|Abbreviated title (ISO 4)||Lancet|
|Edited by||Richard Horton|
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is one of the world's oldest and best known general medical journals,1 and has been described as one of the most prestigious medical journals in the world.2 The Lancet was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet, as well as after the architectural term "lancet arch",3 a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let in light".
The Lancet publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports. The Lancet has been owned by Elsevier since 1991. As of 1995[update], the editor-in-chief is Richard Horton. The journal has editorial offices in London, New York, and Beijing.
- 1 Impact
- 2 Specialty journals
- 3 Volume renumbering
- 4 Expression of political views
- 4.1 Controversial articles
- 4.1.1 Autism and vaccine controversy (1998)
- 4.1.2 Tobacco control (2003)
- 4.1.3 Iraq War death toll controversy (2004)
- 4.1.4 Fabricated articles withdrawn (2006)
- 4.1.5 Dispute with the Vatican about condoms and AIDS prevention (2009)
- 4.1.6 Claims about economic policy and Russian mortality rates (2009)
- 4.1.7 India and superbugs (2010)
- 4.1.8 Health impact of alcohol (2010)
- 4.1 Controversial articles
- 5 List of editors
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The Lancet also publishes several specialty journals: The Lancet Neurology (neurology), The Lancet Oncology (oncology), The Lancet Infectious Diseases (infectious diseases), The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (respiratory medicine), and The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology (endocrinology) all of which publish original research and reviews. In 2013, The Lancet Global Health (global health) will become the group's first fully open access journal. The three established specialty journals (The Lancet Neurology, The Lancet Oncology, and The Lancet Infectious Diseases) have built up strong reputations in their medical specialty. According to the 2012 Journal Citation Reports by Thomson Reuters, The Lancet Neurology's impact factor is 23.917, The Lancet Oncology 25.117, and The Lancet Infectious Diseases 19.996.4 There is also an online website for students entitled The Lancet Student in blog format, launched in 2007.
Prior to 1990, The Lancet had volume numbering that reset every year. Issues in January to June were in volume i, with the rest in volume ii. In 1990, the journal moved to a sequential volume numbering scheme, with two volumes per year. Volumes were retro-actively assigned to the years prior to 1990, with the first issue of 1990 being assigned volume 335, and the last issue of 1989 assigned volume 334. The table of contents listing on ScienceDirect uses this new numbering scheme.5
The Lancet has taken a political stand on several important medical and non-medical issues. Recent examples include criticism of the World Health Organization, rejecting WHO's claims of the efficacy of homoeopathy as a therapeutic option,6 disapproval during the time Reed Exhibitions (a division of Reed Elsevier) hosted arms industry fairs, and a call in 2003 for tobacco to be made illegal.7
The Lancet was criticized after it published a paper in 1998, in which the authors suggested a link between the MMR vaccine and autism.8 In February 2004 The Lancet published a partial retraction of the paper.9 The editor-in-chief, Richard Horton, went on the record to say the paper had "fatal conflicts of interest" because the study's lead author, Andrew Wakefield, had a serious conflict of interest that he had not declared to The Lancet.10 The journal completely retracted the paper on 2 February 2010, after Wakefield was found to have acted unethically in conducting the research.11
The Lancet's six editors, including the editor-in-chief, were also criticized in 2011 because they had "covered up" the "Wakefield concocted fear of MMR" with an "avalanche of denials" in 2004.12
A December 2003 editorial by the journal, titled "How do you sleep at night, Mr Blair?", called for tobacco use to be completely banned in the UK. The Royal College of Physicians rejected their argument. John Britton, chairman of the college's tobacco advisory group, praised the journal for discussing the health problem, but he concluded that a "ban on tobacco would be a nightmare." Amanda Sandford, spokesperson for the anti-tobacco group Action on Smoking and Health, stated that criminalizing a behaviour 26% of the population commit "is ludicrous." She also said, "We can't turn the clock back. If tobacco were banned we would have 13 million people desperately craving a drug that they would not be able to get." The deputy editor of The Lancet responded to the criticism by arguing that no other measures besides a total ban would likely be able to reduce tobacco use.13
The smokers rights group FOREST stated that the editorial gave them "amusement and disbelief". Director Simon Clark called the journal "fascist" and argued that it is hypocritical to ban tobacco while allowing unhealthy junk foods, alcohol consumption, and participation in extreme sports. Health Secretary John Reid reiterated that his government is committed to helping people give up smoking. He added, "Despite the fact that this is a serious problem, it is a little bit extreme for us in Britain to start locking people up because they have an ounce of tobacco somewhere."14
The Lancet also published a controversial estimate of the Iraq War's Iraqi death toll—around 100,000—in 2004. In 2006 a follow-up study by the same team suggested that the violent death rate in Iraq was not only consistent with the earlier estimate, but had increased considerably in the intervening period (see Lancet surveys of casualties of the Iraq War). The second survey estimated that there had been 654,965 excess Iraqi deaths as a consequence of the war. The 95% confidence interval was 392,979 to 942,636. 1,849 households that contained 12,801 people were surveyed.15
The estimate provided in the second article are much higher than those published in other surveys from the same time. Most notably, the "Iraq Family Health Survey" published in the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed 9,345 households across Iraq and estimated 151,000 deaths due to violence (95% uncertainty range, 104,000 to 223,000) over the same period covered in the second Lancet survey by Burnham et al. The NEJM article stated that the second Lancet survey "considerably overestimated the number of violent deaths and said the Lancet results were, "highly improbable, given the internal and external consistency of the data and the much larger sample size and quality-control measures taken in the implementation of the IFHS."
In January 2006, it was revealed that data had been fabricated in an article16 by the Norwegian cancer researcher Jon Sudbø and 13 co-authors published in The Lancet in October 2005.1718 Several articles in other scientific journals were withdrawn following the withdrawal in The Lancet. Within a week, the New England Journal of Medicine published an expression of editorial concern regarding its published research papers by the same author and in November 2006, the journal withdrew two oral cancer studies led by the Norwegian researcher.19
In a 2009 editorial, the journal accused Pope Benedict XVI of publicly distorting scientific evidence on condoms to promote Catholic doctrine on chastity in AIDS prevention.20 The Vatican defended itself by pointing to an earlier Lancet article published in 2000 which asserted that condoms could not possibly be sufficient in solving the AIDS crisis.21
A 2009 report by The Lancet,22 claimed that mass privatization in Russia, an element of the economic-reform package nicknamed shock therapy in the initial post-Communist years, was correlated with higher mortality rates. The report argues that advocates of economic reforms ignored the human cost of the policies they were promoting, such as unemployment and human suffering, leading to an early death.22 These conclusions were criticized by The Economist.23 A WHO press-release in 2000, on the other hand, reported alcohol abuse in Russia being used as the most common explanation of higher men's mortality.24
In August 2010, The Lancet Infectious Diseases published an article about an enzyme conferring multi-drug-resistance properties in bacteria,25 which had previously been named New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase or NDM-1 based on the assumed origin of the mechanism.2627 The article reported 44 clinical isolates of bacteria positive for NDM-1 from Chennai, 26 from Haryana, 37 (from 29 patients) from the UK, and 73 from other sites in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Of the 29 UK patients, 17 had a history of travel to India or Pakistan within 1 year, and 14 had been admitted to hospital in these countries. The authors of the article cited medical tourism to India for the spread of bacteria carrying NDM-1, which the Indian government denied.2829
A December 2010 article determined that alcohol had the worst medical and social effects compared to other recreational substances such as heroin and crack cocaine. The drugs marijuana, ecstasy, and LSD scored far lower in terms of related harms. The authors did not advocate alcohol prohibition, but they suggested that the government raise the price of alcohol until it was no longer widely available.30 Gavin Partington, spokesman of the Wine and Spirit Trade Association, responded to the report by saying that alcohol abuse affects "a minority" who needs "education, treatment and enforcement". He also remarked that millions of British citizens enjoy alcohol as "a regular and enjoyable social drink".31
The following persons have been editors-in-chief of the journal:
- 1823: Thomas Wakley
- 1862: James Wakley
- 1886: T. H. Wakley and Thomas Wakley (junior)
- 1907: Thomas Wakley (junior)
- 1909: Samuel Squire Sprigge
- 1937: Egbert Morland
- 1944: Theodore Fox
- 1965: Ian Douglas-Wilson
- 1976: Ian Munro
- 1988: Gordon Reeves
- 1990: Robin Fox
- 1995: Richard Horton
- "Prestigious Medical Journal, The Lancet, Issues Family Planning Series". Population Media Center. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Pope 'distorting condom science'". BBC News. 27 March 2009. "One of the world's most prestigious medical journals, the Lancet, has accused Pope Benedict XVI of distorting science in his remarks on condom use."
- "About the Lancet Medical Journal".
- 2012 Journal Citation Report Science Edition, Thompson Reuters, 2013.
- The Lancet. Science Direct.
- "Homoeopathy's benefit questioned". BBC News. 26 August 2005.
- Ferriman A (2003). "Lancet calls for tobacco to be made illegal". BMJ 327 (7428): 1364. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7428.1364-b.
- Lyall J (2004). "Editor in the eye of a storm". British Medical Journal 328 (7438): 528. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7438.528. PMC 351866. PMID 15164721.
- Murch SH, Anthony A, Casson DH, Malik M, Berelowitz M, Dhillon AP, Thomson MA, Valentine A, Davies SE, Walker-Smith JA (March 2004). "Retraction of an interpretation". Lancet 363 (9411): 750. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15715-2. PMID 15016483.
- "MMR researchers issue retraction". BBC News. 4 March 2004.
- "Medical journal retracts study linking autism to vaccine". CNN. 2 February 2010.
- Laurance, Jeremy (5 December 2003). "Lancet calls for tobacco ban to save thousands of lives". The Independent. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- "UK ministers urged to ban tobacco". BBC News. 5 December 2003. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Coghlan B (30 October 2006). "Gut reaction aside, those on the ground know Iraq reality". Eureka Street.
- Sudbø J, Lee JJ, Lippman SM, et al. (2005). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of oral cancer: a nested case-control study". The Lancet 366 (9494): 1359–66. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67488-0. PMID 16226613. (Retracted)
- Cancer study patients 'made up'. BBC News. 16 January 2006.
- Hafstad A (17 January 2006). "Største svindel verden har sett". Aftenposten.
- Cortez MF (1 November 2006). "Medical Journal Retracts Oral Cancer Studies Linked to Fraud". Bloomberg.com.
- "Redemption for the Pope?". The Lancet 373 (9669): 1054. 2009. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60627-9. PMID 19328984.
- "Radio Vatican article".
- Mass privatisation and the post-communist mortality crisis: a cross-national analysis The Lancet Retrieved on 02-12-09
- Ex-communist reform – Mass murder and the market The Economist Retrieved on 02-12-09
- "WHO Life Expectancy Projections 2000 – ministry". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
- Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR, et al. (2010). "Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study". The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10 (9): 597–602. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70143-2. PMC 2933358. PMID 20705517.
- Yong D, Giske CG, Toleman M, Walsh TR (October 25–28, 2008). "A novel subgroup metallo-B-lactamase (MBL), NDM-1 emerges in Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPN) from India". 48th Annual ICAAC/IDSA 46th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, USA. pp. C1–105.
- Yong D, Toleman MA, Giske CG, et al. (2009). "Characterization of a New Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene, blaNDM-1, and a Novel Erythromycin Esterase Gene Carried on a Unique Genetic Structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 14 from India". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 53 (12): 5046–5054. doi:10.1128/AAC.00774-09. PMC 2786356. PMID 19770275.
- MNCs behind superbug propoganda: Ahluwalia - Hindustan Times
- Researchers dismiss superbug controversy
- Cheng, Maria (1 November 2010). "Study: Alcohol more lethal than heroin, cocaine". The Boston Globe.
- "Alcohol 'more harmful than heroin' says Prof David Nutt". BBC News. 1 November 2010.