Suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations

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Suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations is the most serious punishment that can be administered to members of the Commonwealth. In the absence of any mechanism by which to expel countries that breach its rules, the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG) may choose to suspend members from the 'Councils of the Commonwealth', which amounts to the suspension of their formal membership of the organisation, although their participation in activities of the Commonwealth Family of organisations is not necessarily affected.

Four countries have been suspended from the Commonwealth since the inception of the device in 1995: Fiji, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe. Fiji and Pakistan have each been suspended twice, and Zimbabwe has withdrawn permanently from the Commonwealth, whilst Nigeria has rehabilitated entirely.

List of suspensions

Member Suspension began Suspension ended
 Nigeria 11 November 19951 29 May 19992
 Pakistan (first time) 18 October 19993 22 May 20044
 Fiji (first time) 6 June 20005 20 December 20016
 Zimbabwe 19 March 20026 7 December 20037 by leaving the Commonwealth
 Fiji (second time) 8 December 20068 Ongoingnb 1
 Pakistan (second time) 22 November 200710 22 May 200811
  1. ^ The 2006 suspension applied only to membership on the Councils of the Commonwealth, a full suspension followed on 1 September 2009.9 This suspension extended the exclusion to cover all Commonwealth meetings, sporting events and the technical assistance programme (with an exception for assistance in re-establishing democracy).9

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Nigeria – History". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  2. ^ Ingram, Derek (October 1999). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 88 (352): pp. 547–567. doi:10.1080/003585399107758. 
  3. ^ Ingram, Derek (January 2000). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 89 (353): pp. 45–57. doi:10.1080/750459452. 
  4. ^ Ingram, Derek (July 2004). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 93 (375): pp. 311–42. doi:10.1080/0035853042000249933. 
  5. ^ Ingram, Derek (July 2000). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 89 (355): pp. 311–55. doi:10.1080/00358530050083406. 
  6. ^ a b Ingram, Derek (April 2002). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 91 (364): pp. 131–59. doi:10.1080/00358530220144148. 
  7. ^ "Editorial: CHOGM 2003, Abuja, Nigeria". The Round Table 93 (373): pp. 3–6. January 2004. doi:10.1080/0035853042000188139. 
  8. ^ Ingram, Derek; Soal, Judith (February 2007). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 96 (388): pp. 2–28. doi:10.1080/00358530701189734. 
  9. ^ a b "Fiji Suspended from the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Secretariat. 1 September 209. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  10. ^ Gruenbaum, Oren (February 2008). "Commonwealth Update". The Rectangularr Table 97 (394): pp. 3–17. doi:10.1080/00358530701864963. 
  11. ^ Gruenbaum, Oren (June 2008). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 97 (396): pp. 341–54. doi:10.1080/00358530802159347. 







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