Japanese release poster
|Directed by||Hayao Miyazaki|
|Produced by||Toshio Suzuki|
|Written by||Hayao Miyazaki|
|Music by||Joe Hisaishi|
|Editing by||Takeshi Seyama|
|Running time||124 minutes|
Spirited Away (Japanese: 千と千尋の神隠し Hepburn: Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi, "Sen and Chihiro's Spiriting Away") is a 2001 Japanese animated fantasy film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli.2 The film tells the story of Chihiro Ogino, a sullen ten-year-old girl who, while moving to a new neighborhood, enters an alternate reality inhabited by spirits and monsters.3 After her parents are transformed into pigs by the witch Yubaba, Chihiro takes a job working in Yubaba's bathhouse to find a way to free herself and her parents and escape to the human world.
Miyazaki wrote the script after he decided the film would be based on his friend's ten-year-old daughter, who came to visit his house each summer. At the time, Miyazaki was developing two personal projects, but they were rejected. Production of Spirited Away began in 2000. During production, Miyazaki realized the film would be over three hours and decided to cut out several parts of the story for its July 27, 2001 release. Pixar director John Lasseter, a fan of Miyazaki, was approached by Walt Disney Pictures to supervise an English-language translation for the film's North American release. Lasseter hired Kirk Wise as director and Donald W. Ernst as producer of the adaptation. Screenwriters Cindy Davis Hewitt and Donald H. Hewitt wrote the English-language dialogue, which they wrote to match the characters' original Japanese-language lip movements.4 The English-language adaptation was released on September 20, 2002.
When released, Spirited Away became the most successful film in Japanese history, grossing over $274 million worldwide. The film overtook Titanic (at the time the top grossing film worldwide) in the Japanese box office to become the highest-grossing film in Japanese history with a $229,607,878 total.5 Acclaimed by international critics, the movie was considered one of the best films of the 2000s decade and one of the greatest animated films of all time.67 8 It won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature at the 75th Academy Awards, the Golden Bear at the 2002 Berlin International Film Festival (tied with Bloody Sunday) and is among the top ten in the BFI list of the 50 films you should see by the age of 14.
Ten-year-old Chihiro Ogino and her parents are traveling to their new home when her father takes a wrong turn. Thinking that they have found an abandoned amusement park, her father insists on exploring and they cross a dry riverbed. While Chihiro's parents eat at an empty restaurant stall, Chihiro finds an exquisite bathhouse. She meets a young boy, Haku, who warns her to return across the river before sunset. However, Chihiro discovers too late that her parents have turned into pigs and she is unable to cross the flooded river, becoming trapped in the spirit world.
After finding Chihiro, Haku has her ask for a job from the bathhouse's boiler-man, Kamaji, a spider yōkai commanding the susuwatari. Kamaji and the worker Lin send Chihiro to the witch Yubaba, who runs the bathhouse. Yubaba gives Chihiro a job but renames her Sen (千). While visiting her parents' pigpen, Sen finds a goodbye card addressed to Chihiro and realizes that she has already forgotten her name. Haku warns her that Yubaba controls people by taking their names and that if she forgets hers like he has forgotten his, she will not be able to leave the spirit world. While working, Sen invites a silent masked creature named No-Face inside, believing him to be a customer. A 'putrid spirit' arrives and is Sen's first customer. She discovers he is the spirit of a polluted river. In gratitude for cleaning him, he gives Sen a magic emetic dumpling. Meanwhile No-Face tempts a worker with gold, then swallows him. He demands food and begins tipping extensively. As the workers swarm him hoping to be tipped, he swallows yet another two greedy workers.
Sen discovers paper shikigami attacking a dragon and recognizes it as Haku transformed. When a grievously-injured Haku crashes into Yubaba's penthouse, Sen follows him upstairs. When she reaches Haku, a shikigami that stowed away on her back transforms into Zeniba, Yubaba's twin sister. She transforms Yubaba's baby son Boh into a mouse, creates a decoy baby and turns Yubaba's bird creature into a tiny bee. Zeniba tells Sen that Haku has stolen a magic gold seal from her, and warns Sen that it carries a deadly curse. After Haku dives to the boiler room with Sen and Boh on his back, she feeds him part of the dumpling, causing him to vomit both the seal and a black slug, which Sen crushes under-foot.
With Haku unconscious, Sen resolves to return the seal and apologize for Haku. Before she leaves the bathhouse, Sen confronts No-Face, who is now massive, and feeds him the rest of the dumpling. Vomiting, No-Face chases Sen out of the bathhouse before returning to his normal size. Sen, No-Face and Boh travel to see Zeniba. Enraged at the damage caused by No-Face, Yubaba blames Sen for inviting him in and orders that her parents be slaughtered. After Haku reveals that Boh is missing, Yubaba promises to free Sen and her parents in exchange for Haku retrieving Boh and after testing Sen's sincerity one final time.
Sen, No-Face and Boh arrive at Zeniba's house. Zeniba, now the benevolent "Granny," reveals that Sen's love for Haku broke her curse, and that Yubaba had used the black slug to control Haku. Haku appears in his dragon form and flies both Sen and Boh back to the bathhouse. On the way back, Sen recalls a memory from her youth in which she had fallen into the Kohaku River but was washed safely ashore. After correctly guessing that Haku is the spirit of the Kohaku River (and thus revealing his real name), Haku is completely freed from Yubaba's control. When they arrive at the bathhouse, Yubaba tells Sen that in order to break the curse on her parents, she must identify them from among a group of pigs. After Sen correctly states that none of the pigs are her parents, Sen is given back her real name Chihiro. Haku takes Chihiro to the now dry riverbed and vows to meet her again. Chihiro crosses the river and reunites with her restored parents, who do not remember what happened. They walk back to their car and drive off.
- Rumi Hiiragi as Chihiro Ogino (荻野 千尋 Ogino Chihiro ), a sullen 10-year-old girl. In the English version, Chihiro is voiced by Daveigh Chase.
- Miyu Irino as Haku/Spirit of the Kohaku River (ハク／饒速水琥珀主（ニギハヤミコハクヌシ） Haku/Nigihayami Kohakunushi , lit. "god of the swift amber river"):9 A young boy who befriends Chihiro Ogino, and can assume two forms: a human and a white dragon. In the English version, Haku is voiced by Jason Marsden.
- Mari Natsuki as Yubaba (湯婆婆 Yubaaba , lit. "bathhouse witch"):: an elderly witch with an inhumanly large head and nose, who supervises the bathhouse. Yubaba has an over-bearing and authoritarian personality, but dotes on her son Boh. Natsuki also voices Zeniba (銭婆 Zeniiba ), Yubaba's twin sister. In the English version, Zeniba and Yubaba are voiced by Suzanne Pleshette.
- Takashi Naito as Akihiko Ogino (荻野 明彦 Ogino Akihiko ): Chihiro's father. In the English version, Akihiko is voiced by Michael Chiklis.
- Yasuko Sawaguchi as Yumiko Ogino (荻野 悠美子 Ogino Yūmiko ): Chihiro's mother. In the English version, Yumiko is voiced by Lauren Holly.
- Tsunehiko Kamijō as Chichiyaku (父役): The foreman at the bathhouse. In the English version, Chihiyaku is voiced by Rodger Bumpass.
- Takehiko Ono as Aniyaku (兄役): The assistant manager of the bathhouse. In the English version, Aniyaku is voiced by John Ratzenberger.
- Bunta Sugawara as Kamajii (釜爺, lit. "boiler geezer"): a cantankerous, six-armed engineer who operates the boiler room of the bathhouse; capable of extending his arms indefinitely, and therefore shown walking upon them. A number of Susuwatari (ススワタリ, lit. "travelling soot", soot sprites) carry coal to his furnace. In the English version, Kamajii is voiced by David Ogden Stiers.
The cast also includes: Yumi Tamai as Lin (リン Rin ), A worker at the bathhouse who becomes Chihiro's caretaker, identified as the transformed spirit of a Sable (weasel);10 she is voiced by Susan Egan in the English version. Ryunosuke Kamiki voices Boh (坊 Bō ), Yubaba's son and Zeniba's nephew; he is voiced by Tara Strong in the English version. Akio Nakamura voices No-Face (カオナシ Kaonashi , lit. "faceless"), a spirit attaching himself to Chihiro; in the English version, he is voiced by Bob Bergen.
|I created a heroine who is an ordinary girl, someone with whom the audience can sympathize. It's not a story in which the characters grow up, but a story in which they draw on something already inside them, brought out by the particular circumstances. I want my young friends to live like that, and I think they, too, have such a wish.|
|— Hayao Miyazaki11|
Every summer, Hayao Miyazaki spent his vacation at a mountain cabin with his family and five girls who were friends of the family. The idea for Spirited Away came about when he wanted to make a film for these friends. Miyazaki had previously directed films such as My Neighbor Totoro and Kiki's Delivery Service, which were for small children and teenagers, but he had not created a film for ten-year-old girls. For inspiration, he read shōjo manga magazines like Nakayoshi and Ribon the girls had left at the cabin, but felt they only offered subjects on "crushes" and romance. When looking at his young friends, Miyazaki felt this was not what they "held dear in their hearts" and decided to produce the film about a girl heroine whom they could look up to instead.11
Miyazaki wanted to produce a new film for years. He previously wrote two project proposals, but they were rejected. The first one was based on the Japanese book Kirino Mukouno Fushigina Machi, and the second one was about a teenage heroine. Miyazaki's third proposal, which ended up becoming Sen and Chihiro Spirited Away, was more successful. The three stories revolved around a bathhouse that was based on a bathhouse in Miyazaki's hometown. Miyazaki thought the bathhouse was a mysterious place, and there was a small door next to one of the bathtubs in the bathhouse. Miyazaki was always curious to what was behind it, and he made up several stories about it; one of which was the inspiration for the bathhouse in Spirited Away.11
Production of Spirited Away commenced in 2000 on a budget of ¥1.9 billion (US$19 million). As with Princess Mononoke, Miyazaki and the Studio Ghibli staff experimented with computer animation. With the use of more computers and programs such as Softimage, the staff learned the software, but kept the technology at a level to enhance the story, not to "steal the show." Each character was mostly hand-drawn, with Miyazaki working alongside his animators to see they were getting it just right.13 The biggest difficulty in making the film was to reduce its length. When production started, Miyazaki realized it would be more than three hours long if he made it according to his plot. He had to delete many scenes from the story, and tried to reduce the "eye-candy" in the film because he wanted it to be simple. Miyazaki did not want to make the hero a "pretty girl." At the beginning, he was frustrated at how she looked "dull" and thought, "She isn't cute. Isn't there something we can do?" As the film neared the end, however, he was relieved to feel "she will be a charming woman."11
Miyazaki based some of the buildings in the spirit world on the buildings in the real-life Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum in Koganei, Tokyo, Japan. He often visited the museum for inspiration while working on the film. Miyazaki had always been interested in the Pseudo-Western style buildings from the Meiji period that were available there. The museum made Miyazaki feel nostalgic, "especially when I stand here alone in the evening, near closing time, and the sun is setting – tears well up in my eyes."11 Another major inspiration was the Notoyaryokan, a traditional Japanese inn located in Yamagata Prefecture, famous for its exquisite architecture and ornamental features.14 The old gold town of Jiufen in Taiwan also served as an inspirational model for Miyazaki's film. The Dōgo Onsen is also often said to be a key inspiration for the Spirited Away onsen/bathhouse15
The film score of Spirited Away was composed and conducted by Miyazaki's regular collaborator Joe Hisaishi, and performed by the New Japan Philharmonic. His "Day of the River" (あの日の川 Ano hi no Kawa ) piece received the 56th Mainichi Film Competition Award for Best Music, the Tokyo International Anime Fair 2001 Best Music Award in the Theater Movie category, and the 16th Japan Gold Disk Award for Animation Album of the Year. Later, Hisaishi added lyrics to "One Summer's Day" and named the new version "The Name of Life" (いのちの名前 "Inochi no Namae" ) which was performed by Ayaka Hirahara.
The closing song, "Always With Me" (いつも何度でも Itsumo Nandodemo , literally, "Always, No Matter How Many Times") was written and performed by Youmi Kimura, a composer and lyre-player from Osaka. The lyrics were written by Kimura's friend Wakako Kaku. The song was intended to be used for Rin the Chimney Painter (煙突描きのリン Entotsu-kaki no Rin ), a different Miyazaki film which was never released. In the special features of the DVD, Hayao Miyazaki explains how the song in fact inspired him to create Spirited Away.
Besides the original soundtrack, there is also an image album, which contains ten tracks.
|1||One Summer's Day (あの夏へ Ano Natsu e )||Joe Hisaishi (久石譲)||3:09|
|2||A Road to Somewhere (とおり道 Toori Michi )||2:07|
|3||The Empty Restaurant (誰もいない料理店 Dare mo Inai Ryōriten )||3:15|
|4||Nighttime Coming (夜来る Yoru Kuru )||2:00|
|5||The Dragon Boy (竜の少年 Ryū no Shōnen )||2:12|
|6||Sootballs (ボイラー虫 Boirā Mushi )||2:33|
|7||Procession of the Spirits (神さま達 Kamisama-tachi )||3:00|
|9||Bathhouse Morning (湯屋の朝 Yuya no Asa )||2:02|
|10||Day of the River (あの日の川 Ano Hi no Kawa )||3:13|
|11||It's Hard Work (仕事はつらいぜ Shigoto wa Tsuraize )||2:26|
|12||The Stink Spirit (おクサレ神 Okusaregami )||4:01|
|13||Sen's Courage (千の勇気 Sen no Yūki )||2:45|
|14||The Bottomless Pit (底なし穴 Sokonashi Ana )||1:18|
|15||Kaonashi (No Face) (カオナシ Kaonashi )||3:47|
|16||The Sixth Station (6番目の駅 Roku Banme no Eki )||3:38|
|17||Yubaba's Panic (湯婆婆狂乱 Yubaba Kyōran )||1:38|
|18||The House at Swamp Bottom (沼の底の家 Numa no Soko no Ie )||1:29|
|19||Reprise (ふたたび Futatabi )||4:53|
|20||The Return (帰る日 Kaeru Hi )||3:20|
|21||Always With Me (いつも何度でも Itsumo Nando demo )||Youmi Kimura (木村弓)||3:35|
- Image album track listing
- Ano Hi no Kawa e (あの日の川へ lit. To that Days' River ) – Umi (3:54)
- Yoru ga Kuru (夜が来る lit. Night is Coming ) – Joe Hisaishi (4:25)
- Kamigami-sama (神々さま lit. Gods ) – Shizuru Otaka (3:55)
- Yuya (油屋 lit. Bathhouse ) – Tsunehiko Kamijō (3:56)
- Fushigi no Kuni no Jyūnin (不思議の国の住人 lit. The People in Wonderland ) – Joe Hisaishi (3:20)
- Samishii samishii (さみしいさみしい lit. Lonely lonely ) – Monsieur Kamayatsu (3:41)
- Solitude (ソリチュード Sorichūdo ) – Rieko Suzuki and Hiroshi Kondo (3:49)
- Umi (海 lit. The Sea ) – Joe Hisaishi (3:22)
- Shiroi Ryū (白い竜 lit. White Dragon ) – Rikki (3:33)
- Chihiro no Waltz (千尋のワルツ Chihiro no Warutsu , Chihiro's Waltz) – Joe Hisaishi (3:20)
Walt Disney Pictures dubbed the English adaptation of Spirited Away, under the supervision of Pixar animator John Lasseter. Lasseter is a "huge" Miyazaki fan, and he and his staff often sit down and watch some of Miyazaki's work when they encounter story problems, and at one point they did so with Spirited Away. After seeing the film, Lasseter was "ecstatic." Upon hearing his reaction to the film, people at Disney asked Lasseter if he would be interested in trying to bring Spirited Away to an American audience. Despite his busy schedule, Lasseter agreed to executive produce the English adaptation. Soon, several others began to join the project: Beauty and the Beast co-director Kirk Wise and Aladdin co-producer Donald W. Ernst joined Lasseter as director and producer of Spirited Away respectively.16 Cindy Davis Hewitt and Donald H. Hewitt penned the English-language dialogue, which they wrote to match the characters' original Japanese-language lip movements.4
The cast of the film consisted of Daveigh Chase, Susan Egan, David Ogden Stiers and John Ratzenberger (considered by Lasseter as his "good luck charm"). With the cast and talent in place, word began to spread around the Internet. Initially, news was light. Pixar had already begun to push their upcoming fall films, but Spirited Away was only mentioned in a small scrolling section of their film page on Disney's official website. The promotions were also quite trying, as Disney had sidelined their official website for Spirited Away and hidden it in the confines of Buena Vista's many 'labyrinths'. While homepages for films like Signs were clearly displayed, it was only through some people's curiosity the Spirited Away website could be found.16
The major themes of Spirited Away center on the protagonist Chihiro and her liminal journey through the realm of spirits, wherein Chihiro becomes separated from everything she has known. Chihiro's experience in the alternate world, frequently compared to Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, represents her passage from childhood to adulthood.17 The archetypal entrance into another world clearly demarcates Chihiro's status as one in-between. In her transition between child and adult, Chihiro stands outside these societal boundaries, a situation mirrored by the supernatural setting. The use of the word kamikakushi (literally "hidden by gods") within the Japanese title, and its associated folklore, reinforce this liminal passage: "Kamikakushi is a verdict of 'social death' in this world, and coming back to this world from Kamikakushi meant 'social resurrection.'"18 Yubaba had many similarities to The Coachman from Pinocchio, in the sense that she transformed humans into pigs in a similar way that the boys of Pleasure Island were transformed into donkeys. Upon gaining employment at the bathhouse, Yubaba's seizure of Chihiro's true name, a common theme in folklore, symbolically kills the child Chihiro,17 who must therefore assume adulthood. The following trials and obstacles Chihiro must overcome thus become rites-of-passage according to the monomyth format; to recover "continuity with her past", Chihiro must create a new identity.17
Besides the coming of age theme, Spirited Away contains critical commentary on modern Japanese society concerning generational conflicts, the struggle with dissolving traditional culture and customs within a global society, and environmental pollution.19 Chihiro, as a representation of the liminal shōjo, "may be seen as a metaphor for the Japanese society which, over the last decade, seems to be increasingly in limbo, drifting uneasily away from the values and ideological framework of the immediate postwar era."20 Just as Chihiro seeks her past identity, Japan, in its anxiety over the economic downturn occurring during the release of Spirited Away in 2001, sought to reconnect to past values.17 In interview, Miyazaki has commented on this nostalgic element for an old Japan.21 Initially, Chihiro travels past the abandoned fairground, a symbol for Japan's burst "economic bubble", and her parents' gluttony and transformation into pigs, to reach the fantasy world replete with Japanese culture and fable in the amalgam of the bathhouse.
Nonetheless, the "bathhouse of the spirits has its own ambivalence, and its own darkness.... Miyazaki is not so simple-minded as to locate a perfect vision in the past or the spiritual."22 Many of the employees are rude to Chihiro because she is human, and the corruption of avarice has incorporated itself into the "bricolage" of the bathhouse20 and as a place of "excess and greed" as depicted in the initial appearance of the No-Face.23 In stark contrast to the "archetypal approaches to cultural recovery such as recognition, proper identification, spiritual cleansing and sacrifice," embodied in Chihiro's journey and transformation, the constant background presence of the ambiguity of the bathhouse reminds the audience reality is not so simple: "the bathhouse's simultaneous incorporation of the carnivalesque and the chaotic suggests the threats to the collectivity are not simply outside ones."20 The environmental comments concerning the trash deforming the River God and Haku's plight over the loss of his river to apartment complexes further indicate the sources of pollution within the bathhouse, a place of ritual purity, come from within the Japanese society.
Spirited Away opened theatrically in Japan on July 27, 2001 by Japanese film distributor Toho, grossing US$229,607,878 to become the highest-grossing film in Japanese history.24 It was the first film to have earned $200 million at the worldwide box office before opening in the United States.25
The film was dubbed into English by Walt Disney Pictures, under the supervision of Pixar's John Lasseter. The dubbed version premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 7, 200226 and was subsequently released in North America on September 20, 2002. The film grossed US$449,839 in its opening weekend and had made slightly over $10 million by September 2003.27 The film went on to gross US$274,925,095 worldwide.28
Spirited Away received critical acclaim. The film holds a 97% approval rating on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on 156 reviews, with an average rating of 8.5/10, and the consensus: "Spirited Away is a dazzling, enchanting, and gorgeously drawn fairy tale that will leave viewers a little more curious and fascinated by our world."29 On Metacritic, the film achieved a weighted average score of 94 out of 100 based on 37 reviews, signifying "universal acclaim".30
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film a full four stars and praised the film and Miyazaki's direction. Ebert also said that Spirited Away was one of "the year's best films."31 Elvis Mitchell of The New York Times positively reviewed the film and praised the animation sequences. Mitchell also drew a favorable comparison to Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass and also said that his movies are about "moodiness as mood" and the characters "heightens the [film's] tension."3 Derek Elley of Variety said that Spirited Away "can be enjoyed by sprigs and adults alike" and praised the animation and music.1 Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times praised the voice acting and said the film is the "product of a fierce and fearless imagination whose creations are unlike any[thing a person has] seen before". Turan also praised Miyazaki's direction.32 Orlando Sentinel's critic Jay Boyar also praised Miyazaki's direction and said the film is "the perfect choice for a child who has moved into a new home."33
Rotten Tomatoes ranked Spirited Away as the thirteenth-best animated film on the site.34 In 2005, it was ranked as the twelfth-best animated film of all time by IGN.35 The film is also ranked No. 9 of the highest-rated movies of all time on Metacritic; being the highest rated traditionally animated film on the site. The film ranked number 10 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010.36
|2002||25th Japan Academy Award||Best Film||Won||Spirited Away37|
|Best Song||Won||Spirited Away37|
|52nd Berlin International Film Festival||Golden Bear||Won||Spirited Away
(together with Bloody Sunday)
|Cinekid Festival||Cinekid Film Award||Won||Spirited Away
(together with The Little Bird Boy)
|15th European Film Awards||Screen International Award||Won||Hayao Miyazaki|
|Hong Kong Film Awards||Best Asian Film||Won||Spirited Away|
|2003||75th Academy Awards||Best Animated Feature||Won||Spirited Away|
In North America, the film was released on DVD and VHS formats by Buena Vista Home Entertainment on April 15, 2003. The attention brought by the Oscar win resulted in the film becoming a strong seller.40 The bonus features include Japanese trailers, a making-of documentary which originally aired on Nippon Television, interviews with the North American voice actors, a select storyboard-to-scene comparison and The Art of Spirited Away, a documentary narrated by actor Jason Marsden.
- Elley, Derek (February 18, 2002). "Spirited Away Review". Variety (Reed Business Information). Retrieved September 2, 2011.
- "Sen To Chihiro No Kamikakushi". www.bcdb.com, May 13, 2012
- Mitchell, Elvis (September 20, 2002). "Movie Review – Spirited Away". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
- Turan, Kenneth (2002-09-20). "Under the Spell of 'Spirited Away'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Johnson, G. Allen. "Spirited away top grossing film in Japan". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 1, 2009.
- "The 50 Best Movies of the Decade (2000–2009)". Paste Magazine. November 3, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- "Film Critics Pick the Best Movies of the Decade". Metacritic. January 3, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Top 100 Animation Movies". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- Haku is described as 'approximately 12', Hayao Miyazaki (2008). The Art of Miyazaki's Spirited Away. Studio Ghibli Library. Viz Media. p. 84. ISBN 1-56931-777-1.
- Hayao Miyazaki (2008). The Art of Miyazaki's Spirited Away. Studio Ghibli Library. Viz Media. p. 120. ISBN 1-56931-777-1.
- Miyazaki on Spirited Away // Interviews //. Nausicaa.net (July 11, 2001).
- Philip Kendall. Taiwan’s Jiufen — the Real-World Inspiration for Studio Ghibli’s Spirited Away. 2012-12-18. Accessed 2013-04-14.
- The Making of Hayao Miyazaki's "Spirited Away" – Part 1. Jimhillmedia.com.
- "Notoya in Ginzan Onsen stop businees for renovation. | Tenkai-japan:Cool Japan Guide-Travel, Shopping, Fashion, J-pop". Tenkai-japan. 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- Dogo Onsen japan-guide.com
- The Making of Hayao Miyazaki's "Spirited Away" – Part 3. Jimhillmedia.com.
- Satoshi, Ando. "Regaining Continuity with the Past: Spirited Away and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland." Bookbird 46.1: 23–29. Project MUSE. February 11, 2009 .
- Reider, Noriko T. "Spirited Away: Film of the Fantastic and Evolving Japanese Folk Symbols." Film Criticism 29.3: 4–27. Academic OneFile. Gale. February 11, 2009 .
- Napier, Susan J. "Matter Out of Place: Carnival, Containment and Cultural Recovery in Miyazaki's Spirited Away." Journal of Japanese Studies 32.2: 287–310. Project MUSE. February 11, 2009 .
- Napier, Susan J. "Matter Out of Place: Carnival, Containment and Cultural Recovery in Miyazaki's Spirited Away." Journal of Japanese Studies 32.2: 287–310. Project MUSE. February 11, 2009 .
- Mes, Tom (January 7, 2002). "Hayao Miyazaki Interview". Midnight Eye. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Thrupkaew, Noy. "Animation Sensation: Why Japan's Magical Spirited Away Plays Well Anywhere." American Prospect 13.19: 32–33. Academic OneFile. Gale. February 11, 2009 .
- Harris, Timothy. "Seized by the Gods." Quadrant 47.9: 64–67. Academic OneFile. Gale. February 11, 2009 .
- "Spirited Away – International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. Retrieved September 3, 2011.
- Johnson, G. Allen (February 3, 2005). "Asian films are grossing millions. Here, they're either remade, held hostage or released with little fanfare". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Ball, Ryan (September 9, 2001). "Spirited Away Premieres At Toronto Int'l Film Fest". Animation Magazine. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Spirited Away Box Office and Rental History". Archived from the original on January 16, 2006. Retrieved April 21, 2006.
- "Spirited Away (2002)". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
- "Spirited Away Movie Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- "Spirited Away". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Ebert, Roger (September 20, 2002). "Spirited Away". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
- Turan, Kenneth (September 20, 2002). "Under the Spell of 'Spirited Away'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
- Boyar, Jay (October 11, 2002). "`Spirited Away' – A Magic Carpet Ride". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
- "Best Animated Films – Spirited Away". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- "The Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time". IGN Entertainment. News Corporation. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Empire. Text " 10. Spirited Away " ignored (help)
- "List of award-winning films at the 25th Japan Academy Awards". Japan Academy Awards Association (in Japanese). Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "千と千尋の神隠し" (in Japanese). Walt Disney Japan. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- "ブエナビスタ、DVD「千と千尋の神隠し」の発売日を7月19日に決定" (in Japanese). AV Watch. May 10, 2002. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Reid, Calvin (April 28, 2003). "'Spirited Away' Sells like Magic". Publishers Weekly 250 (17). Retrieved April 29, 2012.
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- Official website
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- Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi at the Big Cartoon DataBase
- Spirited Away (anime) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia
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- Spirited Away at the Japanese Movie Database (Japanese)