|Stepan Osipovich Makarov|
Admiral Stepan Makarov
8 January 1849|
Nikolaev, Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
|Died||13 April 1904
near Port Arthur, China
|Service/branch||Imperial Russian Navy|
|Years of service||1863–1904|
|Commands held||Russian Pacific Fleet|
|Battles/wars||Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
|Awards||Order of St. George|
Stepan Osipovich Makarov (Russian: Степа́н О́сипович Мака́ров; 8 January 1849 O.S. 27 December] – 13 April O.S. 31 March] 1904) was a Russian vice-admiral, a highly accomplished and decorated commander of the Imperial Russian Navy, an oceanographer, awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences, and author of several books. Makarov also designed a small number of ships. The town of Shiritoru on Sakhalin island, was renamed Makarov in 1946 in his honor.
Stepan Makarov was born in Nikolaev (now Mykolayiv, Ukraine) in a family of a fleet praporshchik (прапорщик по Адмиралтейству, an auxiliary officer). His family moved to Nikolayevsk na Amure in 1858 and Makarov attended school there. In 1863, he joined the Imperial Russian Navy where he served as a cadet aboard a clipper of the Pacific Fleet. In 1866 he took part in the voyage of the corvette Askold from Vladivostok to Kronstadt via the Cape of Good Hope. Makarov served with the Baltic Fleet between 1867 and 1876 serving as flag captain to Admiral Andrei Popov. He transferred to the Black Sea Fleet in 1876.
Makarov was highly decorated for his service as a captain of the Russian torpedo boat tender Velikiy Knyaz Konstantin in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. He was one of the first to adopt the idea of torpedo boats and he himself went to action in torpedo boats. On January 16, 1877 he was first in the World to launch torpedoes from a boat (which itself was launched from a tender) against an Ottoman Navy ship Intibah.
Makarov directed two round-the-world oceanographic expeditions on the corvette Vityaz (1886–89 and 1894–96).
Makarov also designed two icebreaking steam ships to connect the Trans-Siberian Railway across Lake Baikal: the train ferry SS Baikal built in 1897 and passenger and package freight steamer SS Angara built in about 1900,12 based upon his study of similar vessels on the American Great Lakes.
Armstrong Whitworth in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, built the ships in kit form and sent them to Listvyanka on Lake Baikal for reassembly. Their boilers, engines and some other components were built in Saint Petersburg.2 Baikal had 15 boilers, four funnels, was 64 metres (210 ft) long and could carry 24 railway coaches and one locomotive on her middle deck.12 Angara is smaller, with two funnels.12
Makarov was appointed chief commander and military governor of Kronstadt in January 1900.3 After the Imperial Japanese Navy's surprise attack at Port Arthur on 9 February 1904, Admiral Makarov was sent to command the Imperial Russian Navy's battle fleet stationed there on 24 February (some sources state March) of that year. His leadership differed greatly from any other Russian naval officer during this war, offering diversity, aggression, and an ability to "inspire confidence in his subordinates".4
Upon his assumption of command in early 1904, Makarov greatly increased the activity in the Russian squadrons, as well as the general defense of Port Arthur.5 Until then the Russian fleet had generally done nothing6 but exist, as a fleet in being.7 Under Makarov's leadership, "Russian squadrons put to sea nearly every day, constantly on the move, and ensuring that it was never taken by surprise outside the protection of Port Arthur's" shore batteries.8
Unlike his predecessors, Makorov sought engagements with the Japanese,9 and kept his vessels in an order of battle in the roadstead of Port Arthur.10 When Japanese cruisers bombarded Port Arthur from the Yellow Sea in March, his cruisers returned fire with such intensity that the Japanese ships were forced to withdraw.5 That same month the Japanese Navy tried to seal the port's entrance by sinking old steam ships as blockships in the harbor's channel. Russian cruisers assigned to protect the entrance pursued the escorting Japanese warships and quickly put them to flight.11
On 13 April 1904 the Russian destroyer Strasny returning from patrol, tried to re-enter the mouth of the Port Arthur but was intercepted by Japanese destroyers.12 An engagement began between the opposing destroyers, and when observed by Makarov he immediately sent the cruiser Bayan to assist the Strasny, while he led three battleships, four cruisers, and a group of destroyers into the Yellow Sea to seek battle with the surrounding enemy warships.13
The Japanese warships withdrew to nearly 15 milesclarification needed out to sea, with Makarov in pursuit. With the arrival of enemy heavy units upon the scene, Makarov, now exceeding his gunfire support range from shore, turned about and headed back to Port Arthur; and the Japanese fleet did not pursue. As his flagship, the battleship Petropavlovsk, moved closer to the harbour's entrance, she detonated a Japanese mine.14 Secondary explosions followed quickly in succession and Petropavlovsk sank, taking Admiral Makarov with her.151617
The admiral’s remains and those of five of his officers were recovered from the wreck of the Petropavlovsk by Japanese salvage teams, and in 1913, as a gesture of good will, the officers and crew of the Japanese cruiser Akitsushima presided over the funeral for the admiral in the military cemetery of Port Arthur.18
There are monuments to Makarov in his native Mykolayiv, Ukraine, and in Vladivostok and Kronstadt, Russia. A number of ships have been named Admiral Makarov. An island in the Tsivolk group of the Nordenskiöld Archipelago was named after him. National University of Shipbuilding in Mykolaiv (Nikolayev) and State Maritime Academy in Saint Petersburg are named after him.
- "Irkutsk: Ice-Breaker "Angara"". Lake Baikal Travel Company. Lake Baikal Travel Company. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Babanine, Fedor (2003). "Circumbaikal Railway". Lake Baikal Homepage. Fedor Babanine. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Naval & Military intelligence" The Times (London). Wednesday, 17 January 1900. (36041), p. 9.
- Grant, p. 131
- Grant, p. 93
- Grant, p. 121
- Mahan, p. 456
- Grant, p. 120
- Grant, p. 126
- Grant, p. 115
- Grant, p. 116
- Grant, p. 125
- Grant p. 126
- Watts, p. 20
- Grant, p. 127, 128
- Spector, p. 2
- "War Lasted 18 Months, Biggest Battle Known". New York Times. August 30, 1905. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
- Taras, p. 27.
- Grant, Captain R. (1907). Before Port Arthur in a Destroyer; The Personal Diary of a Japanese Naval Officer. London: John Murray.
- Mahan, Captain Alfred Thayer (June 1906). "Reflections, Historic and Other, Suggested by the Battle of the Japan Sea (Tsushima)". Proceedings (United States Naval Institute). XXXVI (2).
- Spector, Ronald (2001). At War, at Sea: Sailors and Naval Warfare in the Twentieth Century. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-670-86085-2. OCLC 123102596.
- Taras, Alexander (2000). Корабли Российского императорского флота 1892–1917 гг. Ships of the Imperial Russian Navy 1892–1917. Library of Military History (in Russian). Minsk: Kharvest. ISBN 978-985-433-888-0.
- Watts, Anthony J. (1990). The Imperial Russian Navy. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-912-1.
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