The World Is Not Enough (song)

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"The World Is Not Enough"
Against a gray background lies a cutout of flames in the shape of a woman holding a gun. In front of the figure is the text "Garbage - The World Is Not Enough - From the MGM motion picture The World Is Not Enough".
Single by Garbage
from the album The World Is Not Enough and Beautiful Garbage (Japanese Edition)
B-side "Ice Bandits"
Released October 4, 1999
(See release history)
Format CD, Cassette single
Recorded June - August 1999
Metropolis Studios, London, UK
Armoury Studios, Vancouver, Canada
Genre Electronica, alternative rock, symphonic rock
Length 3:57
Label Radioactive
Writer(s) David Arnold & Don Black
Producer(s) David Arnold & Garbage
Garbage singles chronology
"You Look So Fine"
(1999)
"The World Is Not Enough"
(1999)
"Androgyny"
(2001)
James Bond theme chronology
"Tomorrow Never Dies"
(1997)
"The World Is Not Enough"
(1999)
"Die Another Day"
(2002)
Music sample

"The World Is Not Enough" is a 1999 orchestral rock song performed by alternative rock group Garbage, and was the theme single of the James Bond film of the same name.1 The song and accompanying soundtrack were released internationally by Radioactive Records as the feature film premiered in theaters around the world at the end of November of that year.2 Garbage recorded the theme song while touring Europe in support of their platinum certified album Version 2.0.3

"The World Is Not Enough" was written by composer David Arnold, who also did the score for the film, and lyricist Don Black, who had worked in four Bond songs before. The single was written in the traditional style of the series' title themes contrasting with the post-modern production technique and genre-hopping sound that Garbage had established on their first two albums.4 The lyrics contain the line "There's no point in living if you can't feel alive", an important plot point in the film. "The song reflects the film. It tells the story, which of course is all about world domination, but is a lot more personal and intense," stated Black, "It's quite ballady and dramatic, but feels contemporary."5

Upon its single release, "The World Is Not Enough" was widely acclaimed by reviewers, and reached the top tens of Icelandic,6 Italian,7 Norwegian8 and Finnish single charts,9 and also reached the top forties in Austria,10 Germany,11 Ireland,12 Spain,13 Switzerland14 and the United Kingdom.15 A decade later the song was remastered and included on series compilation The Best of Bond... James Bond16 and on Garbage's greatest hits album Absolute Garbage.17

Development

Background

In September 1998, Michael G. Wilson and Barbara Broccoli, the owners of Eon Productions and long-time producers of the James Bond movie franchise selected David Arnold to compose the score for the nineteenth Bond movie, which was scheduled for theatrical release in November of the following year.18 Arnold had already composed the score for the previous film, Tomorrow Never Dies and oversaw the recording of Shaken and Stirred: The David Arnold James Bond Project, an album of cover versions recorded by contemporary artists such as Pulp, Aimee Mann and David McAlmont. Arnold and the movie production team were keen for a rough draft to be written early so that elements of the melody could be incorporated into the main score. Michael Apted, who would direct the film, thought that the use of "Nobody Does It Better", as a love theme throughout The Spy Who Loved Me had been very effective and wanted Arnold to use that as a reference point.19

Composition

Arnold felt the need to compose a theme song that married the "classic Bond sound" with the electronica that would influence the majority of his score.20 An orchestral sound would be required because the audience were conditioned to expect certain elements in a Bond movies, and that without them, The World Is Not Enough would simply be a generic action movie.20 Getting the balance right could potentially be a "poisoned chalice", because the final results could either sound too much or too little like a Bond theme.21 To help write the lyrics for the song, which was titled "The World Is Not Enough" after the film, Arnold collaborated with lyricist Don Black.18 Black already had thirty years of experience of writing Bond themes, and had written the lyrics to Tom Jones's "Thunderball",22 Shirley Bassey's "Diamonds Are Forever",23 Lulu's "The Man with the Golden Gun",24 and k.d. lang's closing credits theme "Surrender" from the previous film.25 Arnold and Black met several times to discuss the lyrics for "The World Is Not Enough" and otherwise collaborated via the exchange of phone calls, faxes and e-mails.18 According to Arnold, he "strung some la-las together, and all of a sudden the [song] came to life". By the end of the year, Arnold and Black had completed the music and lyrics, except for the bridge - a contrasting section of around eight bars.18

"Part of the reason I thought Garbage would be such a good idea [for the theme song], is that I think Shirley Manson is someone who could easily inhabit Bond's world. The whole thing about the song is that it needs to entice you, and beckon you in. I've always thought this title song is from Elektra's point of view and it should be like a steel fist in a velvet glove. [...] Shirley is the only person I can think of in the world of contemporary music who is the musical equivalent of Elektra. It is as important as casting the characters - getting the right voice and right attitude for the song."

David Arnold21

By the first week of January 1999, Arnold had the basic outline of the song completed and had created a synth-arranged demo recording at his own recording studio. Arnold personally presented the demo to Wilson, Broccoli and Apted, who were "extremely pleased" with the results. Shortly after, Arnold's agent presented the demo to MGM executives in Los Angeles who initially disliked it because it was a ballad and not more upbeat with a faster tempo. MGM later asked Arnold to rewrite a three-note sequence that was felt too similar to a motif present in earlier Bond themes.18

Arnold first proposed offering the theme tune to Garbage lead singer Shirley Manson in London at the beginning of the year.18 A week after their meeting, he sent the band the rough demo, which Garbage approved.26 Shirley Manson reportedly screamed down the telephone at Arnold when he made the formal offer: "[I have] never come across a more enthusiastic response to a 'do-you-wanna-do-this?' question."27 "The sensibility is quite similar to how we approach making music." Manson later explained, "I jumped at the chance [to record the theme] because I think it's an institution I admire and has always captured my imagination since I was a child."27 The opportunity to record a Bond theme appealed to Manson because "you know it's going down in movie history."28 The singer also felt Garbage's music combined with the series for being "something that you can enjoy on the surface, but underneath there are lots of conflicting themes you can get into."29 Manson eventually requested a small lyrical change because the line "I know when to kiss and I know when to kill" did not meet her tastes. Arnold and Black accordingly changed the words to the first-person plural "we" for the final version.18

Garbage's involvement was confirmed at the beginning of August in a press release sent out by MGM and Shirley Manson's record label Radioactive Records, who were to release the soundtrack and the single.30 Radioactive's Gary Kurfirst stated "The score for the film is first rate and the Garbage track is stellar. Our own Shirley Manson is spectacular as always", while MCA president Jay Boberg followed up "Every James Bond film is a vital piece of popular culture, and as a life-long Bond fan, thrilled at releasing the soundtrack. Garbage is one of the best contemporary bands, and they turned in a bravura performance on the title track."31 While Music Week had reported that Jamiroquai, Robbie Williams, Sharleen Spiteri, Björk and Melanie C had been rejected by the producers before Garbage was chosen,32 Arnold denied the other artists had auditioned, stating that the single was suitable only for a film and not created for one artist or with any artist in mind.33

Recording

The inside of a music studio. Four man sit in front of a soundboard, while a woman wearing a red shirt stands inside the recording booth.
Garbage recording with David Arnold at London's Metropolis Studios.

Garbage, who were in the middle of a European concert tour, and Arnold co-produced the string arrangement for the song over the phone. The band were anxious that the right keys and tempo were considered before they could schedule a window in their itinery to record their parts. The band set up a portable digital studio to record material to present to Arnold from wherever in Europe they were performing. The strings would have to be finalised and recorded before Manson could sing her parts, as the string arrangement carried the structure of the song.34 Arnold recorded the strings with a sixty-piece orchestra in London's Metropolis Studios in a single day.26 Garbage scheduled a performance at the Super Bock Festival in Lisbon to end early so that they could travel to the studio to cut the basic tracks with Arnold. On July 19, Manson's vocals, electric guitar, samples and some bass guitar, performed by the band's touring bassist, Daniel Shulman, were laid down.35 Manson found working with the orchestra to be "exhilarating".27 The next day, the band flew out to Six-Fours-les-Plages in France to resume their touring commitments for three weeks across Europe and South Africa.35

"Vocally, it's a big change for me. It requires a very wide range, and you can't hide behind any effect. Basically, it's just my voice. I was terrified, and I kept weeping to my friends, 'I'm going to look a fool! There's no way I'm going to be able to carry this off!' They reassured me, saying, 'No matter what happens, at least you won't come last, because you couldn't be worse than a-ha.'"

Shirley Manson3

Further recording took place in August at Armoury Studios in Vancouver, Canada, where Garbage built upon the initial mix of "The World Is Not Enough" by adding their own production to the song.36 The band were conscious of keeping the arrangement tight to preserve the song's dynamic and sweeping melody line. "The orchestra took up so much space and really dictated where the song was going dynamically", Vig recalled, "Besides the drums and bass and some percussive loops, there's a little bit of guitar that Duke and Steve did. There's a few little ear candy things that we did, but it's all meant to work around Shirley's singing."26 Even though the band owned their own recording studio in Madison, Wisconsin, due to legal reasons, the song could not be recorded in any studios located within the United States.37 "The World Is Not Enough" was completed, mixed and mastered at the end of the month.38 Vig later explained, "To Garbage fans, it sounds like a Garbage song. And to Bond fans, it's a Bond song."39 Shortly after, the group returned to their own recording studio in Madison to create their own mix of the song.37 Their version (the "Chilled Out remix") downplayed the "classic Bond" sound in favour of a more recognisable Garbage style.40

Copyright infringement case

Two song-writers sued Eon, MGM, Universal Music and Universal Studios for copyright infringement over "The World Is Not Enough", alleging that the track was a derivative of their song "This Game We Play" which was submitted to MGM executives in February 1999 for consideration on the soundtrack of The Thomas Crown Affair. The basis for their claim centered around a four-note sequence in "The World Is Not Enough" that they alleged was identical to a part in "This Game We Play". While the songwriters were gathering evidence to prove their case, they posed as an employee of composer James Horner to contact Don Black and solicit his services for the film Ocean's Eleven. They recorded their conversation with Black, and deliberately tried to trick him into revealing when he and Arnold composed "The World Is Not Enough". The pair also contacted Shirley Manson in a similar manner.18

The case was argued in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee in June 2004. It was agreed by the court that "The World Is Not Enough" did share an identical sequence with "This Game We Play". The plaintiffs eventually conceded that Arnold did not have access to "This Game We Play" after it was proved, with journal entries, delivery invoices, phone call records, computer records, written declarations from both Michael G. Wilson and Barbara Broccoli and testimony from David Arnold, Don Black, Shirley Manson, and Arnold's personal assistant as "irrefutable evidence" that "The World Is Not Enough" had already been written and had not been changed significantly, aside from a lyrical alteration (the removal of one line to accommodate Shirley Manson) and one amendment to the score (the removal of the "three-note motif" to accommodate the MGM executives), from the date that "This Game We Play" was submitted to MGM.18

Music video

A set resembling an operating room. Two scientists wearing gray lab coats with plastic domes on their heads work on putting a device inside a robot resembling a naked woman's torso.
Terrorists insert the android Shirley Manson with a bomb.

The music video for "The World Is Not Enough" was directed by Philipp Stölzl for Oil Factory Films. The video was a shot in a London soundstage over September 23–24, 1999.41 Manson's android shots (laboratory, kissing and driving scenes) were filmed on first day with the pyrotechnic scenes shot on the theater set on the second.42 To film her "death", Manson was required to kiss a lookalike model. The University of London's Senate House provided the exterior for the fictional New Globe Theatre. Post-production and editing was completed over the following two weeks.42

In the video, set in 1964, terrorists build a robotic replica of Shirley Manson on an unnamed Pacific island, with the ability to kill her targets with a single kiss. She is fitted with a bomb that is primed before she leaves for her mission. The android makes its way to Chicago's New Globe Theater and lets herself into the real Shirley Manson's dressing room. The android replica kills her and assumes her identity to perform the coda of the song atop a massive steel globe. As it and the rest of the band receive a standing ovation from their audience, the bomb inside the replica counts down. Android Manson thrusts her arms in the air and smiles. The screen cuts to black just as the timer hits zero,43 and an explosion can be heard.

The stage concert house, with red curtains on the side and gray ones in the background. Atop a scenographic Earth globe lies a woman in a red dress, while below it three men in suits play drums, bass and guitar.
The Manson android performs on-stage with Garbage before exploding at the climax of "The World Is Not Enough".

Stölzl originally drew up a treatment that Garbage liked but MGM and Eon (who were paying for it from the movie's promotional budget) did not think it was "Bond enough".39 His reworked storyboard featured Manson as an android double replacing her26 and he provided a special effects house with sketches he'd drawn of the android, and they constructed a replica based on them using aircraft parts, bits from guided missiles, and bits of tubing, metal and plastic.42 The elements within the android were combined with Manson in post-production to show the android's mechanical interiors.42 "It reminds me of The Man Who Knew Too Much. Some of the shots look like Stanley Kubrick", recalled Vig, "For us it was just important that the music video was also a Garbage video."26 "[It is] like a mini-Bond action-packed film, where an android removes evil from the world and sacrifices herself in the process like a kamikaze warrior. That's as close as we'll ever get [to being in a Bond movie]," Manson later commented.44

The video shoot was documented by a Making The Video camera crew, and made its worldwide premiere on MTV following the special on October 20, 1999.41 The video debuted on Total Request Live the next day. In the United Kingdom, the Making The Video special and video were broadcast from October 21.41 An edit of the video featuring footage from the movie was shown in some countries. In order to preserve the narrative, the movie footage was inserted on a split screen so that the narrative is uninterrupted on the opposite side of the frame.26 "The World Is Not Enough" video was later included on Garbage's 2007 greatest hits DVD compilation Absolute Garbage.17

Release and reception

Single release

In North America, Radioactive serviced both versions of "The World Is Not Enough" to AAA, Alternative, Modern Adult and Modern Rock radio stations on October 4, 1999.31 Originally planned to impact a week later,45 the radio date was brought forward when a Los Angeles station broadcast the "Chilled Out remix" early, which was ripped as a low-quality MP3 file and circulated via file-sharing networks.46 The release of the single coincided with return of the band to North America to headline an MTV-sponsored Campus Invasion Tour.30 Garbage debuted "The World Is Not Enough" on October 20, at a concert held on the campus of the University of Denver, Colorado.26 On November 1, the band performed the song live on the Late Show with David Letterman.47

Radioactive released "The World Is Not Enough" in the United Kingdom on November 15.48 The song was issued as a limited edition digipack CD single and a cassette single. Both formats were backed with "Ice Bandits", an orchestral track taken from David Arnold's movie score. The CD also featured a remix produced by trip-hop act Unkle.49 After a week on sale, "The World Is Not Enough" debuted at No. 11 on the UK Singles Chart.15 Becoming the band's tenth top forty single, it remained on the UK charts for nine weeks.50 In Ireland, "The World Is Not Enough" peaked at #30.12

Prior to the European commercial release of "The World Is Not Enough", the video was aired immediately before the worldwide live broadcast of the MTV Europe Music Awards41 which took place on November 11.51 Throughout the event, The World Is Not Enough was heavily promoted by MTV who gave away a BMW Z8, the car driven by James Bond during the film and by Shirley Manson in the song's music video at the event.41 Radioactive issued the single in European territories from November 15 through to December 6 in the three-track CD digipack format52 and a two-track card-sleeve single backed with "Ice Bandits".53 At the end of November, "The World Is Not Enough" debuted at No. 3 in Iceland,54 before moving up to No. 1 the following week.6 The song debuted at No. 54 in Sweden,55 at No. 7 in Norway,8 and at No. 10 in Finland (where it peaked at No. 7 in its second week).9 In the Netherlands, the single debuted at No. 74 and rose to No. 48 two weeks later,56 while in France the single debuted at #55,57 and at No. 12 in the Wallonia-region of Belgium.58 In December, "The World Is Not Enough" debuted at No. 40 in Austria and remained at that position for four weeks.10 In Switzerland, the single debuted at No. 22 and four weeks later rose to No. 16 at the beginning of January 2000.14 At the end of December, the song debuted at No. 18 in Italy,59 before peaking at No. 6 in February 2000.7 The same month, "The World Is Not Enough" peaked at #38 in Germany11 and at No. 12 in Spain.13

Following up the single release, Radioactive issued the soundtrack album for "The World Is Not Enough", which featured "Ice Bandits" and a second David Arnold/Don Black song written for the end credits, "Only Myself to Blame", performed by Scott Walker.1 The album hit record stores in North America on November 9,60 and internationally thereafter.40 "The World Is Not Enough" was later included as a bonus track on the Japanese pressing of the band's third album, Beautiful Garbage61 and was remastered for inclusion on their greatest hits compilation, Absolute Garbage.17 Arnold went on to compose the scores to a further three Bond films: Die Another Day,62 Casino Royale (in which he also co-wrote that films title theme)63 and Quantum of Solace.64

Critical reception

"The World Is Not Enough" received mostly positive critique from music journalists. Kerrang! magazine noted that "Nothing takes a band into the truly immortal like a Bond theme, and Garbage's ever burgeoning celebrity will be done no harm whatsoever by this appropriately lush and orchestral anthem."65 Radio Times noted that the song "sounds like Shirley Bassey revisited",66 while Allmusic's Steve Thomas Erlewine wrote that Garbage had "expertly modernized the classic Bond sound, while turning in a strong melodic tune. A first class theme song".67 PopMatters considered the song a "top-notch Bond theme, following the template of Shirley Bassey."68 Chuck Taylor, in a review for Billboard, wrote that the use of Garbage was an inspired choice, and that the song "rings of international intrigue, with the slinky gait, noir-ish guitar line and grand chorus we have come to expect," adding, "the song's darkly sexy, electronic ambience is wholly in keeping with Garbage's distinctive soundprint. [It is] not only the best 007 theme in eons, it is a great Garbage track that should thrill fans of band and Bond alike".4 IGN listed "The World Is Not Enough" ninth in their list of Top 10 James Bond Songs, saying that "Shirley Manson's warbling croon is a perfect fit for an opening sequence and her bandmates gel well with Arnold's sweeping symphonics."69

Some negative comment towards the theme centred around its classic Bond sound. LAUNCHcast's James Poletti commented whilst the song was a "perfectly competent Bond theme" but "the formula seems a little too easy. Perhaps they would have done better to rise to the challenge of doing something a little different, something a little more knowingly tongue-in-cheek."70 Melody Maker stated "you know what this sounds like before you hear it. If the people in charge want Garbage, then why not let them do what Garbage do?"44 In its review of Absolute Garbage, Pitchfork Media described the song as a "predictable "Goldfinger" permutation signalling the band's limitless affinity for big budget theatrics."71

Cover versions

In 2002, "The World Is Not Enough" was covered by Canadian singer Diana Krall for "The Songs of Bond", a UK television special.72 Four years later, Turkish folk music artist Müslüm Gürses covered the song on his album Aşk Tesadüfleri Sever (Love Loves Coincidences). The song was re-arranged and sung in Turkish and re-titled "Bir Ömür Yetmez (A Life Is Not Enough)".73

Commercial tracklistings

Release history

Release Date Territory Record Label Format
October 4, 1999 United States Radioactive Records Airplay: AAA, Alternative,
Modern Adult and Modern Rock
November 15, 1999 United Kingdom CD single, cassette single
Europe CD maxi, CD single
December 7, 1999

Comprehensive charts

Preceded by
"Sun Is Shining"
Bob Marley vs. Funkstar De Luxe
Iceland Singles Chart
number-one single6

November 25 - December 3, 1999
Succeeded by
"Okkar nótt"
Sálin hans Jóns míns

Credits and personnel

See also

References

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  3. ^ a b "Garbage tackles Bond legacy". JAM! Music. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 
  4. ^ a b Taylor, Chuck (1999-10-30). Reviews and Previews; Singles; Pop. Billboard. p. 18. 
  5. ^ "It's Official: Garbage lands song". IanFleming.org. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 
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  12. ^ a b c "Irish Charts archive". The Irish Charts. Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  13. ^ a b c Salaverrie, Fernando (2002). Sólo éxitos. Año a año. 1959-2002. Madrid: Foundation Author of the General Society of Authors and Editores (SGAE). 
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  16. ^ "Capitol/EMI to Release 'The Best of Bond... James Bond' in Expanded CD, CD/DVD & Digital Album Formats on October 28". Hollywood, CA, United States: PRS Newswire. 2008-10-06. "As 007 fans eagerly await the November 14 U.S. opening of MGM's new James Bond film, 'QUANTUM OF SOLACE,' Capitol/EMI announces an expanded CD, CD/DVD and digital release of 'The Best of Bond... James Bond' on October 28. The CD and digital album both feature 23 musical standouts from the Bond franchise's 46 years plus a previously unreleased bonus track, and the CD/DVD includes five music videos, a filmed concert performance and more." dead link
  17. ^ a b c "New Best of Album". Garbage.com. Archived from the original on 2009-06-20. Retrieved 2011-07-22. 
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  19. ^ Michael Apted (2000). The World Is Not Enough DVD Commentary (DVD). MGM Home Video. "I made it clear to [Arnold] the sort of tone I needed for the song. We wanted something romantic and haunting. I was insistent that we got a rough draft of the song out soon enough so that it could be incorporated into the score. I remembered how effective that was in The Spy Who Loved Me; they were able to use the song, "Nobody Does It Better" as a love theme throughout the film." 
  20. ^ a b David Arnold (2000). Bond Cocktail (DVD). MGM Home Video. "If James Bond abandoned his dinner jacket, womanising, or gadget-using you'd feel cheated. The music is a safety net for the audience, without it you haven't got a James Bond movie, you've got an action movie." 
  21. ^ a b David Arnold (2003). The World Is Not Enough DVD Commentary: Pete Lauritson, David Arnold & Vic Armstrong (DVD). MGM Home Video. 
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  23. ^ "Diamonds Are Forever; Music; Credits". MI6-HQ. Retrieved 2011-07-23. 
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  26. ^ a b c d e f g "MKKBB talks with Butch Vig". Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-29. "David sent us a rough demo with just the synthesizer playing the string mockup and after Don entered some lyrics. And we really loved it." 
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  35. ^ a b "MKKBB talks with Butch Vig". Archived from the original on 2006-09-23. Retrieved 2006-09-29. "David did the strings in a day and we just flew in for one day and cut the basic tracks - throw in some bass, some guitar and vocals. The tour continued in Europe for about another three and a half weeks." 
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