Original theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Wolfgang Reitherman
|Produced by||Wolfgang Reitherman
|Screenplay by||Larry Clemmons
|Based on||The Rescuers and Miss Bianca
by Margery Sharp
|Editing by||James Koford
|Studio||Walt Disney Productions|
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Distribution|
|Running time||77 minutes|
The Rescuers is a 1977 American animated adventure film produced by Walt Disney Productions and first released on June 22, 1977 by Buena Vista Distribution. The 23rd film in the Walt Disney Animated Classics series, the film is about the Rescue Aid Society, an international mouse organization headquartered in New York and shadowing the United Nations, dedicated to helping abduction victims around the world at large. Two of these mice, jittery janitor Bernard (Bob Newhart) and his co-agent, the elegant Miss Bianca (Eva Gabor), set out to rescue Penny (Michelle Stacy), an orphan girl being held prisoner in the Devil's Bayou by treasure huntress Madame Medusa (Geraldine Page).
In an abandoned river boat in Devil's Bayou, a young orphan named Penny, drops a message in a bottle containing a plea for help into the river. The bottle is carried out to sea and washes up in New York City, where it is recovered by the Rescue Aid Society, an international mouse organization inside the United Nations. The Hungarian representative, Miss Bianca, volunteers to accept the case and chooses Bernard, a stammering janitor who has triskaidekaphobia, as her co-agent. The two visit Morningside Orphanage, where Penny lived, and meet an old cat named Rufus. He tells them about a woman named Madame Medusa who once tried to lure Penny into her car and may have succeeded in abducting Penny this time.
The mice travel to Medusa's pawn shop, where they discover that she and her partner, Mr. Snoops, are on a quest to find the world's largest diamond, the Devil's Eye. They also discover that Mr. Snoops is in the Devil's Bayou with Penny, whom they have indeed kidnapped. With the help of an albatross named Orville, and a dragonfly named Evinrude, the mice follow Medusa to the bayou. There, they learn that Penny was captured to enter a hole that leads down into the pirates' cave where the Devil's Eye is located.
Miss Bianca's perfume inadvertently attracts the attention of Medusa's pet alligators, Brutus and Nero. Bernard and Miss Bianca flee and find Penny. The arrival of the two mice raises her morale. Together, the three devise a plan, which is put into action on the following day. Wanting to escape tonight, Bernard orders Evinrude to get Ellie Mae and the other local animals who loathe Medusa, which he accepts. However, in the middle of his quest, Evinrude is thwarted by a flock of hungry bats, delaying him. The following morning, Medusa and Mr. Snoops send Penny down into a pirate's cave to find the gem, with Miss Bianca and Bernard hiding in her skirt pocket. The three soon find the Devil's Eye within a pirate skull; as Penny pries the mouth open with a sword, the mice push it out from within, but soon the oceanic tide rises and floods the cave. Miss Bianca, Penny, and Bernard barely manage to retrieve the diamond and escape.
Medusa steals the diamond for herself, attempting to run off with the diamond, leaving Snoops without any shares, and hides it in Penny's teddy bear. When she trips over a cable set as a trap by Bernard and Bianca, Medusa loses the bear to Penny, who runs away with it. After a struggle with Snoops who already turned to her, Medusa retaliates with gunfire, causing the mice to flee until they are met by Brutus and Nero. With help from Ellie Mae and the other animals, Bernard and Miss Bianca trick them into entering a cage-like elevator, trapping them.
Two of the gang set off Mr. Snoops's fireworks, making the boat sink. Meanwhile Penny and the mice commandeer Medusa's "Swampmobile", a motor-boat used by Medusa to travel in the swamp and resembling the front clip Ford Model T body mounted to a small boat, with a single tractor seat for the driver. They get it moving using Luke's homemade moonshine as fuel, while Medusa unsuccessfully pursues them, and is left clinging to the boat's smoke stacks with Brutus and Nero trying to eat her below (because she whipped them while she was chasing Penny) while Snoops is seen rafting away while laughing.
Back in New York, the Rescue Aid Society watch TV to hear that the Devil's Eye is given to the Smithsonian Institution and Penny is adopted by a new father and mother. Bernard and Miss Bianca remain partners in the Rescue Aid Society's Missions. Soon there is another call for help and they depart on Orville, accompanied by Evinrude, to a new rescue mission.
- Bob Newhart as Bernard, Rescue Aid Society's timid janitor, who reluctantly tags along with Miss Bianca. He is highly superstitious about the number 13 and dislikes flying.
- Eva Gabor as Miss Bianca, the Hungarian representative of the Rescue Aid Society. She is sophisticated and adventurous. Her Hungarian nationality was derived from that of her voice actress, Eva Gabor.
- Geraldine Page as Madame Medusa, a greedy, redheaded, wicked pawnshop owner.
- Michelle Stacy as Penny, a lonely orphan girl, residing at Morningside Orphanage in New York City.
- Joe Flynn as Mr. Snoops, Medusa's clumsy business partner. This was Flynn's final role before his death in 1974.
- Jim Jordan as Orville, an albatross who gives Bernard and Bianca a ride to Devil's Bayou. The role was the last for Jordan, who retired after the film's release.
- John McIntire as Rufus, the elderly cat who resides at Morningside Orphanage and comforts Penny when she is sad. He was designed by animator Ollie Johnston, who retired after this film following a 40-year career with Disney.
- Jeanette Nolan as Ellie Mae and Pat Buttram as Luke, two muskrats who reside in a Southern-style home on a patch of land in Devil's Bayou. Luke drinks very strong, homemade liquor.
- James MacDonald as Evinrude, a dragonfly who mans a leaf boat across Devil's Bayou, giving Bernard and Miss Bianca a ride across the swamp waters.
- Candy Candido as Brutus and Nero, Medusa's two aggressive pet alligators.
- Bernard Fox as Mr. Chairman, the chairman to the Rescue Aid Society.
- George Lindsey as Deadeye, a fisher rabbit who is one of Luke and Ellie Mae's friends.
- Larry Clemmons as Gramps, a grumpy old turtle who carries a brown cane.
- Dub Taylor as Digger, a mole.
- John Fiedler as Deacon Owl
- Shelby Flint as Singer, Bottle
- Bill McMillian as T.V. Announcer
The Rescuers was four years in the making with the combined talents of 250 people, including 40 animators who produced approximately 330,000 drawings; there were 14 sequences with 1,039 separate scenes and 750 backgrounds.2
Contrary to popular belief, Walt Disney was involved in early development of the film. Though actual production did not begin until about 1973, the suggestion of considering Margery Sharp's "Miss Bianca" novels was made in 1962 (at this time, only the first two had been published). However, Walt Disney disliked the idea of a faithful adaptation of Sharp's The Rescuers (1959), in which Miss Bianca, Bernard, and a third mouse named Nils rescued a Norwegian poet from imprisonment, and suggested that the subject of rescue be changed to a polar bear named Willie held captive in a zoo. Following his death in 1966, Sharp's second novel in the series was selected as the primary source for adaptation.
The Rescuers was the first Disney film that combined the talents of Walt Disney's original crew of story writers and animators (including his "Nine Old Men") with a newer, less experienced crew that Walt Disney Productions had recruited in the mid-1970s.2
The Rescuers marked the last joint effort by veterans Milt Kahl, Ollie Johnston, and Frank Thomas, and the first Disney film worked on by Don Bluth as an animator, instead of an assistant animator.4 Other animators who stepped up during production were Glen Keane, Ron Clements, and Andy Gaskill, who would all play an important role in the Disney Renaissance of the 1980s and 90s.5
The Rescuers was also the company's first major animated success since The Jungle Book (1967) and the last until The Little Mermaid (1989). The Rescuers marked the end of the silver age of Disney animation that had begun with Cinderella (1950). It also marked the first successful animated film that Walt Disney himself had not worked on.
During the 1960s and early 70s Disney films took on the trend of comedy, rather than story, heart, and drama. The Rescuers marked the return of the animated drama films the studio had previously been known for, such as Bambi and Dumbo. Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston stated in their website that The Rescuers had been their return to a film with heart and also considered it their best film without Walt Disney.6 Also unique to the animation was the opening credits: this film marked the first time that practiced camera movements over still photographs were used to make the opening credits. Prior to this, the studio had used the cels with the credits motionless over different still backgrounds, sometimes over one single background, as was done in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). The Rescuers was also the first Disney animated film to feature a prologue, or part of the story prior to the opening credits sequence, making said sequence part of the storyline.
In a loose concept of the story, jazz singer Louis Prima was to voice a character named Louis the Bear. The story was going to be about a bear named Louis who escapes from a zoo with the help of two mice, and was to feature six songs sung by Prima written by Floyd Huddleston.7 Unfortunately in 1975, following headaches and episodes of memory loss, Prima discovered he had a stem brain tumor, and the project was scrapped.8
The Rescuers marked the end of the studio's so-called "sketchy" animation period of the 1960s and 70s. The new xerographic process restored a softer outline that previously was not possible with the technology, which so far only had been able to produce black outlines. This allowed the use of a medium-gray tone and even a purple tone for outlines, such as that used for Miss Bianca.citation needed
Bernard was inspired by the character of the same name in Margery Sharp's The Rescuers series and much of his personality and character were kept. In the novel Miss Bianca, however, Bernard plays a very minor role.
Penny was inspired by Patience, the orphan in the novel. Mr. Snoops is a version of Mandrake, a character of the book. His appearance is a caricature of animation historian John Culhane.2 Culhane claims he was practically tricked into posing for various reactions, and his movements were imitated on Mr. Snoops's model sheet. However, he stated, "Becoming a Disney character was beyond my wildest dreams of glory."11 Brutus and Nero are based on the two bloodhounds, Tyrant and Torment in the novels.
A pigeon was originally proposed to be the transportation for Bernard and Bianca, until Disney animator Ollie Johnston remembered a True Life Adventures episode that showed albatrosses and their clumsy take-offs and landings, and suggested the ungainly bird instead.4
Originally, Cruella de Vil from One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961) was to have been recast as the villainess in The Rescuers, but this idea was dropped since the studio was not interested in producing sequels at the time. She was replaced by a retouched version of the Diamond Duchess in Miss Bianca. The two characters share surprisingly few similarities, other than perhaps the tendency to drive recklessly. The motive to steal a diamond originated in Margery Sharp's 1959 novel, Miss Bianca. Her appearance was based on animator Milt Kahl's ex-wife, who he did not particularly like. This was Kahl's last film for the studio, and he wanted his final character to be his best; he was so insistent on perfecting Medusa that he ended up doing almost all the animation for the character himself.12
The Rescuers was re-released to theaters on December 16, 1983 along with a new Mickey Mouse featurette, Mickey's Christmas Carol, Mickey's first theatrical appearance after a 30-year absence. In anticipation of its upcoming theatrically released sequel in 1990, The Rescuers Down Under, The Rescuers saw another successful theatrical run on March 17, 1989.
To tie in with the film's 25th Anniversary, The Rescuers debuted in the Walt Disney Classics Collection line in 2002, with three different figures featuring three of the film's biggest stars, as well as the opening title scroll. The three figures were sculpted by Dusty Horner and they were: Brave Bianca, featuring Miss Bianca the heroine and priced at $75,13 Bold Bernard, featuring hero Bernard, priced also at $7514 and Evinrude Base, featuring Evinrude the dragonfly and priced at $85.13 The title scroll featuring the film's name, The Rescuers and from the opening song sequence "The Journey," was priced at $30. All figures were retired in March 2005, except for the opening title scroll which is still widely available.
The Rescuers was the inspiration for another Walt Disney Classics Collection figure in 2003. Ken Melton was the sculptor of Teddy Goes With Me, My Dear, a limited edition, 8-inch sculpture featuring the evil Madame Medusa, the orphan girl Penny, her teddy bear "Teddy" and the Devil's Eye diamond. 1,977 of these sculptures were made, in reference to the film's release year, 1977. The sculpture was priced at $299 and instantly declared retired in 2003.14
In November 2008, a sixth sculpture inspired by the film was released. Made with pewter and resin, Cleared For Take Off introduced the character of Orville into the collection and featured Bernard and Bianca a second time. The piece, inspired by Orville's take-off scene in the film, was sculpted by Ruben Procopio.15
The Rescuers was successful upon its original theatrical release earning $48 million at the box office and becoming Disney's most successful film to that date.citation needed The film broke a record for the largest financial amount made for an animated film on opening weekend, a record it kept until 1986, when An American Tail broke the record. The Rescuers was Disney's first significant success since The Jungle Book (1967) and the last until The Little Mermaid (1989).
The Rescuers was said to be Disney's greatest film since Mary Poppins (1964), and seemed to signal a new golden age for Disney animation.16 The film holds an 85% "Certified Fresh" rating at Rotten Tomatoes.17 TV Guide gave the film three stars out of four, saying that "Four years in the making, costing nearly $8 million, THE RESCUERS is a beautifully animated film that showed Disney still knew a lot about making quality children's fare even as their track record was weakening. The story concerns two mice, Bernard and Miss Bianca (their voices provided by Newhart and Gabor), who set out to rescue a girl named Penny (Stacy) from the evil Mme Medusa (Page). The girl is held captive in a swamp, which offers the setting for some genuinely frightening action. Comic relief is provided by a bird named Orville, who transports the mice as they search for the girl. The voices are all well suited to the characters, and the film is a delight for children as well as adults who appreciate good animation and brisk storytelling."18 Ellen MacKay of Common Sense Media gave the film four out of five stars, writing, "Great adventure, but too dark for preschoolers".19
In his book, The Disney Films, film historian Leonard Maltin refers to The Rescuers as "a breath of fresh air for everyone who had been concerned about the future of animation at Walt Disney's," praises its "humor and imagination and [it is] expertly woven into a solid story structure [...] with a delightful cast of characters." Finally, he declares the film "the most satisfying animated feature to come from the studio since 101 Dalmatians." He also briefly mentions the ease with which the film surpassed other animated films of its time.20
The Rescuers premiered on VHS and Laserdisc on September 18, 1992 as part of the Walt Disney Classics series. It was re-released on VHS as part of the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection on January 5, 1999, but was recalled three days later and reissued on March 23, 1999 (see "Controversy").
The Rescuers was released on DVD on May 20, 2003 as a standard edition, which was discontinued in November 2011.
On January 8, 1999, three days after the film's second release on home video, The Walt Disney Company announced a recall of about 3.4 million copies of the videotapes because there was an objectionable image in one of the film's background cels.26272829
The image in question is a blurry image of a topless woman that appears in two out of the film's more than 110,000 frames. The image appears twice in non-consecutive frames during the scene in which Miss Bianca and Bernard are flying on Orville's back through New York City. The two images could not be seen in ordinary viewing because the film runs too fast — at 30 frames per second on video.30
In 1999, two days after the recall was announced, the London press site The Independent reported:
A Disney spokeswoman said that the images in The Rescuers were placed in the film during production, but she declined to say what they were or who placed them... The company said the aim of the recall was to keep its promise to families that they can trust and rely on the Disney brand to provide the best in family entertainment.31
The Rescuers video was reissued March 23, 1999 with the offending image edited out. On May 20, 2003, the film was released on DVD.
|Film score Vinyl LP by Various Artists|
The songs were written by Sammy Fain, Carol Connors, and Ayn Robbins, and performed by Shelby Flint. For the first time since Bambi, all the most significant songs were sung as part of a narrative, as opposed to by the film's characters as in most Disney animated films.
- The Journey (also known as Who Will Rescue Me?) – Sung during the film's opening credits, the song follows Penny's bottle as it floats out of the Devil's Bayou and into the Atlantic Ocean.
- Rescue Aid Society – Sung by the Chairman (Bernard Fox), Bernard (Bob Newhart), and Miss Bianca (Robie Lester, filling in for Eva Gabor), as well as the various international mouse delegates (the Disney Studio Chorus) during the R.A.S. meeting. A reprise of the song plays when Bernard and Bianca begin to lose their faith, and are reminded of the song and its meaning.
- Faith is a Bluebird – Although not an actual song, it is a poem recited by Rufus and partially by Penny in a flashback the old cat has to when he last saw the small orphan girl, and comforted her through the poem, about having faith. The titular bluebird that appears in this sequence originally appeared in Alice in Wonderland (1951).
- Tomorrow is Another Day – Sung as Bernard and Bianca travel to Devil's Bayou upon Orville's back. The song plays again at the film's closure, as Bernard and Bianca, assisted by Evinrude and Orville, set out on a new rescue mission.
- Someone's Waiting For You – Sung as Penny begins to lose her faith, after Medusa cruelly speaks to her. During this segment, the star of faith, that Rufus mentioned earlier lights up the night sky. Bambi and his mother appear during this segment. The song was originally entitled "The Need to Be Loved" and featured different lyrics, with recorded versions by Jennifer Paz and Paul Francis Webster.
- For Penny's a Jolly Good Fellow - Sung by the orphan children at the end of the film, as a variation of the song "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow".
01. The Journey - Shelby Flint
02. Rescue Aid Society - Bernard Fox, Bob Newheart, and Robie Lester
03. Tomorrow Is Another Day - Shelby Flint
04. Someone's Waiting For You - Shelby Flint
05. Tomorrow Is Another Day (Reprise) - Shelby Flint
The Rescuers was the first Disney animated film to have a sequel. After three successful theatrical releases of the original film, The Rescuers Down Under was released theatrically on November 16, 1990.
The Rescuers Down Under takes place in the Australian Outback, and involves Bernard and Bianca trying to rescue a boy named Cody and a giant golden eagle called Marahute from a greedy poacher named Percival C. McLeach. Both Bob Newhart and Eva Gabor reprised their lead roles. Since Jim Jordan, who had voiced Orville, had since died, a new character, Wilbur (Orville's brother, another albatross) was created and voiced by John Candy.
- "The Rescuers". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- "The Rescuers DVD Fun Facts". Disney.go.com. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
- Smith, D: "Animal Heroes", page 80. Disney: The Ultimate Visual Guide, 2002
- Thomas, Bob: "Carrying on the Tradition", pages 111-112. Art of Animation: From Mickey Mouse to Hercules, 1997
- Finch, Christopher: "Chapter 9: The End of an Era", page 260. The Art of Walt Disney, 2004
- "Feature Films". Frank and Ollie's Official Site. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- Beck, Jerry (August 15, 2011). "Lost Louis Prima Disney Song". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- "This Day in Disney History - August 24". This Day in Disney History. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Sharp, Margery (1959). The Rescuers. Illustrated by Garth Williams. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown and Company.
- Sharp, Margery (1962). Miss Bianca. Illustrated by Garth Williams. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown and Company.
- Johnston, Ollie, and Thomas, Frank: "The Rescuers", pages 156-163. The Disney Villain, 1993
- "Madame Medusa". Disney Archives: Villains. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- "The Rescuers". Secondary Price Guide. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- "The Rescuers". Secondary Price Guide. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- "2008 Limited Edition-Orville with Bernard & Bianca". WDCC Duckman. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
- "The Animated Films of Don Bluth - The Rescuers". Cataroo.com. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- "The Rescuers - Rotten Tomatoes". Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- "The Rescuers Review". Movies.tvguide.com. September 3, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
- Ellen MacKay. "The Rescuers - Movie Review". Commonsensemedia.org. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
- Maltin, Leornard (2000). The Disney Films, p.265. JessieFilm Ltd., New York. ISBN 0-7868-8527-0. Quotations from this same source were used in the 1998 home video promotional trailer for the film found in the VHS release of Lady and the Tramp (1955) of the same year.
- Jack G., Shaheen (2001). Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People. Olive branch Press (an imprint of Interlink publishing group). p. 393. ISBN 1-56656-388-7.
- "Oscars Database". Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- "AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot" (PDF). Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- Burger, Dennis. "The Rescuers Slated for 2012 Blu-ray Release! (Along with Over 30 Other Disney Flicks)". Technologytell. www.technologytell.com. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- Josh Katz (February 3, 2012). "Disney Teases 2012 Blu-ray Slate". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "Photographic images of a topless woman can be spotted in The Rescuers". Urban Legends Reference Pages. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- Davies, Jonathan (January 11, 1999). "Dis Calls in 'Rescuers' After Nude Images Found". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Howell, Peter (January 13, 1999). "Disney Knows the Net Never Blinks". The Toronto Star.
- Miller, D.M. (2001). "What Would Walt Do?". San Jose, CA: Writers Club Press. p. 96.
- "Disney Recalls 'The Rescuers' Video". Associated Press. January 8, 1999.
- "Disney recalls "sabotaged" video". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
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- Official website
- The Rescuers at allmovie
- The Rescuers at the Big Cartoon DataBase
- The Rescuers at the Internet Movie Database
- The Rescuers at the TCM Movie Database
- The Rescuers at Rotten Tomatoes