|Crystal symmetry||Tetragonal ditetragonal dipyramidal
H-M symbol: (42/m 21/n 21/m)
Space group: P 42/mnm (No. 136)
|Unit cell||a = 4.1772(7) Å, c = 2.6651(4) Å; Z=2|
|Color||Colorless (when pure)|
|Mohs scale hardness||9-9.51|
|Diaphaneity||Transparent to translucent|
|Optical properties||Uniaxial (+)|
|Refractive index||nω = 1.799–1.800 nε = 1.826–1.845|
|Birefringence||δ = 0.027|
Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide. It is very rare on the earth's surface. It may however be a predominant form of silicon dioxide in the earth, especially in the lower mantle.5
Unlike other silica polymorphs, the crystal structure of stishovite resembles that of rutile (TiO2). The silicon in stishovite adopts an octahedral coordination geometry, being bound to six oxides. Similarly the oxides are three-connected, unlike low pressure forms of SiO2. In most silicates, silicon is tetrahedral, being bound to four oxides.7 It was long considered the hardest known oxide (~30 GPa Vickers1); however, boron suboxide has recently been discovered to be much harder. At normal temperature and pressure, stishovite is metastable.
Until recently, the only known occurrences of stishovite in nature formed at the very high shock pressures (>100 kbar or 10 GPa) and temperatures (> 1200 °C) present during hypervelocity meteorite impact into quartz-bearing rock. Minute amounts of stishovite has been found within diamonds,8 and post-stishovite phases were identified within ultra-high pressure mantle rocks.9 Stishovite may also be synthesized by duplicating these conditions in the laboratory, either isostatically or through shock (see shocked quartz) 10 At 4.287 g/cm3 it is second densest polymorph of silica, after seifertite. It has tetragonal crystal symmetry, P42/mnm, No.136, Pearson symbol tP6.11
- Coesite, a related mineral
- Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swadener, J.G.; Ma, Chi; Tschauner, Oliver (2007). "Examining crystallographic orientation dependence of hardness of silica stishovite". Physica B: Condensed Matter 399 (2): 138. Bibcode:2007PhyB..399..138L. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2007.06.011. and references therein
- Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W. and Nichols, Monte C., ed. (1995). "Stishovite" (PDF). Handbook of Mineralogy. II (Silica, Silicates). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209716. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Stishovite. Mindat.org
- Stishovite. Webmineral.com
- Dmitry L. Lakshtanov et al. "The post-stishovite phase transition in hydrous alumina-bearing SiO2 in the lower mantle of the earth" PNAS 2007 104 (34) 13588-13590; doi:10.1073/pnas.0706113104
- Fleischer, Michael (1962). "New mineral names" (PDF). American Mineralogist (Mineralogical Society of America) 47 (2): 172–174.
- Ross, Nancy L. (1990). "High pressure crystal chemistry of stishovite" (PDF). American Mineralogist (Mineralogical Society of America) 75 (7): 739–747.
- Wirth, R; Vollmer, C; Brenker, F; Matsyuk, S; Kaminsky, F (2007). "Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate "Phase Egg" in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 259 (3–4): 384. Bibcode:2007E&PSL.259..384W. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.04.041.
- Liu, L; Zhang, J; Greenii, H; Jin, Z; Bozhilov, K (2007). "Evidence of former stishovite in metamorphosed sediments, implying subduction to >350 km". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 263 (3–4): 180. Bibcode:2007E&PSL.263..180L. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.08.010.
- J. M. Léger, J. Haines, M. Schmidt, J. P. Petitet, A. S. Pereira & J. A. H. da Jornada (1996). "Discovery of hardest known oxide". Nature 383 (6599): 401. Bibcode:1996Natur.383..401L. doi:10.1038/383401a0.
- Smyth J.R., Swope R.J., Pawley A.R. (1995). "H in rutile-type compounds: II. Crystal chemistry of Al substitution in H-bearing stishovite". American Mineralogist 80: 454–456.