TMZ

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from TMZ (website))
Jump to: navigation, search

TMZ is a celebrity news website that debuted on November 8, 2005. It was a collaboration between AOL and Telepictures Productions, a division of Warner Bros.,1 until Time Warner divested AOL in 2009. The name TMZ stands for thirty-mile zone, the historic "studio zone" within a 30-mile (50 km) radius centered at the intersection of West Beverly Boulevard and North La Cienega Boulevard in Los Angeles, California.

TMZ's managing editor is Harvey Levin, a lawyer-turned-journalist who was previously a legal expert for the Los Angeles television station KCBS-TV.2 The site claims that it does not pay for stories or interviews; however, Levin has admitted that TMZ does "sometimes pay sources for leads on stories".345 Levin has stated that "everything is researched and vetted for accuracy."6 A companion television series, TMZ on TV, debuted on September 10, 2007.

Development

Seven months prior to the official launch of TMZ, America Online (AOL) had hinted that it was planning to launch a Hollywood- and entertainment-centric news site that would be produced in conjunction with Telepictures Productions and had shown interest in launching a website featuring a focus mainly on celebrities.7 At the time of the launch, AOL confirmed that the site would primarily feature and consist of Hollywood gossip, including interviews, photos and video footage of celebrities and information pertaining to industry news on movies, television shows, etc.7 The site was described as "an effort to further feed the current American obsession with celebrities". Mike Shields of MediaWeek.com wrote, "the site also boasts of an expansive collection of archived star photos and videos", allowing fans to "trace changing hairlines and waistlines of their favorites performers over the years".7

Background

Since 2005, TMZ has signed Revlon, Chrysler, Hilton Hotels and New Line Cinema as charter advertisers to their website.7 The New York Times cited TMZ as "one of the most successful online ventures of the last few years."8 In October 2008, the New York Times reported that TMZ, at the time, was receiving more than 10 million viewers every month.8 Alexa.com ranked TMZ as the five-hundred-fifth most trafficked website worldwide and as the one hundred-fifty-fifth most trafficked website in the United States.9

Levin has acknowledged that TMZ has passed on multiple notable coverage because he felt that, while the stories are true, he questioned how the sources obtained their information.8 Levin has acknowledged that TMZ pays source, but in the form of a "tip fee". Levin stated that TMZ pays for photos and for 'tips' and or leads on stories, and defended TMZ's position by stating that the sources and tips are verified before being used and or reported.3

In November 2009, TMZ's revenue was publicly disclosed for the first time.10 Telepictures (which TMZ is operated by) stated: "Subject to certain performance adjustments and the reimbursement of expenses, revenues are split evenly between the parties [...] Telepictures received payments of $6.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2009, and $12.7 million, $9.6 million and $3.0 million in 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively."10 Based on released figures, TMZ's revenues for 2008 was $25.4 million and is projected to have less revenue in the 2009 year with the revenue of $12.4 million in first three quarters of the year—unlike the previous year, which was within the $15 million range.10

On May 29, 2012, co-founder Jim Paratore died of a heart attack during a cycling trip in France. Paratore was known for his work in television production, producing several daytime and syndicated programs, particularly while serving as an executive at Telepictures (which co-produces the website's companion syndicated television series).11

Notable coverage

TMZ was the first to break the story that actor Mel Gibson had been arrested for driving under the influence; he was later confirmed to have been driving with an illegal blood alcohol level. Along with posting the story about his arrest, TMZ posted Gibson's mugshot (pictured above) and a handwritten four-out-of-eight page police report from the arresting police officer pertaining to Gibson's arrest.

On July 28, 2006, TMZ was the first to report that12 actor Mel Gibson had been arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.13 Along with releasing the story, TMZ also reported "exclusive details" about the case shortly after.13 In the report TMZ posted, it contained his transport to the station and time in custody, and quoted an "anonymous law enforcement source", and published four pages of a handwritten arrest report, via a PDF file.14 TMZ claimed the documents they posted were part of the original eight-page report which was written by the arresting officer, before the officer was allegedly instructed, by his superiors, to omit the inflammatory details about Gibson's alleged anti-Jewish comments and behavior.15

On November 7, 2006, TMZ was the first to report that pop-singer Britney Spears had filed a petition for divorce from then-husband Kevin Federline.12

On May 3, 2007, TMZ was the first to break the story, and exclusively obtain documents, stating that socialite Paris Hilton would be sentenced to forty-five days in jail as her sentencing for driving with a suspended license after losing her license from driving under the influence of alcohol four months prior.16

TMZ was the first to publish a police photo, which at the time was being considered for evidence, of pop-singer Rihanna after an altercation with her then-boyfriend Chris Brown in February 2009. TMZ stated they had obtained the photo legally, but wouldn't say how.

On February 22, 2009, TMZ released what has been identified as a police evidence photo of pop-singer Rihanna after she was assaulted by now ex-partner Chris Brown.12 Shortly after the photo's release, Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) announced that it was investigating the leak and 'possible sale of the photo of Rihanna with a bruised and battered face after TMZ published them because the photo had been considered evidence. TMZ has claimed it obtained the photo legally but has not said how it came into possession of the photo.17 In the aftermath of the release of the photo, in May of the same year, a 'law', referred to as 'Rihanna Law', entitled "STOParazzi", was made17 The 'law'; because of the "spurred" release of the photo, aims to prevent victim exploitation.17

On February 24, 2009, TMZ was the first to break the story that,12 out of the $1.6 billion Chicago's Northern Trust Bank received in federal bailout money (which they never requested and were hesitant to accept 18), recipients of the money subsequently spent non-TARP dollars (dollars that were already allocated for the Northern Trust Open prior to the Capital Purchase Program19) entertaining clients in Los Angeles at venues like the House of Blues that featured performances by Chicago, Earth Wind and Fire, and Sheryl Crow and gift bags from Tiffany & Co.20 Shortly after TMZ published the story, United States Congressman Barney Frank demanded that Northern Trust repay the money it received in the bailout. Northern Trust CEO Frederick Waddell sent a letter to members of the House Financial Services Committee, stating that the bank will repay the money "as quickly as prudently possible", although at the time Congress had not yet provided provisions for the repayment of TARP funds, thus delaying the process.21 When Northern Trust was finally allowed to repay the TARP money on June 17, 2009, taxpayers received a 14% return on the investment, beating all major market indices over the same time period.22

TMZ was the first to break the report of the death of Michael Jackson on June 25, 2009.2324 The report was treated with caution by mainstream media sources at the time, despite being cited on rolling news channels. TMZ's scoop beat the major broadcast and cable news outlets by almost 3 hours, until CNN finally confirmed the story as well. Part of this delay was later explained as the other outlets' "stricter confirmation standards,"3 but Levin claimed, during an interview with Huffington Post, that TMZ, at the time of posting the subject, verified the story and sources. "Well, before it was officially announced. We really knew this significantly before even what was going on, but this was, you know, crossing every t. We were positive when we put it up. We put it up when we were 100% positive."25 TMZ were also the first to receive the coroner's report of the singer on February 8, 2010, proving Propofol dosage and negligence killed the pop legend.26

TMZ was the first news outlet to break the news of the death of Brittany Murphy on December 20, 2009.27

TMZ was the fist to release a videotaped recording of a deposition of Justin Bieber regarding Bieber’s bodyguard who allegedly attacked a photographer and threatened the photographer with a gun28 This deposition video, released in a series of shorter clips on March 10, 2014, labels the singer as, according to TMZ, “arrogant,” “contentious,” and “disrespectful.” Each video in the series gained over one million views respectively and, when compiled by a third party, the YouTube video of the deposition generated almost six million views.

File:Justin Bieber Deposition 2014.png
TMZ acquired an exclusive copy of the videotaped recording of Justin Bieber's deposition on March 10, 2014.

Legal problems

Contempt of court motion

On June 20, 2007, a court-appointed bankruptcy trustee filed an emergency motion29 requesting that the TMZ website be held in contempt for its publication of the entire manuscript of If I Did It, O.J. Simpson's purportedly fictionalized account of the murder of Ron Goldman and Nicole Brown Simpson.30 The filing claimed TMZ's posting of the PDF of the entire book has "diminished or destroyed" the value, which the Goldman family eventually published as Simpson's confession to the murders.30

Photographer altercation

While actor Woody Harrelson was at New York City's La Guardia Airport, he had an altercation with a photographer for TMZ.31 Harrelson defended himself stating that he'd at the time just finished filming his scenes from the horror film, that consists mainly of zombies, Zombieland, and that he was "startled" by the TMZ photographer. "I wrapped a movie called Zombieland, in which I was constantly under assault by zombies, then flew to New York, still very much in character ... With my daughter at the airport I was startled by a paparazzo, who I quite understandably mistook for a zombie."31

Blocked in the UK

On December 24, 2010 the gossip blog "Oh No They Didn't" reported that TMZ began blocking traffic from the UK, displaying the message: "Due to laws within your region, you are unable to view this website." Asked for further comment, TMZ responded that the blocking was due to "legal restrictions".clarification needed32 The UK website "Popbitch Board" noted on December 31, 2010 that it is possible to get around the block by accessing the website through the Google Translate website. As of January 7, 2011, TMZ is accessible in the UK.33

Branches

TMZ Live

TMZ Live is a live-chat program from TMZ that features Levin and fellow TMZ executive producer Charles Latibeaudiere, and occasionally assignment manager Mike Walters and clip clearance producer Dax Holt34 filling in for one or both.34 Other TMZ staffers (mainly those who regularly appear on TMZ on TV) also appear on the broadcast to provide additional outline of the story as well as to provide opinion. The TMZ Live television and Internet programs review information that TMZ is covering on the website, and at times, features live interviews (most of which are conducted through webcam conferencing) as well as viewer opinions via Twitter, telephone and video chat. The live-chat takes place at the TMZ offices in Los Angeles.35 and is broadcast on TMZ.com Monday through Fridays from approximately 1:30 to 3:00 p.m. Eastern (the length varies depending on the featured segments).

In March 2012, Fox Television Stations tested a syndicated broadcast of TMZ Live (which is an hour-long edited version of the live webcast that is broadcast on a one-day delay from its original tape date, with segments aired in a different order) on its television stations in Los Angeles and Phoenix. In June 2012, SiriusXM Radio announced that the show would be aired daily on its Sirius XM Stars channel. In October of that year, the television show was expanded to seven markets, adding Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit and Minneapolis. On September 9, 2013, TMZ Live began airing on all 18 Fox owned-and-operated stations.3637

TMZ on TV

On September 10, 2007, TMZ launched an accompanying television series, TMZ on TV.383940 The syndicated television program airs Monday through Fridays.41

In the United States, the show airs in various timeslots on stations of varying network affiliation (primarily on Fox stations), mainly either in early primetime or after late local newscasts, with an hour-long 'best-of' program compiling select stories from the weekday broadcasts airing on weekends.42 The show covers stories similar to those found on the website and TMZ Live, with the main difference being that TMZ on TV largely delivers its stories in a humorous manner whereas a mix of humorous and serious news stories appear on the website and companion web/television series. TMZ offers viewers the option of being able to view the two most recent episodes of the program on TMZ.com after the episode's original airdate (being available for viewing for two days after the broadcast on weekdays and three days after the original broadcast on weekends).43 Chris Persell, of TVWeek.com, stated that the show is a "complement [to] the Web site, with news updates added to later airings of the show".44 Levin and Jim Paratore served as executive producers to the show, and the on-air cast originally included Teresa Strasser, John Fugelsang, Ben Mankiewicz and Michael Hundgen.44 David Bianculli of The New York Daily News strongly criticized the television show, its topics, and what he sees as its reporters' tactics and lack of professionalism.39

Dax Chat

Dax Chat is a live chat program on Ustream that is hosted by TMZ clip clearance producer Dax Holt. The webcast is held every weekday at 4 p.m. Eastern Time, Holt talks to "Chizzlers",45 about celebrity gossip and articles that have been posted on the TMZ website.46

Criticism

Victory Studios in Glendale, California (pictured here in 2007), is where TMZ was launched. TMZ later relocated to Sunset Blvd, Los Angeles. Since April 2013, TMZ is located in Marina del Rey, CA.47

Since the launch of TMZ, the website has faced criticism, varying from attempted boycotts to criticism of its journalism tactics and of its focus. It has been criticized for its usage of photographs and videos obtained from paparazzi.314849 Some have questioned the effect that aggressive and obtrusive photographers have on the subjects they cover.49 Many of the videos on the site show, in the footage, that their paparazzi chase people (mainly celebrities)—a practice that has been called dangerous49 and "creepy".48 Over the years, some have called for a boycott of TMZ and of the accompanying show.50

TMZ faced strong criticism for purchasing stolen items pertaining to the fourth Indiana Jones film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.51 On October 2, 2007, IESB reported that a number of production photos and sensitive documents pertaining to the production budget had been stolen from Steven Spielberg's production office.52 Movie City News, which strongly criticized TMZ for purchasing stolen items, remarked that the then-new website "wasn't getting off to a good start".51 According to IESB, TMZ had obtained some of the stolen property and was planning on running a story about the topic on their TV show, until the lawyers of the film's production company, Paramount Pictures, intervened. Shortly after IESB broke the story, TMZ broadcast details about the Indiana Jones production budget on their show on October 3, 2007.5153

TMZ has been heavily criticized for constantly reporting on Paris Hilton (left) and Lindsay Lohan (right), both of whom have been known more for their personal lives than for their occupations. Tony Manfred of The Cornell Daily Sun felt that TMZ's coverage of Hilton and Lohan was because of a "personality cult". Levin defended TMZ's coverage, explaining that Hilton and Lohan, in particular, receive heavy attention due to their current popular relevance.

Tony Manfred of The Cornell Daily Sun strongly criticized TMZ in an article entitled "I Want My TMZ", in which Manfred criticizes various aspects of TMZ.48 Manfred described TMZ as being "a fusion of celebrity news blog and embarrassing video archive" and felt that the website had become "the poster child for the celebrity pseudo-news industry" and that the website has "distinct advantages" over "gossip magazines" because it can "show all the borderline pornographic clips that Entertainment Tonight and Access Hollywood can't."48 Manfred also noted that he felt that the website was "balanced", going on to say "by balanced I mean they strike a perfect equilibrium between three distinct categories of trashy video clip. I'll group these videos into the following categories: the 'Action Caused Either Entirely or More Than Partly By Alcohol,' the 'Celebrity Car Chase,' and the 'You're Not Famous but You're Near a Camera So Okay'".48

Jennifer Metz and David Muir of ABC News acknowledged that TMZ has long been criticized for their "aggressive tactics, antagonizing stars with video cameras" and noted that those "encounters, capturing at times violent celebrity confrontations with photographers, receive hundreds of hits online, and critics ask if entertainment reporters are crossing the line." Metz and Muir questioned whether TMZ's tactics "go too far".49

Ken Sunshine, publicist for Ben Affleck and Leonardo DiCaprio, stated that his clients disliked the website because it has a tendency to be negative towards celebrities when reporting on them. "I hate that they have anything to do with trying to put celebrities into the worst light possible and that they play the 'gotcha' game".6 The website has been harshly criticized for having a personality cult of figures such as Lindsay Lohan and Paris Hilton – celebrities who are known more as targets for paparazzi than for the work they do.48 In defense for TMZ's coverage, Levin said that certain celebrities are main subjects on the Web site because of their "relevancy" and because their relevancy helps draw viewership to the Web site.54 Liz Kelly of Washington Post attacked both Levin and TMZ in an article, stating "I know this is like spitting in the wind, but I have to say it: Harvey Levin, please stop it."31

In what The Smoking Gun called "a colossal screw-up", TMZ published an "exclusive" picture on their Web site of a man purported to be John F. Kennedy on a ship with several naked women that could have "changed history" had it come out during his presidential campaign.55 Despite having a Photoshop expert proclaiming the picture as "authentic", the picture was later discovered to have not been of Kennedy at all. The photo was discovered to have been part of a Playboy photoshoot from November 1967, which was later confirmed by Playboy representatives.5657

On the week of January 16, 2013, Andre Lowe was killed outside of a nightclub in Hollywood. A nearby reporter from TMZ ended up filming the attack and it was posted to the website without permission of the family.58 Lowe's family began a campaign on Change.org to have TMZ take down the video and article about him.59 On January 22, 2013, TMZ ended up taking the video down after over two dozen advertisers revoked ads for the website because of the campaign.6061

References

  1. ^ Newsweek Web Exclusive (2006-08-01). "Newsweek, What's a TMZ?". NewsWeek.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  2. ^ "Harvey Levin Top 49 2008". Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  3. ^ a b c CNN (2009-08-02). "CNN's Reliable Sources 8/2/2009". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  4. ^ "A breakthrough victory for new program". The Irish Times. 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 
  5. ^ "Michael Jackson death news: Online activity heats up Twitter and Google, slows down some sites". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 
  6. ^ a b Donna Freydkin (2006-08-01). "Handed a 'smoking gun', TMZ's Levin ran with it". USAToday.com. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d Mike Shields (2005-12-05). "AOL-Time Warner Launches TMZ.com". MediaWeek.com. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  8. ^ a b c Michael Cieply (2008-10-25). "A Star Watcher Has Star Power". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  9. ^ "TMZ.com - Site Info From Alexa". Alexa.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  10. ^ a b c Rafat Ali (2009-11-16). "With AOL Spinoff, TMZ To Move To Time Warner/Telepictures, As Expected; $25M 2008". PaidContent.org. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  11. ^ Jim Paratore, Co-Creator of TMZ, Dies at 58, The New York Times, June 1, 2012.
  12. ^ a b c d TMZ Staff (2009-11-08). "TMZ -- Pretty Mature for a 4-Year-Old". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  13. ^ a b "EXCLUSIVE: Mel Gibson Busted for DUI". TMZ Staff. 2006-07-28. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  14. ^ TMZ Staff. "Gibson police report". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  15. ^ TMZ Staff (2006-07-28). "Gibson's Anti-Semitic Tirade -- Alleged Cover Up". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  16. ^ TMZ Staff (2007-05-03). "Paris 45 Days in the Clink?". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  17. ^ a b c Gil Kaufman (2009-05-25). "'Rihanna's Law,' Spurred By Photo Leak, Aims To Prevent Victim Exploitation". MTV.com. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  18. ^ "Northern Trust CEO Tells Barney Frank to Shove It". hereisthecity.com. 2009-02-29. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  19. ^ "Northern Trust Statement". TMZ. 2009-02-29. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  20. ^ TMZ Staff (2009-02-24). "Bailout Bank Blows Millions Partying in L.A.". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  21. ^ "Northern Trust to return government bailout money: Chicago-based bank says it will monitor entertainment spending after criticism of golf event activities". TradingMarkets.com. 2009-04-11. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  22. ^ Kouwe, Zachery (2009-08-26). "Northern Trust Pays Back TARP Warrants". dealbook.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  23. ^ "Michael Jackson Dies". Retrieved 2009-07-01. 
  24. ^ Collins, Scott; James, Meg (2009-07-01). "Michael Jackson may be turning point for TMZ". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  25. ^ Nicholas Graham (2009-07-06). "TMZ's Harvey Levin On Jackson Scoop: "We Just Beat Everybody On This One... Too Bad, So Sad" (VIDEO)". HuffingtonPost.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  26. ^ "Michael Jackson Coroner Report - House of Drugs". TMZ. 2010-02-08. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  27. ^ "Brittany Murphy dies". Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  28. ^ TMZ staff. "TMZ Live: Justin Bieber Horrible Display for Deposition". TMZ. Retrieved 01 April 2014. 
  29. ^ "Contempt of Court filing against TMZ regarding If I Did It". TheSmokingGun.com. 2007-06-20. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  30. ^ a b "A Contemptuous Act?". TheSmokingGun.com. 2007-06-20. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  31. ^ a b c d Thane Burnett (2009-05-12). "Caught on camera". TorontoSun.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  32. ^ "TMZ blocks visitors in UK". Oh No They Didn't. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  33. ^ Levin Twitter re TMZ accessibility in UK again as of January 7, 2011
  34. ^ a b All on occasions; TMZ Live chats involve the website's editor, Harvey Levin.
  35. ^ Harvey Levin confirmed, during a TMZ live chat, that the live chat takes place in TMZ's office.
  36. ^ TMZ Staff (September 9, 2013). "Lamar Odom 'Roommate' Says ... I Saw Him Do Crack". TMZ. Retrieved September 9, 2013. 
  37. ^ Eck, Kevin (August 12, 2013). "FOX Adds ‘TMZ Live’ To All Its Owned Stations". Mediabistro.com. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  38. ^ Jon Dempsey (2007-09-17). "'TMZ' TV debuts strong despite falter". Variety.com. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  39. ^ a b David Bianculli (2007-09-11). "On 'TMZ on TV,' beware snark attack". NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  40. ^ Matthew Gilbert (2007-09-14). "'TMZ' on TV? It's 'ET' without TLC.". Boston.com. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  41. ^ TMZ on TV air-date schedule
  42. ^ "TMZ When It's On". AOL.com. 2007-09-10. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  43. ^ "TMZ On TV". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  44. ^ a b Chris Pursell (2007-08-12). "Talent Lineup Unveiled for Telepictures' 'TMZ'". TVWeek.com. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  45. ^ Urban Dictionary: chizzler
  46. ^ "Dax Chat, Ustream.TV: Chat here live with Dax Holt from TMZ Monday-Friday at 1pm PST/4pm ET. Overig amusement". Ustream.tv. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  47. ^ Miller, Daniel. "TMZ to Exit West Hollywood Headquarters for New Westside Office". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f Tony Manfred (2007-09-16). "I want my TMZ". CornellSun.com. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  49. ^ a b c d Jennifer Metz and David Muir (2009-06-27). "TMZ Ahead of the Curve, but Do Tactics Go Too Far?". ABC News.com. Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  50. ^ Nguyen, Katherine (207-01-21). "On Paparazzi Patrol With TMZ.com". The Orange County Register. Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  51. ^ a b c "When It Gets Interesting". Movie City News. 2007-10-03. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  52. ^ "Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Stolen Set Photos!". IESB.com. 2009-10-02. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  53. ^ "Why Won't They Tell The Indy IV Theft Story Accurately?". MCN.com. 2007-10-04. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  54. ^ TMZ (2009-11-25). "TMZ Live - 11/25/09 Part 3". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  55. ^ TMZ (2009-12-28). "The JFK Photo That Have Changed History". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  56. ^ The Smoking Gun (2009-12-28). "TMZ falls for JFK Photo Hoax". TheSmokingGun.com. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  57. ^ TMZ (2009-12-28). "Kennedy Picture -- A Fake?". TMZ. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  58. ^ Josh Halliday (2013-01-17). "TMZ video of murder condemned by victim's family". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  59. ^ http://www.change.org/petitions/tmz-remove-the-video-of-my-nephew-being-murdered
  60. ^ Staff (2013-01-23). "TMZ Graphic Footage Of Andre Lowe's Death Edited In Response To Change.org Petition From Family". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  61. ^ Josh Halliday (2013-01-25). "TMZ takes down footage of Andre Lowe shooting following complaints". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 

External links








Creative Commons License