Timeline of classical mechanics
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Classical mechanics 


Core topics

Timeline of classical mechanics:
Early Mechanics
 4th century BC  Aristotle founds the system of Aristotelian physics
 260 BC  Archimedes mathematically works out the principle of the lever and discovers the principle of buoyancy
 60 AD  Hero of Alexandria writes Metrica, Mechanics, and Pneumatics
 Realizes that acceleration is connected with nonuniform motion^{1}
 11001138  Avempace develops the concept of a reaction force^{2}
 11001165  Hibat Allah Abu'lBarakat alBaghdaadi discovers that force is proportional to acceleration rather than speed, a fundamental law in classical mechanics^{3}
 1121  AlKhazini publishes The Book of the Balance of Wisdom, in which he develops the concepts of gravitational potential energy and gravity atadistance^{4}
 13401358  Jean Buridan develops the theory of impetus
 1490  Leonardo da Vinci describes capillary action
 15001528  AlBirjandi develops the theory of "circular inertia" to explain Earth's rotation^{5}
 1581  Galileo Galilei notices the timekeeping property of the pendulum
 1589  Galileo Galilei uses balls rolling on inclined planes to show that different weights fall with the same acceleration
 1638  Galileo Galilei publishes Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
 1658  Christiaan Huygens experimentally discovers that balls placed anywhere inside an inverted cycloid reach the lowest point of the cycloid in the same time and thereby experimentally shows that the cycloid is the tautochrone
 1668  John Wallis suggests the law of conservation of momentum
 16761689  Gottfried Leibniz develops the concept of vis viva, a limited theory of conservation of energy
Formation of Classical Mechanics (sometimes referred to as Newtonian mechanics)
 1687  Isaac Newton publishes his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, in which he formulates Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation
 1690  James Bernoulli shows that the cycloid is the solution to the tautochrone problem
 1691  Johann Bernoulli shows that a chain freely suspended from two points will form a catenary
 1691  James Bernoulli shows that the catenary curve has the lowest center of gravity that any chain hung from two fixed points can have
 1696  Johann Bernoulli shows that the cycloid is the solution to the brachistochrone problem
 1714  Brook Taylor derives the fundamental frequency of a stretched vibrating string in terms of its tension and mass per unit length by solving an ordinary differential equation
 1733  Daniel Bernoulli derives the fundamental frequency and harmonics of a hanging chain by solving an ordinary differential equation
 1734  Daniel Bernoulli solves the ordinary differental equation for the vibrations of an elastic bar clamped at one end
 1738  Daniel Bernoulli examines fluid flow in Hydrodynamica
 1739  Leonhard Euler solves the ordinary differential equation for a forced harmonic oscillator and notices the resonance phenomenon
 1742  Colin Maclaurin discovers his uniformly rotating selfgravitating spheroids
 1743  Jean le Rond d'Alembert publishes his "Traite de Dynamique", in which he introduces the concept of generalized forces for accelerating systems and systems with constraints
 1747  Pierre Louis Maupertuis applies minimum principles to mechanics
 1759  Leonhard Euler solves the partial differential equation for the vibration of a rectangular drum
 1764  Leonhard Euler examines the partial differential equation for the vibration of a circular drum and finds one of the Bessel function solutions
 1776  John Smeaton publishes a paper on experiments relating power, work, momentum and kinetic energy, and supporting the conservation of energy
 1788  Joseph Louis Lagrange presents Lagrange's equations of motion in Mécanique Analytique
 1789  Antoine Lavoisier states the law of conservation of mass
 1813  Peter Ewart supports the idea of the conservation of energy in his paper On the measure of moving force
 1821  William Hamilton begins his analysis of Hamilton's characteristic function
 1834  Carl Jacobi discovers his uniformly rotating selfgravitating ellipsoids
 1834  John Russell observes a nondecaying solitary water wave (soliton) in the Union Canal near Edinburgh and uses a water tank to study the dependence of solitary water wave velocities on wave amplitude and water depth
 1835  William Hamilton states Hamilton's canonical equations of motion
 1835  Gaspard Coriolis examines theoretically the mechanical efficiency of waterwheels, and deduces the Coriolis effect.
 1841  Julius Robert von Mayer, an amateur scientist, writes a paper on the conservation of energy but his lack of academic training leads to its rejection.
 1842  Christian Doppler proposes the Doppler effect
 1847  Hermann von Helmholtz formally states the law of conservation of energy
 1851  Léon Foucault shows the Earth's rotation with a huge pendulum (Foucault pendulum)
 1902  James Jeans finds the length scale required for gravitational perturbations to grow in a static nearly homogeneous medium
References
 ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "AlBiruni", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.:
"One of the most important of alBiruni's many texts is Shadows which he is thought to have written around 1021. [...] Shadows is an extremely important source for our knowledge of the history of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. It also contains important ideas such as the idea that acceleration is connected with nonuniform motion, using three rectangular coordinates to define a point in 3space, and ideas that some see as anticipating the introduction of polar coordinates."
 ^ Shlomo Pines (1964), "La dynamique d’Ibn Bajja", in Mélanges Alexandre Koyré, I, 442468 [462, 468], Paris.
(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", Journal of the History of Ideas 64 (4), p. 521546 [543]: "Pines has also seen Avempace's idea of fatigue as a precursor to the Leibnizian idea of force which, according to him, underlies Newton's third law of motion and the concept of the "reaction" of forces.")  ^ Pines, Shlomo (1970). "Abu'lBarakāt alBaghdādī , Hibat Allah". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 26–28. ISBN 0684101149.:
(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", Journal of the History of Ideas 64 (4), p. 521546 [528]: Hibat Allah Abu'lBarakat alBagdadi (c.1080 after 1164/65) extrapolated the theory for the case of falling bodies in an original way in his Kitab alMu'tabar (The Book of that Which is Established through Personal Reflection). [...] This idea is, according to Pines, "the oldest negation of Aristotle's fundamental dynamic law [namely, that a constant force produces a uniform motion]," and is thus an "anticipation in a vague fashion of the fundamental law of classical mechanics [namely, that a force applied continuously produces acceleration].")  ^ Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 614642 [621], Routledge, London and New York
 ^ F. Jamil Ragep (2001), "Tusi and Copernicus: The Earth's Motion in Context", Science in Context 14 (12), p. 145–163. Cambridge University Press.
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