Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

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Thomas of Lancaster
Duke of Clarence
Earl of Aumale
Spouse Margaret Holland
Father Henry IV of England
Mother Mary de Bohun
Born 1387
probably London
Died 22 March 1421(1421-03-22) (aged 34)
Battle of Baugé, France
Burial Canterbury Cathedral, Kent

Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, KG (1387 – 22 March 1421), was the second son of King Henry IV of England and his first wife, Mary de Bohun. He was born before 25 November 1387 as on that date his father's accounts note a payment made to a woman described as his nurse.1 Sandals and clothes were bought for him early in 1388,citation needed so the traditional birth date of 29 September 1388 may be safely discounted.

Marriage and issue

Thomas married Lady Margaret Holland, widow of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent in November or December of 1411. No children were born from this union, though Thomas was stepfather to her six children from her first marriage. He had, however, a natural son, Sir John Clarence, called "Bastard of Clarence" who fought by his father's side in France.

Life

During the wars of his elder brother Henry V in France, Clarence fought in the Siege of Rouen (July 1418 – 19 January 1419), where he commanded the besieging force; and in the Battle of Baugé on 22 March 1421. He was killed, by Sir Alexander Buchanan or Sir John de la Croise, during the latter. His natural son John accompanied the remains of his father from Baugé to Canterbury for their interment. This Sir John Clarence had a grant of lands in Ireland from Henry V and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. The noble de Langlée family of France claimed him for their ultimate ancestor.

His executors, as seen in a legal record of 1430, were John Colvylle, of Neuton, Cambs, knight; Henry Merston, of Westminster, clerk & his widow, Margaret, Duchess of Clarence, living in Bermondsey, Surrey. 2

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

English Royalty
House of Lancaster
Arms of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Henry IV
  • Duke of Clarence (9 July 1412–22 March 1421); extinct upon his death until the Third Creation of it in (1461)
  • 1st Earl of Aumale (9 July 1412–22 March 1421); extinct upon his death

Honours

Offices held

Arms

Sources conflict as to Thomas' arms — as a son of the sovereign, Thomas bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by either:

a label of three points ermine.3
a label of three points ermine, each cantoned gules, as depicted in the above image.

Ancestry

References

  • Weir, Alison (2002). Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy. The Bodley Head London, U.K. ISBN 0-7126-4286-2.  pages 102 & 123
  • Cokayne, G.E. (2000). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant. Alan Sutton.  Vol I pg 368, Vol III pg 258 & 259
  1. ^ Ian Mortimer, Fears of Henry IV (2007), p. 372)
  2. ^ Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; CP 40 / 677; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT1/H6/CP40no677/aCP40no677fronts/IMG_0116.htm; second entry, as defendants
  3. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence
Born: 1388 1421
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Lancaster
Lord High Steward
1399–1421
End of permanent office







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