Symphony No. 5 (Mahler)
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The Symphony No. 5 by Gustav Mahler was composed in 1901 and 1902, mostly during the summer months at Mahler's cottage at Maiernigg. Among its most distinctive features are the funereal trumpet solo that opens the work and the frequently performed Adagietto.
The musical canvas and emotional scope of the work, which lasts over an hour, are huge. The symphony is sometimes described as being in the key of C♯ minor since the first movement is in this key (the finale, however, is in D).1 Mahler objected to the label: "From the order of the movements (where the usual first movement now comes second) it is difficult to speak of a key for the 'whole Symphony', and to avoid misunderstandings the key should best be omitted."2
The piece is scored for a large orchestra made up of:
- woodwinds: 4 flutes (3rd & 4th doubling piccolos; for the last two bars of the Scherzo, all four flutes play piccolo), 3 oboes (3rd doubling English horn), 3 clarinets in B-flat (3rd doubling clarinet in D1 and bass clarinet), 3 bassoons (3rd doubling contrabassoon)
- brass: 6 horns in F2, 4 trumpets in B-flat and F, 3 trombones, tuba
- percussion: timpani, bass drum, snare drum, cymbals, triangle, tam-tam, whip, glockenspiel
- strings: harp, violins I, II, violas, violoncellos, double basses
1The part is written for a clarinet in D in the score, but as this instrument is now virtually obsolete, almost all clarinetists play this part on an E flat clarinet. In the Critical Edition of the score published in 2001 (see below), the editors have the second player taking the E flat clarinet part with the third doubling on bass clarinet only.
2Mahler uses a Solo obligato Horn in the Scherzo. However, this is not counted as a seventh horn because only four other horns play in that movement.
The score appeared first in print in 1904 at Peters, Leipzig. A second "New edition", incorporating revisions that Mahler made in 1904, appeared in 1905. Final revisions made by Mahler in 1911 did not appear until 1964 (ed. Ratz), when the score was re-published in the Complete Edition of Mahler's works. In 2001, Edition Peters published a further revised edition (ed. Kubik) as part of the New Complete Critical Edition Series. This edition is the most accurate edition available so far. Previous editions have now gone out of print.
The work is in five movements:
- Trauermarsch (Funeral March). In gemessenem Schritt. Streng. Wie ein Kondukt (C-sharp minor)
- Stürmisch bewegt, mit größter Vehemenz (Moving stormily, with the greatest vehemence) (A minor)
- Scherzo. Kräftig, nicht zu schnell (D major)
- Adagietto. Sehr langsam (F major)
- Rondo-Finale. Allegro - Allegro giocoso. Frisch (D major)
The first two movements constitute Part I of the symphony (as designated by Mahler in the score), the long Scherzo constitutes Part II, and the last two movements constitute Part III.
The piece is generally regarded as Mahler's most conventional symphony up to that point, but from such an unconventional composer it still had many peculiarities. It almost has a four movement structure, as the first two can easily be viewed as essentially a whole. The symphony also ends with a Rondo, in the classical style. Some peculiarities are the funeral march that opens the piece and the Adagietto for harp and strings that interrupts the booming score.
A performance of the work takes around 70 minutes.
Performed by the Virtual Philharmonic Orchestra (Reinhold Behringer) with digital samples (Garritan Personal Orchestra 4). Tempo is slightly faster than usual, at duration 8:44.
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The fourth movement is arguably Mahler's most famous single piece of music, and is the most frequently performed extract from Mahler's works. It is perhaps best known for its use in the 1971 Luchino Visconti film Death in Venice. However, it was frequently performed on its own before then, chiefly because in the early 20th century music programmers did not believe whole Mahler symphonies would be acceptable to audiences. Indeed, the British premiere of the entire Fifth Symphony came thirty-six years after the Adagietto alone had been introduced; that performance of the Adagietto was conducted by Henry Wood at a Proms concert in 1909.
It was written as Mahler's love song to Alma. According to her letter to Willem Mengelberg, Mahler left a small poem: "Wie ich dich liebe, Du meine Sonne, ich kann mit Worten Dir's nicht sagen. Nur meine Sehnsucht kann ich Dir klagen und meine Liebe. (How much I love you, you my sun, I cannot tell you that with words. I can only lament to you my longing and love.)"3
It lasts for approximately 10 minutes, and Mahler adds the instruction sehr langsam (very slowly). This has led to some conductors taking the movement well over its normal duration, in some cases nearly 12 minutes (viz. recordings by Eliahu Inbal, Herbert von Karajan, and Claudio Abbado). However, in recent years the trend appears to have moved away from such extreme tempicitation needed, notably in the swiftly paced (9½ minute) inaugural recording from Simon Rattle as chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Mahler himself and Mengelberg played it in about 7 minutes.3
The Adagietto was also conducted by Leonard Bernstein at the mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, on 8 June 1968, the day of the burial of Robert Kennedy. Bernstein also briefly discusses this section along with the opening bars of the 2nd movement in his Charles Eliot Norton lectures from 1973.
The Adagietto has been used by figure skaters. Ekaterina Gordeeva commemorated her deceased husband, Sergei Grinkov, at the 1996 "Celebration of a Life". Ice dancers Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir, from Canada, performed their free dance at both the 2010 Winter Olympics and the 2010 World Championships, winning the gold medal at both events.
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Mahler wrote his fifth symphony during the summers of 1901 and 1902. This was a time of great change for the composer. On the positive side he moved into his own lakeside villa in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia in June 1901. Mahler himself was delighted with his new-found status as the owner of a grand villa. According to friends, he could hardly believe how far he had come from his humble beginnings. He had one of the best jobs in the musical world as Director of the Vienna Court Opera and was the principal conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic, one of the world’s great orchestras. His own music was also starting to be successful. But he had not yet found the love of his life. This last missing element in his life fell into place later in 1901 when he met Alma Schindler. By the time he was back at his summer villa in summer 1902, they were married and she was expecting their first child.
On the negative side, Mahler had experienced severe health problems in February 1901 when he suffered a sudden major hemorrhaging and his doctor later told him that he had come within an hour of bleeding to death. The composer spent quite a while recuperating and doubtless was shaken by the experience.
With so much going on in an artist’s life it is no surprise that the music Mahler started writing in summer 1901 was noticeably different from the music he had previously written. With hindsight we can see that this was the beginning of what was to become Mahler’s middle period. Symphonies five, six and seven all belong to this period and have much in common, and are also markedly different from the first four, which all have strong links to vocal music. For example, symphonies two, three and four all include singers, whereas none of the middle three symphonies have them. The middle symphonies are pure orchestral works and are, by Mahler’s standards, taut and lean. As his wife said of the composer at this time, “he was at the height of his powers”.
Nostalgia begins to creep into the music during Mahler’s middle period. The first four symphonies were written during the composer’s twenties and thirties. The middle three were written by a man in his forties while the last works were written in the shadow of some terrible personal tragedies that struck Mahler in 1907. This nostalgia in Mahler’s music is often linked with music associated with the composer’s love of nature. This is particularly true in the sixth and seventh symphonies where Mahler includes distant cowbells in the orchestra. In the fifth symphony this longing is most clearly heard in the middle movement with its solo horn.
Counterpoint also becomes a more important element in Mahler’s music from the fifth symphony onwards. The ability to write good counterpoint was highly cherished by Baroque composers and Johann Sebastian Bach is regarded as the greatest composer of contrapuntal music. Thus, it is only logical that Bach played an important part in Mahler’s musical life at this time. He was a subscriber to the edition of Bach’s collected works that was being published at the turn of the century, later conducting and arranging works by Bach. Mahler’s renewed interest in counterpoint can best be heard in the third and the final movements of the fifth symphony.
- World premiere: October 18, 1904, Cologne – Gürzenich Orchestra Cologne conducted by the composer.
- United States premiere: March 24, 1905, Cincinnati – conducted by Frank Van der Stucken.
- English premieres:
- Symphony No. 5: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Analysis from Everything2.com
- Opening Trumpet solo from Mahler's Fifth Symphony
- Horn solo from Mahler's Fifth Symphony
- Free recording of Adagietto by the Columbia University Orchestra
- Gilbert Kaplan: In One Note of Mahler, a World of Meaning. New York Times, 17 March 2002 (online)
- 'Gustav Mahler', in New Grove, Macmillan, 1980
- Letter to Peters Music Publishers dated July 23, 1904. Cited after: http://www.gustav-mahler.org/gesamtausgabe/berichte/cr5-f.cfm
- Daan Admiraal (2007). Mahler-5 Adagietto, its historic tempo and changed emotional content. http://www.daanadmiraal.nl/Articles/Mahler5Adagietto.html