Warning: all items and those of a medical nature and/or pharmaceutical and/or legal published on Wikipedia (and in any part of TerritorioScuola Enhanced Wiki Alpha) must always be carefully checked before any use.
The stapes transmits the sound vibrations from the incus to the membrane of the inner ear inside the fenestra ovalis. The stapes is also stabilized by the stapedius muscle, which is innervated by the facial nerve.2
In non-mammalian tetrapods, the bone homologous to the stapes is usually called the columella; however, in reptiles, either term may be used. In fish, the homologous bone is called the hyomandibular, and is part of the gill arch supporting either the spiracle or the jaw, depending on species.3
As the stapes first develops embryologically from the 6th to 8th week of life, it surrounds the stapedial artery, which supplies the majority of the vasculature of the embryonic head. After that period, the external carotid artery is generated and takes over for the stapedial artery, which subsequently involutes, leaving the stapes with a windowframe-like structure.
^Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 481–482. ISBN0-03-910284-X.
Vallejo-Valdezate LA, Martín-Gil J, José-Yacamán M, Martín-Gil FJ, Gil-Carcedo LM. (2000 Sep). "Scanning electron microscopy images and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of the stapes in otosclerosis and van der Hoeve syndrome". Laryngoscope110 (9). pp. 1505–10.Check date values in: |date= (help)