Left to right: Jones, Keenan, and Chancellor in 2006
|Origin||Los Angeles, California|
|Genres||Alternative metal, art rock, progressive metal, progressive rock|
|Labels||Tool Dissectional, Volcano, Zoo|
|Associated acts||A Perfect Circle, Green Jellÿ|
Maynard James Keenan
|Past members||Paul D'Amour|
Tool is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1990, the group's line-up has included drummer Danny Carey, guitarist Adam Jones, and vocalist Maynard James Keenan. Since 1995, Justin Chancellor has been the band's bassist, replacing their original bassist Paul D'Amour. Tool has won three Grammy Awards, performed worldwide tours, and produced albums topping the charts in several countries.
The band emerged with a heavy metal sound on their first studio album, Undertow (1993), and later became a dominant act in the alternative metal movement with the release of their second album, Ænima, in 1996. Their efforts to unify musical experimentation, visual arts, and a message of personal evolution continued with Lateralus (2001) and the most recent album, 10,000 Days (2006), gaining the band critical acclaim and commercial success around the world.
Due to Tool's incorporation of visual arts and very long and complex releases, the band is generally described as a style-transcending act and part of progressive rock, psychedelic rock and art rock. The relationship between the band and today's music industry is ambivalent, at times marked by censorship and the band's insistence on privacy.
- 1 History
- 2 Musical style and influences
- 3 Visual arts
- 4 Band members
- 5 Discography
- 6 Grammy awards and nominations
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Early years (1988–1992)
During the 1980s, each of the future members of Tool moved to Los Angeles. Both Paul D'Amour and Adam Jones wanted to enter the film industry, while Maynard James Keenan found employment remodeling pet stores after having studied visual arts in Michigan.1 Danny Carey performed as a drummer for Wild Blue Yonder, Green Jellÿ,1 and Carole King, and played in the Los Angeles area with Pigmy Love Circus.2
Keenan and Jones met through a mutual friend in 1989.3 After Keenan played a tape recording for Jones of his previous band project, Jones was so impressed by his voice that he eventually talked his friend into forming their own band.3 They started jamming together and were on the lookout for a drummer and a bass player. Carey happened to live above Keenan and was introduced to Jones by Tom Morello, an old high school friend of Jones and former member of Electric Sheep.4 Carey began playing in their sessions because he "felt kinda sorry for them," as other invited musicians were not showing up.5 Tool's lineup was completed when a friend of Jones introduced them to bassist D'Amour.6 Early on, the band fabricated the story that they formed because of the pseudophilosophy "lachrymology".7 Although "lachrymology" was also cited as an inspiration for the band's name, Keenan later explained their intentions differently: "Tool is exactly what it sounds like: It's a big dick. It's a wrench. ... we are ... your tool; use us as a catalyst in your process of finding out whatever it is you need to find out, or whatever it is you're trying to achieve."8
After almost two years of practicing and performing locally in the Los Angeles area, the band was approached by record companies,3 and eventually signed a record deal with Zoo Entertainment.6 In March 1992, Zoo published the band's first effort, Opiate. Described by the band as "slam and bang" heavy music9 and the "hardest sounding" six songs they had written to that point,10 the EP included the singles "Hush" and "Opiate". The band's first music video, "Hush", promoted their dissenting views about the then-prominent Parents Music Resource Center and its advocacy of the censorship of music. The video featured the band members naked with their genitalia covered by parental advisory stickers and their mouths covered by duct tape.11 The band began touring with Rollins Band, Fishbone, and Rage Against the Machine12 to positive responses, which Janiss Garza of RIP Magazine summarized in September 1992 as a "buzz" and "a strong start".13
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The following year, at a time when alternative rock and grunge was at its height, Tool released their first full-length album, Undertow (1993). It expressed more diverse dynamics than Opiate and included songs the band had chosen not to publish on their previous release, when they had opted for a heavier sound.10 The band began touring again as planned, with an exception in May 1993. Tool was scheduled to play at the Garden Pavilion in Hollywood but learned at the last minute that the venue belonged to L. Ron Hubbard's Church of Scientology, which was perceived as a clash with "the band's ethics about how a person should not follow a belief system that constricts their development as a human being."12 Keenan "spent most of the show baa-ing like a sheep at the audience."15
Tool later played several concerts during the Lollapalooza festival tour, and were moved from the second stage to the main stage by their manager and the festival co-founder Ted Gardner.18 At the last concert of Lollapalooza in Tool's hometown Los Angeles, comedian Bill Hicks introduced the band. Hicks had become a friend of the band members and an influence on them after being mentioned in Undertow's liner notes.19 He jokingly asked the audience of 10,000 people to stand still and help him look for a lost contact lens.20 The boost in popularity gained from these concerts helped Undertow to be certified gold by the RIAA in September 1993 and to achieve platinum status in 1995,21 despite being sold with a censored album cover by distributors such as Wal-Mart.2223 The single "Sober" became a hit single by March 1994 and won the band Billboard's "Best Video by a New Artist" award for the accompanying stop motion music video.10
With the release of Tool's follow-up single "Prison Sex", the band again became the target of censorship. The song's lyrics and video dealt with child abuse, which sparked controversial reactions; Keenan's lyrics begin with: "It took so long to remember just what happened. I was so young and vestal then, you know it hurt me, but I'm breathing so I guess I'm still alive ... I've got my hands bound and my head down and my eyes closed and my throat wide open." The video was created primarily by guitarist Adam Jones, who saw it as his "surrealistic interpretation" of the subject matter.24 And while some contemporary journalists praised the video and described the lyrics as "metaphoric",1114 the American branch of MuchMusic asked Keenan to represent the band in a hearing. It deemed the music video too graphic and obscene,12 and MTV stopped airing it after a few showings.14
In September 1995, the band started writing and recording their second studio album. At that time Tool experienced its only lineup change to date, with bassist D'Amour leaving the band amicably to pursue other projects. Justin Chancellor, a member of former tourmates Peach, eventually replaced D'Amour, having been chosen over competitors such as Kyuss' Scott Reeder, Filter's Frank Cavanaugh, Pigmy Love Circus's E. Shepherd Stevenson, and ZAUM's Marco Fox.25
On September 17, 1996, Tool released their second full-length album, Ænima //.26 It was certified triple platinum by the RIAA on March 4, 2003.27 D'Amour left Tool and Chancellor came on board during the recording of the album. The band enlisted the help of producer David Bottrill, who had produced some of King Crimson's albums, while Jones collaborated with Cam de Leon to create Ænima's Grammy-nominated artwork.2829
The album was dedicated to stand-up comedian Bill Hicks, who had died two and a half years earlier.12 The band intended to raise awareness about Hicks's material and ideas, because they felt that Tool and Hicks "were resonating similar concepts".30 In particular, Ænima's final track "Third Eye" is preceded by a clip of Hicks' performances, and the lenticular casing of the Ænima album packaging as well as the chorus of the title track "Ænema" make reference to a sketch from Hicks's Arizona Bay, in which he contemplates the idea of Los Angeles falling into the Pacific Ocean.3031
The first single, "Stinkfist", garnered limited and imperfect airplay: It was shortened by radio programmers, MTV (U.S.) renamed the music video of "Stinkfist" to "Track No. 1" due to offensive connotations,32 and the lyrics of the song were altered.33 Responding to fan complaints about censorship, Matt Pinfield of MTV's 120 Minutes expressed regret on air by waving his fist in front of his face while introducing the video and explaining the name change.32
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
A tour began in October 1996, two weeks after Ænima's release. Following numerous appearances in the United States and Europe, Tool headed for Australia and New Zealand in late March 1997. April 1 of that year saw the first of several April Fools' pranks related to the band. Kabir Akhtar, webmaster of the band's semi-official fanpage, The Tool Page, wrote that "at least three of the band are listed in critical condition" after a tour bus accident on a highway.34 This hoax gained wide attention and was eventually exposed on radio and MTV. Akhtar later posted an apology, claiming that The Tool Page "will not indulge itself in such outlandish pranks in the future"—a claim that would be belied by later April Fools' pranks.34 The tour continued the next day as originally announced.citation needed
Eventually returning to the United States, Tool appeared at Lollapalooza '97 in July, this time as a headliner, where they gained critical praise from The New York Times:
Tool was returning in triumph to Lollapalooza after appearing among the obscure bands on the festival's smaller stage in 1993. Now Tool is the prime attraction for a festival that's struggling to maintain its purpose ... Tool uses taboo-breaking imagery for hellfire moralizing in songs that swerve from bitter reproach to nihilistic condemnation. Its music has refined all the troubled majesty of grunge.35
Notwithstanding a decline in popularity of alternative rock music during the mid-90s in the United States, Ænima eventually matched Tool's successful debut album in sales.36 The progressive-influenced Ænima landed the band at the head of the alternative metal genre: It featured the Grammy Award-winning "Ænema"37 and appeared on several "Best Albums of 1996" lists,38 with notable examples being those of Kerrang!39 and Terrorizer.40
A legal battle that began the same year interfered with the band's working on another release. Volcano Entertainment—the successor of Tool's by-then defunct label Zoo Entertainment—alleged contract violations by Tool and filed a lawsuit. According to Volcano, Tool had violated their contract when the band looked at offers from other record labels. After Tool filed a countersuit stating that Volcano had failed to use a renewal option in their contract, the parties settled out of court. In December 1998 Tool agreed to a new contract, a three-record joint venture deal.4142 In 2000, the band dismissed their long-time manager Ted Gardner, who then sued the band over his commission on this lucrative agreement.43
During this time, Keenan joined the band A Perfect Circle, which was founded by long-time Tool guitar tech Billy Howerdel, while Jones joined The Melvins' Buzz Osborne and Carey drummed with Dead Kennedys' Jello Biafra on side projects.44 Although there were rumors that Tool were breaking up,4546 Chancellor, Jones, and Carey were working on new material while waiting for Keenan to return.47 In 2000, the Salival box set (CD/VHS or CD/DVD) was released, effectively putting an end to the rumors.48 The CD contained one new original track, a cover of Led Zeppelin's "No Quarter", a live version of Peach's "You Lied", and revised versions of old songs. The VHS and the DVD each contained four music videos, plus a bonus music video for "Hush" on the DVD. Although Salival did not yield any singles, the hidden track "Maynard's Dick" (which dates back to the Opiate era) briefly found its way to FM radio when several DJs chose to play it on air under the title "Maynard's Dead".49
In January 2001, Tool announced a new album, Systema Encéphale, along with a 12-song tracklist containing titles such as "Riverchrist", "Numbereft", "Encephatalis", "Musick", and "Coeliacus".50 File-sharing networks such as Napster were flooded with bogus files bearing the titles' names.50 At the time, Tool members were outspokenly critical of file-sharing networks in general due to their impact on artists that are dependent on record sales to continue their careers. Keenan said during an interview with NY Rock in 2000, "I think there are a lot of other industries out there that might deserve being destroyed. The ones who get hurt by MP3s are not so much companies or the business, but the artists, people who are trying to write songs."51
A year later, the band revealed that the new album was actually titled Lateralus; the name Systema Encéphale and the tracklist had been a ruse.52 Lateralus and the corresponding tours would take Tool a step further toward art rock535455 and progressive rock565758 territory. Rolling Stone wrote in an attempt to summarize the album that "Drums, bass and guitars move in jarring cycles of hyperhowl and near-silent death march ... The prolonged running times of most of Lateralus' thirteen tracks are misleading; the entire album rolls and stomps with suitelike purpose."57 Joshua Klein of The A.V. Club expressed his opinion that Lateralus, with its 79 minutes and relatively complex and long songs—topped by the ten-and-a-half-minute music video for "Parabola"—posed a challenge to fans and music programming alike.59
"Schism" is the Grammy awarded first single off Lateralus. With its abstract lyrics and multi-sectioned, odd-metered structure it has since become a signature song of the band.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The album became a worldwide success, reaching No.1 on the U.S. Billboard 200 albums chart in its debut week.60 Tool received their second Grammy Award for the best metal performance of 2001 for the song "Schism".61 During the band's acceptance speech, drummer Carey stated that he would like to thank his parents (for putting up with him) and Satan, and bassist Chancellor concluded: "I want to thank my dad for doing my mom."62
Extensive touring throughout 2001 and 2002 supported Lateralus and included a personal highlight for the band: a 10-show joint mini-tour with King Crimson in August 2001. Comparisons between the two were made, MTV describing the bands as "the once and future kings of progressive rock". Keenan stated of the minitour: "For me, being on stage with King Crimson is like Lenny Kravitz playing with Led Zeppelin, or Britney Spears onstage with Debbie Gibson."54
Although the end of the tour in November 2002 seemed to signal the start of another hiatus for the band, they did not become completely inactive. While Keenan recorded and toured with A Perfect Circle, the other band members released an interview and a recording of new material, both exclusive to the fan club. On April 1, 2005, the official Tool website announced that "Maynard has found Jesus" and would be abandoning the recording of the new Tool album temporarily and possibly permanently.63 Kurt Loder of MTV contacted Keenan via email to ask for a confirmation and received a nonchalant confirmation. When Loder asked again, Keenan's response was simply "heh heh."64 On April 7 the official site announced, "Good news, April fools fans. The writing and recording is back under way."65
Work continued on the follow-up to Lateralus; meanwhile, a Lateralus vinyl edition and two DVD singles were released, and the band's official website received a new splash intro by artist Joshua Davis.66 The "double vinyl four-picture disc" edition of Lateralus was first released as a limited autographed edition exclusively available to fan club members and publicly released on August 23, 2005. On December 20 the two DVDs were released, one containing the single "Schism" and the other "Parabola", a remix by Lustmord, and a music video with commentary by David Yow and Jello Biafra.
10,000 Days (2006–2007)
Fifteen years into the band's career, Tool had acquired what Dan Epstein of Revolver described as a devoted "cult" following,67 and as details about the band's next album emerged, such as the influence of Lateralus tourmates Fantômas and Meshuggah,68 controversy surrounding the new Tool album surfaced with speculation over song titles and pre-release rumors of leaked songs.69 Speculation over possible album titles was dismissed with a news item on the official Tool website, announcing that the new album's name was 10,000 Days. Nevertheless, speculation continued, with allegations that 10,000 Days was merely a "decoy" album to fool audiences.69 The rumor was proven false when a leaked copy of the album was distributed via filesharing networks a week prior to its official release.70
The album opener, "Vicarious", premiered on U.S. radio stations on April 17, 2006. The album premiered on May 2 in the U.S. and debuted at the top spots of various international charts. 10,000 Days sold 564,000 copies in its opening week in the U.S. and was number one on the Billboard 200 charts, doubling the sales of Pearl Jam's self-titled album, its closest competitor.71 However, 10,000 Days was received less favorably by critics than its predecessor Lateralus had been.7273
Prior to the release of 10,000 Days, a tour kicked off at Coachella on April 30. The touring schedule was similar to the Lateralus tour of 2001; supporting acts were Isis and Mastodon. During a short break early the next year, after touring Australia and New Zealand, drummer Carey suffered a biceps tear during a skirmish with his girlfriend's dog, casting uncertainty on the band's upcoming concerts in North America.74 Carey underwent surgery on February 21 and several performances had to be postponed. Back on tour by April, Tool appeared on June 15 as a headliner at the Bonnaroo Music Festival with a guest appearance from Rage Against the Machine's Tom Morello on "Lateralus".75 Meanwhile, "Vicarious" was a nominee for Best Hard Rock Performance and 10,000 Days won Best Recording Package at the 49th Grammy Awards.76 The music video for "Vicarious" was released on DVD on December 18.
Hiatus and fifth studio album (2008–present)
Chancellor stated in May 2007 that the band would probably continue their tour until early 2008 and then "take some time off".77 He added that the band had already written some new material and would surely release another album at some point. He speculated about the possibility of a "band movie", something the band has considered for a long time. Ideas ranged from "a narrative story in a surreal fashion with as much money and special effects as possible" to "pockets of all of that or something that's live or the band playing".78 Although Carey stated that the necessary know-how was at hand due to the band's connections to artists working in the movie business, Jones dismissed the idea, saying "It's just talk right now."7879
The band's 2009 summer tour began on July 18 in Commerce City, Colorado, at the Mile High Music Festival. They headlined Lollapalooza 2009 and a show on August 22 for the Epicenter Festival in Pomona, California.808182 Their Tool Winter Tour played dates across the U.S. and Canada in January and February 2012.8384 The band played at Ozzfest Japan on May 12, 2013.85 Work on writing the new album began in 2009,86 and by the following March they had begun the process "in earnest".87 Meanwhile, Tool members have pursued their own musical projects. Keenan has toured extensively with Puscifer, which he describes as involving a series of musical ideas he did not have an opportunity to explore with Tool or A Perfect Circle.88 Chancellor has collaborated with Peter Mohamed of Sweet Noise, releasing a record, Nothing's Matter, under the M.T. Void name.89 Jones and Carey worked together on the fifth album while Keenan was on tour; Keenan cannot predict how much longer the process will take.90 Carey agreed, saying "no wine before its time."91 In January 2013, the band stated they were "over half done" with their upcoming album.92 Keenan and Carey offered conflicting reports on whether or not the album would surface in 2013,93 though Carey later conceded that an "early 2014" seemed most likely.94 By May 2013, Keenan stated that he had actively joined the writing process now that enough instrumental material had been written.95 On March 6, 2014 Crave Online stated that one of their sources had spoken to Jones, who stated that the new album was complete and on track for a 2014 release.96 The following day, Tool released an official statement to Rolling Stone saying Jones was making a joke, and it had been taken out of context. 97
Musical style and influences
Tool was described by Patrick Donovan of The Age as "the thinking person's metal band. Cerebral and visceral, soft and heavy, melodic and abrasive, tender and brutal, familiar and strange, western and eastern, beautiful and ugly, taut yet sprawling and epic, they are a tangle of contradictions."69 Tool has gained critical praise from the International Herald Tribune's C.B. Liddell for their complex and ever-evolving sound.98 Describing their general sound, Allmusic refers to them as "grinding, post-Jane's Addiction heavy metal",48 and The New York Times sees similarities to "Led Zeppelin's heaving, battering guitar riffs and Middle Eastern modes".99 Their 2001 work Lateralus was compared by Allmusic to Pink Floyd's Meddle (1971), but thirty years later and altered by "Tool's impulse to cram every inch of infinity with hard guitar meat and absolute dread".56 Tool had been labelled as post-metal in 1993100 and 1996,101 as well as in 2006,102 after the term came into popularity.
A component of Tool's song repertoire relies on the use of odd time signatures. For instance, Chancellor describes the time signature employed on the first single from Lateralus, "Schism", as 13/16 and that it later "goes into all kinds of other times".103 Further examples include the album's title track, which also displays shifting rhythms,103 as does 10,000 Days: "Wings for Marie (Pt 1)" and "10,000 Days (Wings Pt 2)".104
Beyond this aspect of the band's sound, each band member experiments within his wide musical scope. Bass Player magazine described Chancellor's bass playing as a "thick midrange tone, guitar-style techniques, and elastic versatility".103 As an example of this, the magazine mentioned the use of a wah effect by hammering "the notes with the left hand and using the bass's tone controls to get a tone sweep", such as on the song "The Patient", from Lateralus.103
Completing the band's rhythm section, drummer Carey uses polyrhythms, tabla-style techniques, and the incorporation of custom electronic drum pads to trigger samples, such as prerecorded tabla and octoban sounds.104
Keenan's ability as a vocalist has been characterized more subjectively by the Seattle Post-Intelligencer: After his performance during an Alice in Chains reunion concert in 2005, freelancer Travis Hay saw him as "a natural fit at replacing Layne Staley".105 Regarding his role in A Perfect Circle and Tool, The New York Times wrote that "both groups rely on Mr. Keenan's ability to dignify emotions like lust, anger and disgust, the honey in his voice adding a touch of profundity".106
The number of syllables per line in the lyrics to "Lateralus" correspond to an arrangement of the Fibonacci numbers.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
According to Guitar Player magazine, Jones does not rely on any one particular guitar-playing technique but rather combines many techniques.107 For example, Allmusic wrote that he "alternately utiliz[es] power chords, scratchy noise, chiming arpeggios, and a quiet minimalism" in "Sober".108 Additionally, the band uses forms of instrumental experimentation, like the use of a "pipe bomb microphone" (a guitar pickup mounted inside a brass cylinder) and a talk box guitar solo on "Jambi".109
The band puts an emphasis on the sound of their songs and attempts to reduce the effect lyrics can have on the perception of songs by not releasing song lyrics with any album.1 Lyrical arrangements are often given special attention, such as in "Lateralus". The number of syllables per line in the lyrics to "Lateralus" correspond to an arrangement of the Fibonacci numbers110 and the song "Jambi" uses and makes a reference to the common metrical foot iamb.111 The lyrics on Ænima and Lateralus focus on philosophy and spirituality—specific subjects range from organized religion in "Opiate", to evolution and Jungian psychology in "Forty-Six & 2" and transcendence in "Lateralus".112 On 10,000 Days, Keenan wanted to explore issues more personal to him:112 the album name and title track refer to the twenty-seven years during which his mother suffered from complications of a stroke until her death in 2003.113
The band has named the group Melvins18 as an influence on its development, but the most-publicized influence is progressive rock pioneer group King Crimson.114 Longtime King Crimson member Robert Fripp has downplayed any influence his band had on Tool. In an interview, Fripp touched on how the two bands relate to each other, stating "Do you hear the influence? There's just one figure where I hear an influence, just one. It was a piece we were developing that we dropped. And it's almost exactly the same figure: three note arpeggio with a particular accent from the guitar. So I do not think you could have heard it. That's the only thing."115 He also said, "I happen to be a Tool fan. The members of Tool have been generous enough to suggest that Crimson has been an influence on them. Adam Jones asked me if I could detect it in their music, and I said I couldn’t. I can detect more Tool influence in King Crimson, than I can hear King Crimson in Tool."116 In describing their wide range of styles, critics have noted that they are "influenced as much by Pink Floyd as by the Sex Pistols".117
Writers Harvey Newquist and Rich Maloof attribute to Tool an influence on modern metal in their book The New Metal Masters.4 Sean Richardson of The Boston Phoenix sees System of a Down, Deftones, and Korn as examples of Tool's "towering influence" on the genre.118 Keenan's unique style of singing has been seen as heavily influencing artists such as Pete Loeffler of Chevelle,119 Will Martin of Earshot,120 and Fred Durst of Limp Bizkit.121
Part of Tool's work as a band is to incorporate influences of other works of art in their music videos, live shows, and album packaging. Adam Jones doubles as the band's art director and director of their music videos.122 Another expression of this is an official website "dedicated to the arts and influences" on the band.
The band has released nine music videos but made personal appearances in only the first two, which the band states is to prevent people from "latching onto the personalities involved rather than listening to the music."11 With the exception of "Hush," "Vicarious" and "Schism" all of Tool's music videos feature stop motion animation to some extent. The videos are created primarily by Adam Jones, often in collaboration with artists such as Chet Zar,123 Alex Grey,123 and Osseus Labyrint.124
The "Sober" music video in particular attracted much attention. Jones explained that it doesn't contain a storyline, but that his intentions were to summon personal emotions with its imagery.10 Rolling Stone described this imagery as "evil little men dwell in a dark dungeon with meat coursing through pipes in the wall" and called it a "groundbreaking", "epic" clip.125 Billboard voted it "Best Video by a New Artist".10
Jones is responsible for most of the band's artwork concepts. Their album Undertow features a ribcage sculpture by Jones on its cover and photos contributed by the band members.24 Later albums included artwork by collaborating artists: Ænima127 and Salival featured works by Cam de Leon; Lateralus128 and 10,000 Days122 were created with the help of Alex Grey. The releases garnered positive critical reception, with a music journalist of the Associated Press attributing to the band a reputation for innovative album packaging.122
Both Ænima29 and 10,000 Days76 were nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Recording Package, but while the former failed to win in 1997, the latter did win in 2007. Jones created packaging for 10,000 Days that features a pair of stereoscopic lenses for viewing 3-D artwork and photos. Jones, a lifelong fan of stereoscopic photography, wanted the packaging to be unique and to reflect the '70s artwork he appreciates.129
Following their first tours in the early 1990s, Tool has performed as a headline act in world tours and major festivals such as Lollapalooza (1997 and 2009), Coachella (1999 and 2006), Download Festival (2006), Roskilde (2001 and 2006), Big Day Out (2007 and 2011), Bonnaroo (2007), All Points West Music & Arts Festival (2009), and Epicenter (2009). They have been joined on stage by numerous artists such as Buzz Osborne and Scott Reeder on several occasions; Tom Morello and Zack de la Rocha during their 1991 tour; Layne Staley in Hawaii, 1993; Tricky, Robert Fripp, Mike Patton, Dave Lombardo, Brann Dailor of Mastodon, and experimental arts duo Osseus Labyrint130 during their 2001–02 Lateralus tour; and Kirk Hammett, Phil Campbell, Serj Tankian, and Tom Morello during their 2006–07 tour. They have covered songs by Led Zeppelin, Ted Nugent, Peach, Kyuss, the Dead Kennedys, and the Ramones.131132
Live shows on Tool's headline tour incorporate an unorthodox stage setting and video display.133 Keenan and Carey line up in the back on elevated platforms, while Jones and Chancellor stand in the front, toward the sides of the stage.134 Keenan often faces the backdrop or the sides of the stage rather than the audience.135135136137138 No followspots or live cameras are used;139 instead, the band employs extensive backlighting to direct the focus away from the band members and toward large screens in the back and the crowd.133 Breckinridge Haggerty, the band's live video designer, says that the resulting dark spaces on stage "are mostly for Maynard". He explains, "[a] lot of the songs are a personal journey for him and he has a hard time with the glare of the lights when he’s trying to reproduce these emotions for the audience. He needs a bit of personal space, and he feels more comfortable in the shadows."139 The big screens are used to play back "looped clips that aren't tracked to a song like a music video. The band has never used any sort of timecode. They’ve always made sure the video can change on-the-fly, in a way that can be improvised. ... The show is never the same twice."139 During the 10,000 Days tour, the video material consisted of over six hours of material, created by Jones, his wife Camella Grace, Chet Zar, Meats Meier, and Haggerty.139 Some of the material created by Zar has been released on his DVD Disturb the Normal.140
- Studio albums
Grammy awards and nominations
|1998||"Ænema"||Best Metal Performance||Won|
|1998||Ænima||Best Recording Package||Nominated|
|1998||"Stinkfist"||Best Music Video, Short Form||Nominated|
|2002||"Schism"||Best Metal Performance||Won|
|2007||10,000 Days||Best Recording Package||Won|
|2007||"Vicarious"||Best Hard Rock Performance||Nominated|
|2008||"The Pot"||Best Hard Rock Performance||Nominated|
- Gennaro, Loraine (1997). "Angry Jung Men!" (transcription). Livewire Magazine 7 (3). Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Tepedelen, Adem (April 30, 2004). "Tool Drummer Goes to Circus". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Kitts & Tolinski 2002, pp. 1965–1969.
- Newquist & Maloof 2004, pp. 11–15.
- Akhtar 2001, C3.
- Turman, Katherine (May 31, 1994). "A Sober Look At Tool" (transcrription). Circus. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- Blake, Blair MacKenzie. "Let Not My Tears Fall Unnoticed: Being the Secret Joys of a Lachrymist". toolarmy.com. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Zappa, Moon Unit (April 1994). "Tool Rules" (transcription). Ray Gun (15). Retrieved August 27, 2006.
- Akhtar 2001, E8.
- Gennaro, Loraine (1994). "Tool Guitarist Adam Jones is a Master of Many Trades" (transcription). Guitar School 03: 16. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
- Roncon, Theresa (interviewer) (February 1997). Tool Muchmusic spotlight (TV). Canada: MuchMusic.
- Sokal, Roman (May 23, 2001). "Tool – Stepping Out From the Shadows". Exclaim!. Retrieved September 17, 2006.
- Garza, Janiss (1992). "Fresh Blood" (transcription). RIP magazine 9. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
- "A Tool for the Truly Cool. Big hit of Lollapalooza tour gears up for second album". San Francisco Chronicle. 1994. Retrieved March 2, 2006.
- Dolan, Jon (August 2006). "33 Things You Should Know About Tool" (transcription). Blender. Retrieved September 18, 2006.
- "Visual Artist Cam De Leon's Lawsuit Against Rock Band TOOL Allowed to Proceed". Lowe Law. 2006. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved June 15, 2007.
- "Over the weekend" (fee required). Buffalo News. July 7, 1997. Retrieved February 2, 2002. "Tool adds its own '90s twist to the genre with unpublishable lyrics, occult tendencies and a love of grotesque imagery – burning eyeballs, phallic hardware, crippled people."
- Pettigrew, Jason (1997). "Nobody's Tool" (transcription). Alternative Press. Retrieved April 8, 2007.
- Garza, Janiss (April 1997). "Hard rockers hail comic genius Bill Hicks" (transcription). High Times. Retrieved September 18, 2006.
- "Question & Answer with Kevin Booth". Fade to Black presents: It's Only a Ride: Bill Hicks. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- "Tool Tool fact kit" (transcription). Circus. January 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
- Griffin, J.R. (1994). "TOOL on Videos, Censorship, Art, And Why You Should Never Let A Guy Named Maynard Put You in a Cage" (transcription). Axcess: 52. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- Sherry & Aldis 2006, p. 176.
- Jenison, David (December 1994). "Tool" (transcript). HYPNO. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Fiend, Rob (October 1996). "Sink or Swim – A Conversation With Tool's Justin Chancellor" (transcription). Gavin Magazine. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Akhtar 2001, G2.
- Theiner, Manny (September 28, 2006). "Concert Review: Tool's prog pleases populace". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved September 23, 2012. "... from its triple-platinum 1996 release, "Aenima.""
- Ænima (booklet). Tool. Kennebunkport, MA: Gelardi Design. 1996. p. 6.
- Akhtar 2001, D11.
- Langer, Andy (May 1997). "Another Dead Hero" (transcription). The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
- Zwick, John (February 25, 2004). "Dead 10 years, Hicks still makes us laugh". University of Colorado Denver Advocate. Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- Akhtar, Kabir. "The "Track No. 1" Fiasco". toolshed.down.net. Retrieved March 6, 2006.
- McIver 2009, p. 137.
- Akhtar, Kabir. "Tool News: April Fools 1997". toolshed.down.net. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
- Pareles, Jon (July 14, 1997). "Lollapalooza's Recycled Hormones: Rebellion by the Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2006.
- Fruchtman, Edward (August 1997). "Never Wanted To Be Rock Stars But They Are". Circus 8. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- "40th Grammy Awards". Rockonthenet.com. 1998. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
- "Tool – Aenima". acclaimedmusic.net. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
- "Kerrang! End of Year Lists". Kerrang!. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- "Terrorizer End of Year Lists". Terrorizer. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- Akhtar 2001, C15.
- "Tool Ends Legal Battle, Plans New Album". MTV. December 7, 1998. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
- Borzillo-Vrenna, Carrie (November 25, 2000). "Tool Gets Sued By Manager For $5 million". CDNow / Allstar. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Slater, Rosanna (August 2001). "Home Improvement". Classic Rock. Retrieved May 12, 2007.
- Kline, Scott (October 17, 2002). "Breslin hosts heavier sound". The State News. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- "Innovative band playing Beaumont tonight wins new regard from critic" (fee required). The Beaumont Enterprise. November 15, 2002. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Stout, Alan K. (September 21, 2001). "Rock band Tool is all about music, not image". The Times Leader. Retrieved September 3, 2012. "Chancellor says Tool, through it all, never stopped working on new music. He says he, Jones and Carey were in the studio every day, experimenting with new sounds and musical ideas."
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas; Prato, G. "Tool Biography". AllMusic.com. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- Akhtar 2001, H26.
- Akhtar, Kabir (January–March 2001). "Old News". toolshed.down.net. Retrieved March 6, 2006.
- Gabriella (September 2000). "Interview with Maynard James Keenan of A Perfect Circle". NY Rock. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- D'Angelo, Joe. "Tool Tinker With Album Title, Set Track List". MTV News. Retrieved March 6, 2006.
- "Lateralus review". E! Online. 2001. Archived from the original on December 18, 2003. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
- Bond, Laura (2001). "Tool Stretch Out And Slow Down In Show With King Crimson". VH1. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
- Brett, Milano (2006). "Power Tool: Maynard James Keenan and band craft epic art-metal". Boston Herald. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2006.
- Theakston, Rob (2001). "Lateralus Review". AllMusic. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- Fricke, David (2001). "Lateralus Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- DeRogatis 2003, p. 562.
- Klein, Joshua (March 29, 2002). "Lateralus review". The A.V. Club. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Cohen, Jonathan; Martens, Todd (May 24, 2001). "Tool's 'Lateralus' Leads Five Top-10 Debuts". Billboard. Archived from the original on November 20, 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
- "Grammy Award Winners". The Recording Academy. Archived from the original on April 13, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- D'Angelo, Joe (2002). "Alicia Keys Takes Five, 'O Brother' Gets Most At 44th Grammy Awards". MTV News. Retrieved August 7, 2006.
- Hay, Travis (May 3, 2006). "Tool mesmerizes crowd". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
- Harris, Chris (April 7, 2005). "Maynard And Jesus Split: The Conclusion". MTV News. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- Blake, Blair MacKenzie (2005). "Tool: News". Toolband.com. Archived from the original on October 24, 2005. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- "Joshua Davis – Projects – Web – Tool" (FLASH). joshuadavis.com. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- Epstein, Dan (April 2006). "Do What You Wilt". Revolver.
- Wiederhorn, Jon. "Tool Hammer Away At New Album". MTV News. Retrieved April 6, 2006.
- Donovan, Patrick (May 5, 2006). "Is anyone listening?". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved May 6, 2006.
- Harris, Chris (May 11, 2006). "Tool Planning Summer Tour Around Keenan's Wine Harvest". VH1. Retrieved June 15, 2007.
- Harris, Chris (May 10, 2006). "Tool, Pearl Jam Claim Billboard Chart in the Name Of Rock". MTV. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Metacritic calculated an average score of 68 for 10,000 Days compared to 75 for Lateralus. "Tool: 10,000 Days (2006): Reviews". Metacritic. 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Tool: Lateralus (2001): Reviews". Metacritic. 2001. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "TOOL : NEWS – TOOL Newsletter February 2007". Toolband.com. 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007.
- Cohen, Jonathan (June 16, 2007). "Tool, All-Star Zeppelin Jam Highlight Bonnaroo Day One". Billboard. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
- "Awards Winners List". 49th Annual Grammy Awards. Grammy.com. 2007. Archived from the original on March 22, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Pulsifer, Eric (May 15, 2007). "Tool returns to Bossier on Thursday". nwlanews.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Benson, John (June 12, 2007). "Tool movie in the works?". Billboard. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- "Tool movie in the works?". The Rock Radio online. The Rock Radio. June 13, 2007. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "TOOL Expands Summer Tour". blabbermouth.net. May 29, 2009. Retrieved May 30, 2009.
- "Tool, Widespread Panic and The Fray to Headline Second Annual Mile High Music Festival" (Press release). madisonhousepublicity.com. March 26, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- "Tool at Lollapalooza". 2009.lollapalooza.com. Archived from the original on April 24, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "Tool 2012 USA Tour". Fourtheye. January 4, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- "Tool Confirm 2012 Tour Dates". Audio Ink Radio. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- "Tool, Deftones, Slash, Stone Sour Confirmed For Ozzfest Japan". Blabbermouth.net. November 24, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- Harris, Chris; Mancini, Robert (February 14, 2009). "Maynard James Keenan Hearts Foo Fighters; Says Tool Will Start Writing LP 'Right Away'". MTV. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- "TOOL newsletter – Feb 2010". toolband.com. March 3, 2010. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Kinski, Klaus. "Brooklyn Vegan Tours". Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- "JUSTIN's musical project (with PETER MOHAMED), "NOTHING'S MATTER" by MTVOID"
- "Quick Hits: Adele, Lady Gaga, Metallica, MTV EMAs, Warner Bros. Records, Puscifer, Rodrigo Y Gabriela". FMQB. October 31, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- "Danny". Fourtheye. July 17, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "Tool Drummer Hopeful New Album Will Drop This Year". Blabbermouth.net. February 7, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- "Drummer Danny Carey Says New Tool Album Most Likely to Surface in Early 2014". Loudwire.com. 2013-07-15. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- "WTF with Marc Maron Podcast - Episode 416 - Maynard James Keenan". Wtfpod.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- Johnny Firecloud (2014-03-06). "Exclusive: New Tool Album Reportedly Finished, Set For 2014 Release". Craveonline.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- Kory Grow (2014-03-07). "Tool Are Continuing to Work on New Album, Despite Internet Rumors That It Is Done". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- Liddell, C.B. (January 12, 2007). "In Sight/Music & Arts Tool frontman: 'I have not smashed up 1 hotel room'". International Herald Tribune/The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Pareles, Jon (July 14, 1997). "Lollapalooza's Recycled Hormones: Rebellion by the Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- Ferman, Dave (July 30, 1993). "At the main stage .." (fee required). Fort Worth Star-Telegram, archived by NewsBank. Retrieved May 9, 2007. "Tool's vicious, post-metal attack is one of the more intense offerings of the day..."
- Augusto, Troy J. (October 16, 1996). "Live Performances: Tool". Variety. Retrieved May 9, 2007. "The group's rhythm section, featuring new bassist Justin Chancellor, propelled the group's post-metal stylings with a twisted, near-jazz approach."
- Baca, Ricardo (September 8, 2006). "Reverb, 9/01: Tool". The Denver Post. Retrieved May 9, 2007. "... Tool's bag of post-metal goodies, and it's every bit as fear-inducing as it was in 1993."
- Shiraki, Scott; Bradman, E. E. (May 2001). "Handy Man: How Justin Chancellor Frames Tool's Metal Madness". Bass Player. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Micallef, Ken (July 2006). "10,000 Days ... and beyond". Modern Drummer. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
- Hay, Travis (February 21, 2005). "Alice in Chains owns stage in tsunami-relief show full of surprises". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Powers, Ann (August 22, 2000). "Self-Confidence, and a Tattoo". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (June 2001). "Mysterious Ways" (transcript). Guitar Player. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Huey, Steve. "Sober Song Review". AllMusic.com. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
- Forlenza, Jeff (July 1, 2006). "The Making of Tool's "10,000 Days"". Mix. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- diCarlo, Christopher W. "Interview with Maynard James Keenan". cdicarlo.com. Retrieved May 4, 2007.
- "TOOL: New Album Title Revealed?". Blabbermouth.net. March 3, 2006. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Serpick, Evan (2006). "10,000 Days Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Blake, Blair MacKenzie (2001). "Augustember 2001". Tool Newsletter. Toolband.com. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- "Tool Army exclusive interview" (requires membership). toolarmy.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved September 17, 2006.
- Cleveland, Barry (June 2003). "Eyes Wide Open". Guitar Player. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- Morse, Steve (November 15, 1996). "Sonic evolution with the use of Tool". Boston Globe. p. D14.
- Richardson, Sean (May 10, 2001). "Perfect circles – Tool connect on Lateralus". The Boston Phoenix. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Rich, Robert (May 9, 2007). "Chevelle to play in Austin, remains unique despite criticism". The Daily Texan. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Assar, Vijith (September 30, 2003). "Lucky 'Thirteen': Keenan bolsters potence". The Cavalier Daily. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Devenish, Colin (2000). Limp Bizkit. St. Martin's. pp. 45–46. ISBN 0-312-26349-X.
- Drew, Jonathan (May 11, 2006). "MUSIC MEETS ART Name the band Tool's fave artist". Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Sandberg, Marian (January 11, 2006). "Tool Time". Live Design. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Blake, Blair MacKenzie (October 17, 2002). "Osseus Labyrint: a laboratory of random mutuations". Tool: News. Toolband.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2002. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- Heller, Greg (January 12, 2001). "Weird Album Title for Tool". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- Blake, Blair MacKenzie (October 2007). "Tool: A Working Still from Vicarious". Toolband.com. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
- Akhtar 2001, G4.
- Stephens, Michael (May 8, 2002). "High Art: Alex Grey and the Chapel of Sacred Mirrors". PopMatters. Archived from the original on June 1, 2002. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "Tool Guitarist Wins Grammy For 'Best Recording Package'". Blabbermouth.net. February 11, 2007. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- Truong, Kev (2002). "Tool, The Melvins, Osseus Labyrint – April 24, 2002 – Sydney, Australia @ Sydney Entertainment Centre". Blistering. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Akhtar 2001, D9.
- Rothman, Robin A. (August 14, 2002). "Tool Take Radio City—Rockers salute the Ramones during epic set". Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- McManus, Keith P. (2001). "Tool thrills audience". The Flat Hat. Archived from the original on September 4, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- Pareles, Jon (October 6, 2001). "Flailing Wildly to Escape the Darkness". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
- "Tool". Rolling Stone. November 21, 1996. Archived from the original on May 8, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Musial, Andy (July 24, 1997). "The circle is unbroken" (fee required). The Buffalo News. Retrieved January 7, 2008. "... Keenan wasn't facing the audience the whole time."
- Dentler, Matt (July 29, 2002). "Tool in need of some repair". The Daily Texan. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2012. "Lead singer Maynard James Keenan, as is customary for the enigmatic frontman, loomed in the background with his back facing the audience for most of the show."
- Engler, Gavin (1993). "TOOL Concert 101". Law Society Gazette. "Keenan ... wore an all-black leather outfit, had his face painted black and stood on a spinning platform some distance from the front stage; he never seemed to look at the crowd."
- Ludwig, Rob (October 16, 2006). "700 Clips for 10,000 Days". Projection, Light and Staging News. Retrieved April 7, 2007.
- Zar, Chet (2006). "What is it?". Disturb the Normal description. Archived from the original on October 26, 2006. Retrieved April 7, 2007.
- Akhtar, Kabir (July 16, 2001). "The Tool FAQ". The Tool Page. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 0-634-05548-8.
- Kitts, Jeff; Tolinski, Brad (2002). Guitar World Presents Nu-Metal. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-03287-9.
- McIver, Joel (2009). Unleashed: The Story of Tool. London; New York: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84772-709-1.
- Newquist, Harvey P.; Maloof, Rich (2004). The New Metal Masters. San Franscisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-804-9.
- Sherry, James; Aldis, Neil (2006). Heavy Metal Thunder: Kick-Ass Cover Art from Kick-Ass Albums. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-5353-5.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas; Prato, Greg. "Tool". Allmusic. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- Sokal, Roman (May 23, 2001). "Tool – Stepping Out From the Shadows". Exclaim!.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tool (band).|