||20.5 mm||5.60 g||Cupronickel|
|100 ₧||0.60||24.5 mm||9.25 g||Aluminium bronze|
|200 ₧||1.20||25.5 mm||10.5 g||Cupronickel|
|500 ₧||3.01||28 mm||12 gr||Aluminium bronze|
The dates of some Spanish coins can be found on small six-point stars on either the obverse or reverse. The larger date that appears outside the stars is the design date.
In 1874, the Banco de España introduced notes for 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 pesetas. Except for the 250 pesetas notes only issued in 1878, the denominations produced by the Banco de España did not change until the Civil War, when both the Republicans and Nationalists issued Banco de España notes.
In 1936, the Republicans issued 5 and 10 pesetas notes. The Ministry of Finance (Ministerio de Hacienda) introduced notes for 50 céntimos, 1 and 2 pesetas in 1938, as well as issuing stamp money (consisting of postage or revenue stamps affixed to cardboard disks) in denominations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50 and 60 céntimos.
The first Nationalist Banco de España issues were made in 1936, in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 pesetas. 1 and 2 pesetas notes were added in 1937. From the mid-1940s, denominations issued were 1, 5, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 pesetas. The 1, 5, 25 and 50 pesetas were all replaced by coins by the late 1950s.
In 1978, 5,000 pesetas notes were introduced. The 100 pesetas note was replaced by a coin in 1982, with 1,000 pesetas notes introduced in 1983, 200 pesetas in 1984 and 10,000 pesetas in 1987. The 200 and 500 pesetas notes were replaced by coins in 1986 and 1987.
The penultimate series of banknotes was introduced between 1982 and 1987 and remained legal tender until the introduction of the euro.
|200 ₧||1.20||120 × 65 mm||Orange||Leopoldo Alas|
|500 ₧||3.01||129 × 70 mm||Dark blue||Rosalía de Castro|
|1 000 ₧||6.01||138 × 75 mm||Green||Benito Pérez Galdós|
|2 000 ₧||12.02||147 × 80 mm||Red||Juan Ramón Jiménez|
|5 000 ₧||30.05||156 × 85 mm||Brown||Juan Carlos I of Spain|
|10 000 ₧||60.10||165 × 85 mm||Gray||Juan Carlos I of Spain and Felipe, Prince of Asturias|
The last banknotes series (1992) was:
|1 000 ₧||6.01||130 × 65 mm||Green||Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro|
|2 000 ₧||12.02||138 × 68 mm||Red||José Celestino Mutis|
|5 000 ₧||30.05||146 × 71 mm||Brown||Christopher Columbus|
|10 000 ₧||60.10||154 × 74 mm||Gray||Juan Carlos I of Spain and Jorge Juan y Santacilia|
The Andorran peseta (ADP) (pesseta in Catalan) was pegged at 1:1 to the Spanish peseta. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War on 17 July 1936, the Consell General de les Valls d'Andorra issued Decree No. 112 of 19 December 1936, authorizing the issuance of paper money backed by Spanish banknotes.7
The peseta was replaced by the euro (€) in 1999 on currency exchange boards. Euro coins and notes were introduced in January 2002, and on 1 March 2002 the peseta lost its legal tender status in Spain, and also in Andorra. The conversion rate was 1 euro = 166.386 ESP. Prices in many Andorran supermarkets and other retail establishments are still shown dual-priced in euros and pesetas or in euros and French francs.
Peseta notes issued since 1939 and coins that were legal tender on 31 December 2001 remain exchangeable at any branch of the central bank until 31 December 2020. 8 According to that entity, pesetas to a value estimated at 1.7 billion euros were never converted to euro.9
Huge amounts of pesetas of dubious provenance are believed to have helped to fuel a cash-based money laundering real estate boom just prior to, and after, the conversion to the euro. Mafia and criminal holdings of billions of pesetas were poured into massive real estate projects in Spain and elsewhere; the real estate could then be legally sold to obtain euros.citation needed
- Commemorative coins of Spain
- Spanish euro coins
- Latin Monetary Union (1865–1927)
- Latin Union (since 1954)
- European Union (since 1957)
- Euro (from 1999/2002)
- Economy of Spain
- Meseta, a fictional currency in the Phantasy Star games that was based on the Peseta.
- ^ 1999 by law (on financial markets and business transactions only), two currency units used (the Spanish peseta still had legal tender on all banknotes, coins and personal bank accounts) until 2002.
- http://worldcoingallery.com/countries/display.php?image=img9/164-815&desc=Spain km815 50 Centimos (1980)&query=Spain
- http://worldcoingallery.com/countries/display.php?image=nmc2/164-731&desc=Spain km731 1 Centimo (1911-1913)&query=Spain
- http://worldcoingallery.com/countries/display.php?image=img12/164-632&desc=Spain km632 1/2 Centimo (1866-1868)&query=Spain
- Jabalquinto School. Junta of Andalusia
- Ten years without the Peseta, Muy Interesante magazine
- Ajuntament de Santa Coloma de Queralt. "Una mica d'història". Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Linzmayer, Owen (20 January 2012). www.banknotebook.com "Andorra"]. The Banknote Book (1 ed.). San Francisco, CA. p. 10. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
- Rainsford, Sarah (March 5, 2011). "Spain town reintroduces peseta to boost economy". BBC News. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- Krause, Chester L., and Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.
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