Taxila

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Taxila
Panorama at Jaulian - Ancient Buddhist Monastery - Taxila, Pakistan - 566-31.JPG
Panorama at Jaulian – ancient Buddhist monastery, Taxila
Taxila is located in Pakistan
Taxila
Shown within Pakistan
Location Rawalpindi District, Punjab Province, Pakistan
Coordinates 33°44′45″N 72°47′15″E / 33.74583°N 72.78750°E / 33.74583; 72.78750Coordinates: 33°44′45″N 72°47′15″E / 33.74583°N 72.78750°E / 33.74583; 72.78750
Type Settlement
History
Founded Possibly 10th century BCE
Abandoned 5th century CE
Official name: Taxila
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, vi
Designated 1980 (4th session)
Reference No. 139
Region Asia-Pacific

Taxila (Urdu: ٹيڪسيلا‎, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला Takṣaśilā) is a town and an important archaeological site in Rawalpindi district of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Taxila is situated about 32 km (20 mi) north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi; just off the famous Grand Trunk Road. The town lies 549 metres (1,801 ft) above sea level. It is the headquarters of the Taxila Tehsil in Rawalpindi district.

Ancient Taxila (Sanskrit: तक्षशिला Takṣaśilā, literally meaning "City of Cut Stone" or "Rock of Taksha") was situated at the pivotal junction of India, western Asia and Central Asia. Some of the earliest ruins in this area date to the time of the Achaemenid or Persian empire in 6th century BC.

Owing to its strategic location, Taxila has changed hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control. When the great ancient trade routes connecting these regions ceased to be important, the city sank into insignificance and was finally destroyed by the nomadic Huns in the 5th century CE. Renowned archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham rediscovered the ruins of Takṣaśilā in mid-19th century. In 1980, Taxila was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.1 In 2006 it was ranked as the top tourist destination in Pakistan by The Guardian newspaper.2

By some accounts, Taxila was considered to be amongst the earliest universities in the world.34567 Others do not consider it a university in the modern sense, in that the teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Takshashila,8910 in contrast to the later Nalanda university in eastern India.101112

In a 2010 report, Global Heritage Fund identified Taxila as one of 12 worldwide sites most "On the Verge" of irreparable loss and damage, citing insufficient management, development pressure, looting, and war and conflict as primary threats.13

References in ancient texts

Takṣaśilā is reputed to derive its name from Takṣa, who was the son of Bharata, the brother of the Hindu deity Rama.3 Legend has it that Takṣa ruled a kingdom called Takṣa Khanda, and founded the city of Takṣaśilā.14 According to another theory propounded by DD Kosambi, Takṣaśilā is related to Takṣaka, Sanskrit for "carpenter", and is an alternative name for the Nāgas of ancient India.15 In the great Hindu epic Mahābhārata, the Kuru heir Parikṣit (grandson of the Arjuna) was enthroned at Takṣaśilā.16 Traditionally, it is believed that the Mahabharata was first recited at Takṣaśilā by Vaishampayana, student of Vyasa at the behest of the seer Vyasa himself, at the Snake Sacrifice.17

Takshashila is also described in some detail in the Buddhist Jātaka tales, written in Sri Lanka around the 5th century.18 The Jataka literature mentions it as the capital of the kingdom of Gandhara and as a great centre of learning.

The Chinese monk Faxian (also called Fa-Hien) writing of his visit to Taxila in 405 CE, mentions the kingdom of Takshasila (or Chu-cha-shi-lo) meaning "the Severed Head". He says that this name was derived from an event in the life of Buddha because this is the place "where he gave his head to a man".19 Xuanzang (also called Hieun Tsang), another Chinese monk, visited Taxila in 630 and in 643, and he called the city as Ta-Cha-Shi-Lo. The city appears to have already overrun by the Huns and been in ruins by his time. Taxila is called Taxiala in Ptolemy’s Geography.20 In the Historia Trium Regum (History of the Three Kings) composed by John of Hildesheim around 1375, the city is called Egrisilla.21

Political history

Scattered references in later works indicated that Takshashila may have dated back to at least the 5th century BCE.222324 Archaeological excavations later showed that the city may have grown significantly during the Persian occupation of 6th century BC.

Historically, Takṣaśilā lay at the crossroads of three major ancient trade routes:

  1. The northern road — the later Grand Trunk or GT Road — the royal road which connected Gandhara in the west to the kingdom of Magadha and its capital Pāṭaliputra in the Ganges valley in eastern India. This trade route was described by the Greek writer Megasthenes as the “Royal Highway”.
  2. The north-western route through Bactria, Kāpiśa, and Puṣkalāvatī. This route connected Taxila with the western Asia.
  3. The Indus route from Kashmir and Central Asia, via Śri nagara, Mansehra, and the Haripur valley25 across the Khunjerab Pass to the Silk Road in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south. The Khunjerab passes between Kashmir and Xinjiang—the current Karakoram highway—and was traversed in antiquity.
Taxila is in western Punjab, and was an important city during Alexander's campaign in ancient India.
Statue of a Hellenistic couple excavated in Taxila (IV).

Owing to its strategic location, Taxila has changed hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control.

  • There are carbon dates c. 2550-2288 BCE for the earliest settlement at Taxila (in the Hathial area), with ties to the nearby Sarai Khola, an earlier site,26 as well as with Charsadda (ancient Pushkalavati),27 also in Gandhara. Also, some early Indus period pottery shards were found in this area.28
  • 970 to 941 BCE King Solomon may have visited North West India making Taxila a private kingdom,citation needed introducing new gold system and hygiene for eating and cleaning that later was implemented in the Kayastha, Hinduism, Budhism, Judaism, Zoroastrianism & Islam of the local people threw centuries.
  • c. 518 BCE, or perhaps earlier – Darius the Great annexes Takṣaśilā to the Achaemenid Empire.29 Taxila, as the capital of Gandhara satrapy, was evidently under Achaemenian rule for more than a century.
  • Buddhist literature, especially the Jatakas, mentions Taxila as the capital of the kingdom of Gandhara.
  • 326 BCE – Alexander the Great receives submission of ruler of Taxila, Omphis (Āmbhi).29 Greek historians accompanying Alexander described Taxila as “wealthy, prosperous, and well governed.”
  • 321–317 BCE - Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan empire, makes himself master of northern and north-western India, including Panjab. Chandragupta Maurya's advisor Kautilya (also known as Chanakya) was a teacher at Takṣaśilā. Under Chandragupta, Taxila became a provincial capital.
  • During the reign of Chandragupta's grandson Aśoka, Takṣaśilā became a great Buddhist centre of learning. Nonetheless, Takṣaśilā was briefly the centre of a minor local rebellion, subdued only a few years after its onset.30 Ashoka encouraged trade by building roads, most notably a highway of more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) linking his capital Pataliputra with Taxila.
  • 2nd century BCE - After three generations of Maurya rule, Taxila was annexed by the Indo-Greek kingdom of Bactria. Indo-Greeks build new capital, Sirkap, on the opposite bank of the river from Takṣaśilā.32 During this new period of Bactrian Greek rule, several dynasties (like Antialcidas) likely ruled from the city as their capital. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city's autonomous coinage.
  • c. 90 BCE – The Indo-Scythian (Sakas) chief Maues overthrows the last Greek king of Takṣaśilā.33
  • c. 46 AD – According to early Christian legend, Thomas the Apostle visits king Gondophares IV.35
  • Neo-Pythagorean sage Apollonius of Tyana visits Taxila. His biographer described Taxila as a fortified city that was laid out on a symmetrical plan and compared it in size to Nineveh.
  • 76 – The date of and inscription found at Taxila of "Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, the Kushana".36 Taxila was taken from the Parthians by the Kushans under Kujula Kadphises. The great Kushan ruler Kanishka later founded "Sirsukh", the third city on the site.
  • 4th century CE: the Sasanian king Shapur II seems to have conquered Taxila, as evidenced by the numerous Sasanian copper coins found there.
  • c. 460–470 CE – The Hephthalites (the Huns) sweep over Gandhāra and Punjab; and cause wholesale destruction of the Buddhist monasteries and stupas at Takṣaśilā, which never again recovers.37
  • 1863–64 and 1872–73 - Excavations begun by Alexander Cunningham identified a local site known as Saraikhala (or Sarai Khola) with ancient Taxila. Prior to that, the location of the ancient city of Taxila, known from literary texts, was uncertain.

Ancient centre of learning

Takshashila became a noted centre of learning (including the religious teachings of Hinduism) at least several centuries BCE, and continued to attract students from around the old world until the destruction of the city in the 5th century. At its height, it has been suggested that Takshashila exerted a sort of "intellectual suzerainty" over other centres of learning in India.,38 and its primary concern was not with elementary, but higher education.39 Generally, a student entered Takshashila at the age of sixteen. The Vedas, the ancient and the most revered Hindu scriptures, and the Eighteen Silpas or Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science.40 Students came to Takshashila from far-off places such as Kashi, Kosala and Magadha, in spite of the long and arduous journey they had to undergo, on account of the excellence of the learned teachers there, all recognized as authorities on their respective subjects.4142

Famous students and teachers

Takshashila had great influence on the Hindu culture and Sanskrit language. It is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya, also known as Kautilya, the strategist who guided Chandragupta Maurya and assisted in the founding of the Mauryan empire. The Arthashastra (Sanskrit for The knowledge of Economics) of Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself.4344 The Ayurvedic healer Charaka also studied at Taxila.40 He also started teaching at Taxila in the later period.45 The ancient grammarian Pāṇini, who codified the rules that would define Classical Sanskrit, has also been part of the community at Takshashila.46

The institution is very significant in Buddhist tradition since it is believedcitation needed that the Mahāyāna branch of Buddhism took shape there. Jivaka, the court physician of the Magadha emperor Bimbisara who once cured the Buddha, and the enlightened ruler of Kosala, Prasenajit, are some important personalities mentioned in Pali texts who studied at Takshashila.47

Nature of education

By some accounts, Taxilla was considered to be amongst the earliest universities in the world.34484950 Others do not consider it a university in the modern sense, in that the teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Takshashila,515210 in contrast to the later Nalanda University.101112

No external authorities like kings or local leaders subjected the scholastic activities at Takshashila to their control. Each teacher formed his own institution, enjoying complete autonomy in work, teaching as many students as he liked and teaching subjects he liked without conforming to any centralized syllabus. Study terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the student's level of achievement. In general, specialisation in a subject took around eight years, though this could be lengthened or shortened in accordance with the intellectual abilities and dedication of the student in question. In most cases the "schools" were located within the teachers' private houses, and at times students were advised to quit their studies if they were unable to fit into the social, intellectual and moral atmosphere there.53

Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money, and hence any stipulation that fees ought to be paid was vigorously condemned. Financial support came from the society at large, as well as from rich merchants and wealthy parents. Though the number of students studying under a single Guru sometimes numbered in the hundreds, teachers did not deny education even if the student was poor; free boarding and lodging was provided, and students had to do manual work in the household. Paying students like princes were taught during the day; non-paying ones, at night.54 Guru Dakshina was usually expected at the completion of a student's studies, but it was essentially a mere token of respect and gratitude - many times being nothing more than a turban, a pair of sandals, or an umbrella. In cases of poor students being unable to afford even that, they could approach the king, who would then step in and provide something. Not providing a poor student a means to supply his Guru's Dakshina was considered the greatest slur on a King's reputation.55

Examinations were treated as superfluous, and not considered part of the requirements to complete one's studies. The process of teaching was critical and thorough- unless one unit was mastered completely, the student was not allowed to proceed to the next. No convocations were held upon completion, and no written "degrees" were awarded, since it was believed that knowledge was its own reward. Using knowledge for earning a living or for any selfish end was considered sacrilegious.53

Students arriving at Takshashila usually had completed their primary education at home (until the age of eight), and their secondary education in the Ashrams (between the ages of eight and twelve), and therefore came to Takshashila chiefly to reach the ends of knowledge in specific disciplines.56 Both theoretical and practical aspects of the subjects were taught, and particular care was taken to ensure competence of students in case of subjects like medicine, where improper practice could result in disaster. The list of subjects taught at Takshashila underwent many additions over the years, with even Greek being taught there after the Alexandrian conquests. Foreign savants were accorded as much importance as local teachers.

Ruins

Map of Taxila

The British archaeologist Sir John Marshall (1876-1958) conducted excavations over a period of twenty years in Taxila.57

Sarai Kala

This is an archaeological site 3km southwest of Taxila that has the earliest occupation, and preserves Neolithic remains going back to 3360 BC. It also has Early Harappan remains of 2900-2600 BC. A later settlement in this area has parallels with Hathial in the Taxila area.58

Other sites

The ruins of Taxila contain buildings and Buddhist stupas located over a large area. The main ruins of Taxila are divided into three major cities, each belonging to a distinct time period.

  • The oldest of these is the Hathial area, which yielded surface shards similar to Red Burnished Ware (or soapy red ware) recovered from early phases at Charsadda -- these may date from as early as the late 2nd millennium BCE to the 6th century BCE. Bhir Mound dates from the 6th century BCE and has Northern Black Polished Ware.
  • The second city of Taxila is located at Sirkap and was built by Greco-Bactrian kings in the 2nd century BCE.
  • The third and last city of Taxila is at Sirsukh and relates to the Kushan rulers.

In addition to the ruins of the city, a number of buddhist monasteries and stupas also belong to the Taxila area. Some of the important ruins of this category include the ruins of the stupa at Dharmarajika, the monastery at Jaulian, the monastery at Mohra Muradu in addition to a number of stupas.

Archaeological artifacts from the Indo-Greek strata at Taxila (John Marshall "Taxila, Archeological excavations"). From top, left: * Fluted cup (Bhir Mound, stratum 1) * Cup with rosace and decoratice scroll (Bhir Mound, stratum 1) * Stone palette with individual on a couch being crowned by standing woman, and served (Sirkap, stratum 5) * Handle with double depiction of a philosopher (Sirkap, stratum 5) * Woman with smile (Sirkap, stratum 5) * Man with moustache (Sirkap, stratum 5)

Culture

Taxila is a mix of wealthy urban and rustic rural environs. Urban residential areas are in the form of small neat and clean colonies populated by the workers of heavy industries, educational institutes and hospitals that are located in the area. The city has many educational institutes including HITEC University and the University of Engineering and Technology Taxila.

In addition to the ruins of ancient Taxila, relics of Mughal gardens and vestiges of historical Grand Trunk Road, which was built by Emperor Sher Shah Suri in 15th–16th centuries, are also found in Taxila region. Nicholson's Obelisk, a monument of British colonial era situated at the Grand Trunk road welcomes the travellers coming from Rawalpindi/Islamabad into Taxila. The monument was built by the British to pay tribute to Brigadier John Nicholson (1822–1857) an officer of the British army who died in India during the 1857 Indian Mutiny.

Taxila Museum, dedicated mainly to the remains of ancient Taxila, is also situated in the city.

Industry

The industries include heavy machine factories and industrial complex, Pakistan Ordnance Factories at Wah Cantt and the cement factory. Heavy Industries Taxila and Heavy Mechanical Complex] are also based here. Small, cottage and household industries include stoneware, pottery and footwear.

See also


References

  1. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Site, 1980. Taxila: Multiple Locations. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  2. ^ Windsor, Antonia (17 October 2006). "Out of the rubble". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c Needham, Joseph (2004). Within the Four Seas: The Dialogue of East and West. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36166-4. 

    "When the men of Alexander the Great came to Taxila in India in the fourth century BC they found a university there the like of which had not been seen in Greece, a university which taught the three Vedas and the eighteen accomplishments and was still existing when the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien went there about AD 400."

  4. ^ a b Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India (4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32919-1. "In the early centuries the centre of Buddhist scholarship was the University of Taxila." 
  5. ^ Balakrishnan Muniapan, Junaid M. Shaikh (2007), "Lessons in corporate governance from Kautilya's Arthashastra in ancient India", World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development 3 (1):

    "Kautilya was also a Professor of Politics and Economics at Taxila University. Taxila University is one of the oldest known universities in the world and it was the chief learning centre in ancient India."

  6. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), ''Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (p. 478), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6:

    "Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre, or the central university, of Taxila which exercised a kind of intellectual suzerainty over the wide world of letters in India."

  7. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (p. 479), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6:

    "This shows that Taxila was a seat not of elementary, but higher, education, of colleges or a university as distinguished from schools."

  8. ^ Anant Sadashiv Altekar (1934; reprint 1965), Education in Ancient India, Sixth Edition, Revised & Enlarged, Nand Kishore & Bros, Varanasi:

    "It may be observed at the outset that Taxila did not possess any colleges or university in the modern sense of the term."

  9. ^ F. W. Thomas (1944), in John Marshall (1951; 1975 reprint), Taxila, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi:

    "We come across several Jātaka stories about the students and teachers of Takshaśilā, but not a single episode even remotely suggests that the different 'world renowned' teachers living in that city belonged to a particular college or university of the modern type."

  10. ^ a b c d Taxila (2007), Encyclopædia Britannica:

    "Taxila, besides being a provincial seat, was also a centre of learning. It was not a university town with lecture halls and residential quarters, such as have been found at Nalanda in the Indian state of Bihar."

  11. ^ a b "Nalanda" (2007). Encarta.
  12. ^ a b "Nalanda" (2001). Columbia Encyclopedia.
  13. ^ http://globalheritagefund.org/index.php/what_we_do/sites_on_the_verge/
  14. ^ Invasion of the Genes Genetic Heritage of India, By B. S. Ahloowalia. p81
  15. ^ Kosambi 1975:129
  16. ^ Kosambi, Damodar Dharmanand (1975) [1956]. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History (Revised Second Edition ed.). Bombay: Popular Prakashan. p. 126. 
  17. ^ Britannica Online Encyclopedia, article:Taxila. "The great Indian epic Mahabharata was, according to tradition, first recited at Taxila at the great snake sacrifice of King Janamejaya, one of the heroes of the story."
  18. ^ Marshall 1975:81
  19. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his Travels in India and Ceylon in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline, Chapter 11
  20. ^ J. W. McCrindle, The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great as Described by Arrian, Q. Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch and Justin, Westminster, Constable, 1893, pp.343-344.
  21. ^ Frank Schaer, The Three Kings of Cologne, Heidelberg, Winter, 2000, Middle English Texts no.31, p.196.
  22. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre: Taxila
  23. ^ Scharfe, Hartmut (2002). Education in Ancient India. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 141. ISBN 90-04-12556-6. 
  24. ^ "History of Education", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  25. ^ Thapar, Romila (1997) [1961]. Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-19-563932-4. 
  26. ^ Raymond Allchin, Bridget Allchin, The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge University Press, 1982 p.127 ISBN 052128550X
  27. ^ http://a.harappa.com/sites/g/files/g65461/f/CulturesSocietiesIndusTrad.pdf
  28. ^ Mohan Pant, Shūji Funo, Stupa and Swastika: Historical Urban Planning Principles in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. NUS Press, 2007 ISBN 9971693720, citing Allchin: 1980
  29. ^ a b Marshall, John (1975) [1951]. Taxila: Volume I. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 83. 
  30. ^ Thapar 1997
  31. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1998). A History of India (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 0-415-15481-2. 
  32. ^ Kulke and Rothermund 1998:70
  33. ^ arshall 1975:84
  34. ^ Marshall 1975:85
  35. ^ Medlycott, A.E. (1905). "The Apostle Thomas and Gondophares the Indian King". India and the Apostle Thomas. London: David Nutt. 
  36. ^ Kulke and Rothermund 1998:75
  37. ^ Marshall 1975:86
  38. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), ''Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (p. 478), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6:

    "Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre, or the central university, of Taxila which exercised a kind of intellectual suzerainty over the wide world of letters in India."

  39. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (p. 479), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6:

    "This shows that Taxila was a seat not of elementary, but higher, education, of colleges or a university as distinguished from schools."

  40. ^ a b Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989). Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (p. 478-489). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-0423-6.
  41. ^ Political and social movements in ancient Panjab (from the Vedic age up to the Maurya period), by Buddha Prakash (Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1964)"Students from Magadha traversed the vast distances of northern India in order to join the schools and colleges of Takshashila. We learn from Pali texts that Brahmana youths, Khattiya princes and sons of setthis from Rajagriha, Kashi, Kosala and other places went to Takshashila for learning the Vedas and eighteen sciences and arts."
  42. ^ Universities in Ancient India, by DG Apte. Page 9
  43. ^ Kautilya. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  44. ^ Radhakumud Mookerji (1941; 1960; reprint 1989). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times (p. 17). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-0405-8.
  45. ^ "Takshila university". Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  46. ^ Political and social movements in ancient Panjab (from the Vedic age up to the Maurya period), by Buddha Prakash (Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1964)."Pāṇini and Kautilya, two masterminds of ancient times, were also brought up in the academic traditions of Takshashila"
  47. ^ Political and social movements in ancient Panjab (from the Vedic age up to the Maurya period), by Buddha Prakash (Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1964)"Likewise, Jivaka, the famous physician of Bimbisara who cured the Buddha, learnt the science of medicine under a far-famed teacher at Takshashila and on his return was appointed court-physician at Magadha. Another illustrious product of Takshashila was the enlightened ruler of Kosala, Prasenajit, who is intimately associated with the events of the time of the Buddha."
  48. ^ Balakrishnan Muniapan, Junaid M. Shaikh (2007), "Lessons in corporate governance from Kautilya's Arthashastra in ancient India", World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development 3 (1):

    "Kautilya was also a Professor of Politics and Economics at Taxila University. Taxila University is one of the oldest known universities in the world and it was the chief learning centre in ancient India."

  49. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), ''Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (p. 478), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6:

    "Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre, or the central university, of Taxila which exercised a kind of intellectual suzerainty over the wide world of letters in India."

  50. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. 1951; reprint 1989), Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (p. 479), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6:

    "This shows that Taxila was a seat not of elementary, but higher, education, of colleges or a university as distinguished from schools."

  51. ^ Anant Sadashiv Altekar (1934; reprint 1965), Education in Ancient India, Sixth Edition, Revised & Enlarged, Nand Kishore & Bros, Varanasi:

    "It may be observed at the outset that Taxila did not possess any colleges or university in the modern sense of the term."

  52. ^ F. W. Thomas (1944), in John Marshall (1951; 1975 reprint), Taxila, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi:

    "We come across several Jātaka stories about the students and teachers of Takshaśilā, but not a single episode even remotely suggests that the different 'world renowned' teachers living in that city belonged to a particular college or university of the modern type."

  53. ^ a b Universities in Ancient India, by D.G Apte. Page 9-10.
  54. ^ Universities in Ancient India, by D.G Apte. Page 16-17.
  55. ^ Universities in Ancient India, by D.G Apte. Page 18-19.
  56. ^ Universities in Ancient India, by D.G Apte. Page 11.
  57. ^ Marshall, Sir John (1918). A Guide to Taxila. Calcutta: Government Press. 
  58. ^ Raymond Allchin, Bridget Allchin, The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge University Press, 1982 p.127 ISBN 052128550X

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