Telecommunications in the United Arab Emirates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Nuvola UAE flag.svg
Life in the UAE

Telecommunications in the United Arab Emirates is under the control and supervision of the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) which was established under UAE Federal Law by Decree No. 3 of 2003.1 From 1976 to 2006 the Emirates Telecommunications Corporation (Etisalat) was the sole telephone and telecommunications provider for the UAE.2 And while there were exceptions for free zones and modern housing developments, for the majority of the UAE, Etisalat held a monopoly on business and personal telecommunications services. In February 2006 this monopoly became a duopoly when a new telephone company and Internet Service Provider, du was established to offer mobile services across the UAE and Internet and TV services to some free zone areas.2 Earlier du provided triple play services to free zone areas under the name Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC), which is still its legal name.

Telephones

  • Land lines: 1.825 million, 61st in the world (2011)3
  • Mobile cellular: 11.727, 66th in the world (2011)3
  • Blackberry users: 730,000 with 480,000 subscribed to Etisalat and about 250,000 with du (2010)4
  • System: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai3
    • Domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber optic and coaxial cable3
    • International: linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia3
  • Country code: 9713

Radio and television

  • Except for the many organizations now operating in Dubai's Media Free Zone, most TV and radio stations remain government-owned; widespread use of satellite dishes provides access to pan-Arab and other international broadcasts (2007)3

Radio has been around for more than 60 years in the UAE. Prior to the UAE’s formation, the British Forces Broadcasting Services (BFBC) had a local FM radio studio here. It ran syndicated entertainment programmes and read news about the command to it garrisons stationed in the then Trucial States.citation needed

In the late 70’s, UAE Radio started independent services. Channel 4 was the first commercial radio station followed by Emirates Media Radio and the Arab Media Group. As of February 2014, independent radio stations in the UAE include 7 each in English and Hindi, 12 Arabic, 4 Malayalam, and one each in Tamil, Tagalog, Russian and Farsi.citation needed

  • Television broadcast stations:
    • 72 free-to-air channels (2011)5
    • 33% IPTV penetration (estimated, 2011)
  • Televisions: 743,133 (est. 2004),6 310,000 (1997)

Internet

Internet censorship

On the du network, users who try to access a blocked web page are redirected to du's block page.

Internet filtering in the UAE was listed as pervasive in the social and Internet tools areas, as substantial in the political area, and as selective in the conflict/security area by the OpenNet Initiative in August 2009.7 The UAE has been listed as "Under Surveillance" by Reporters Without Borders since 2008.8

The United Arab Emirates censors the Internet using Secure Computing's solution. The nation's ISPs Etisalat and du (telco) ban pornography, politically sensitive material, all Israeli domains,9 and anything against the perceived moral values of the UAE. All or most VoIP services are blocked. The Emirates Discussion Forum (Arabic: منتدى الحوار الإماراتي), or simply uaehewar.net, has been subjected to multiple censorship actions by UAE authorities.10

TRA 11 instructs Etisalat and du to block parts of Wikipedia, all VoIP services such as Skype and SIP based services12 and some social networking services like hi5, Friendster, and all dating sites like Yahoo! Personals and Match.com.13 For political reasons, the entire Israeli internet domain, .il, is also blocked. Pro-Israeli content which does not use the "*.il" domain, however, is accessible (e.g. jpost.com - the website of the Jerusalem Post).14 A 2005 study, before du was established, also showed Etisalat sometimes block websites relating to the Bahá'í Faith.15

Broadcast media censorship

On 16 November 2007 Tecom stopped broadcast of two major Pakistani satellite news channels, uplinked from Dubai Media City, which was initially marketed by Tecom under the tagline "Freedom to Create." The Dubai government ordered Tecom to shut down the popular independent Pakistani news channels Geo News and ARY One World on the demand of Pakistan's military regime led by General Pervez Musharraf. This was implemented by du Samacom disabling their SDI and ASI streams. Later policy makers in Dubai permitted these channels to air their entertainment programs, but news, current affairs and political analysis were forbidden. Although subsequently the conditions were removed, marked differences have since been observed in their coverage. This incident has had a serious impact on all organizations in the media city with Geo TV and ARY OneWorld considering relocation.161718

See also

References

  1. ^ About TRA Archived 12 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b American.edu - UAE ICT - Telecommunication Infrastructure, Regulation and Liberalization
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "United Arab Emirates", The World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, retrieved 16 February 2013
  4. ^ Misuse of instant messaging services punishable by law
  5. ^ "Arab Media Outlook 2011-2015". 2012. pp. 168–170. 
  6. ^ "United Arab Emirates", Hutchinson country facts, TV, Broadband & Phone, retrieved 16 February 2013
  7. ^ ONI Country Profile: United Arab Emiates, OpenNet Initiative, 7 August 2009
  8. ^ Internet Enemies, Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 12 March 2012
  9. ^ "ONI Country Profile: United Arab Emirates", OpenNet Initiative, 7 August 2009
  10. ^ "First Communiqué In UAE Against TRA For Forum Blocking. UAE Government Should Give Reasons and Lift Blocking", Cairo 16 March 2010, The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information
  11. ^ ArabianBusiness.com - TRA outlines Illegality of VoIP unblocking site
  12. ^ ArabianBusiness.com - Thousands lose cheap calls as Du blocks Skype
  13. ^ ArabianBusiness.com - UAE censor targets Facebook, Myspace
  14. ^ OpenNet Initiative - Internet Filtering in the United Arab Emirates in 2004-2005: A Country Study
  15. ^ "Internet Filtering in the United Arab Emirates in 2004-2005: A Country Study", Reports - Case Studies - 2005, OpenNet Initiative, 2005 
  16. ^ Gulf News - Pakistani TV channels may move out of Dubai Media City
  17. ^ Gulf News - Geo TV also plans to move out of Dubai
  18. ^ NDTV.com - Geo TV hints at options outside of Dubai

External links








Creative Commons License