Toyota Camry

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Toyota Camry
2012 Toyota Camry SE -- 02-29-2012.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1982–present
Body and chassis
Class Compact: 1982–1998 (narrow-body)
Mid-size: 1991–present (wide-body)
Chronology
Predecessor Toyota Celica Camry
Toyota Corona (T130)

The Toyota Camry (/ˈkæmri/; Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ) is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since 1982, spanning multiple generations. Originally compact in size (narrow-body), later Camry models have grown to fit the mid-size classification (wide-body)—although the two sizes co-existed in 1990s. Since the release of the wide-bodied versions, Camry has been extolled by Toyota as the firm's second "world car" after the Corolla. In Japan, Camry is exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store retail dealerships. Narrow-body cars also spawned an upmarket sibling in Japan, the Toyota Vista (トヨタ・ビスタ)—also introduced in 1982 and sold at Toyota Vista Store locations. Diesel fuel versions have previously retailed at Toyota Diesel Store.

Between 1979 and 1982, the Camry nameplate was delegated to a four-door sedan model in Japan, known as the Celica Camry. When Camry became an independent model line in 1982 with the V10 series, Toyota made it available available as a five-door liftback in addition to the sedan body style—both powered by gasoline and diesel inline-four engines. At this point, Camry, now an international model line, was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other similar-sized vehicles manufactured by Toyota. The subsequent Camry V20 series, debuted in 1986 following much the same formula as its predecessor. A station wagon substituted the liftback body variant and a V6 engine option arrived. At the same time, Japan-only hardtop sedans made their debut. The company replaced the V20 in 1990 with the V30 sedan and hardtop, but this model series was exclusive to Japan. Automotive tax regulations in that country dictated the retention of a narrower body as utilized in previous Camry generations. However, overseas demand for a larger Camry resulted in the development of a wide-body XV10 sedan and station wagon that arrived in 1991. Japan also received the wider XV10 as the Toyota Scepter (トヨタ・セプター). The company then issued an XV10-bodied coupé in 1993 that was spun-off in 1998 as an independent model line, titled Camry Solara. When the Japanese market received a new narrow-body V40 series in 1994 to replace V30, the wide-body XV10 continued unchanged. Its replacement, the XV20, arrived in 1996—named Camry Gracia in Japan. It was not until the narrow V40 ended manufacture in 1998 that the Camry in Japan was to again mirror the cars sold internationally. Japanese sedans dropped the Gracia suffix in 1999, although it was retained by the wagon until its 2001 demise—withdrawn from the market due to declining popularity. From 1998, the Vista ended its Camry alignment, and instead branched into an independent model line with the V50 series for an extra generation before the nameplate was withdrawn in 2003. The next wide-body model, the XV30, came in 2001. Now sold only as a sedan, it now offered two different front- and rear-end design treatments. Japan and most global markets received one style; a separate, more conservative version covered markets in East and Southeast Asia. With the XV40 of 2006, the Camry-derived Aurion become the donor model for the more conservative Camry sold in this region. The subsequent and current XV50 sold since 2011 has resulted in even more markets adopting the alternative body panels, such as Japan and Eastern Europe.

When Toyota released their luxury Lexus brand in 1989, it offered a close derivative of the Camry/Vista hardtop sedan as the Lexus ES. The relationship continues to this day, but over the generations, the ES—sold as the Toyota Windom in Japan from 1991 through to 2005—gravitated further away from its Camry brethren. Between 2000 and 2010 and since 2012, Daihatsu has offered a badge engineered Camry as the Daihatsu Altis (ダイハツ・アルティス) sold only in Japan. Badge engineering has also occurred in Australia with the Holden Apollo between 1989 and 1996. From 1993, Toyota Australia badged V6-engined versions as Camry Vienta, becoming Toyota Vienta in 1995 until the badge's departure in 2000. Since 2006, the Toyota Aurion model from Australia has derived from the Camry, but with revised front- and rear-end styling treatment and a partially refurbished cabin.

Competing with mainstream and more affordable models in Japan and most export markets, for other East and Southeast Asian markets, the Camry is seen as a luxury car where it sells strongly. In the United States, except for 2001, the Camry has been the best-selling passenger car up to 2013 since 1997.12 The Camry also sells well in Australia and more recently in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Up until 2004, small numbers had been exported to Western Europe.3 Despite international success, and early success in Japan, the later wide-body models have been a low-volume model in its home market of Japan.

Etymology

The name "Camry" is an Anglicized phonetic transcription of the Japanese word kanmuri (冠, かんむり), meaning "crown".4 This follows Toyota's naming tradition of using the crown name for primary models starting with the Toyota Crown (1955), continuing with the Toyota Corona (1957) and Corolla (1966); the Latin words for "crown" and "small crown", respectively.5 Maintaining this theme was the Toyota Tiara (1960) named after the "tiara" form of crown.6 The rebadged Camry variant for Japan, the Toyota Scepter (1991)—took its name from "scepter", a royal accessory to a crown.

Timeline

Narrow-body

Celica Camry (1979–1982)

Celica Camry (A40/A50)
Тойота Celica Camry седан Япония спецификации.jpg
Celica Camry XT Super Edition (Japan)

The "Camry" nameplate originated on a four-door sedan approximate to the Toyota Celica called the Celica Camry. Toyota designated the initial application of the Camry name the A40/A50 series, which made its sales debut in January 19807 at Toyota Corolla Store retail dealerships in Japan.8 Production had earlier commenced in December 1979 at the Tsutsumi plant at Toyota, Aichi.9 Despite the marketing position, Celica Camry shares few components with its namesake—but rather the Carina (A40/A50).10 Toyota modified the Carina by elongating its front-end and incorporating styling cues such as the T-bar grille motif that resembled the Celica XX/Supra (A40). Strictly speaking, Celica Camry is not the first generation of Camry, but rather its predecessor.

Celica Camry utilizes the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and in A40 guise, a standard four-link rigid axle suspension system with gasoline inline-four engines displacing 1.6 liters for the 12T-U (TA41) and 1.8 liters with the 13T-U (TA46).10 Initial model grades comprised: 1600 LT, 1600 XT, 1800 LT, 1800 XT,11 and 1800 XT Super Edition. In August 1980, Toyota released high-end models with four-wheel independent suspension, denoted A50 (front MacPherson struts, rear semi-trailing arm setup; four-wheel disc brakes).101213 For the TA57 series 1800 SX, Toyota fitted the 1.8-liter 3T-EU engine.1213 Toyota designated the new 2.0-liter grades, the 21R-U powered 2000 SE and 18R-GEU-based 2000 GT as RA56 and RA55, respectively.1213

V10 (1982–1986)

V10
1st Toyota Camry.jpg
Camry DX sedan (US; facelift)
Overview
Also called Toyota Vista
Production March 1982 – July 1986
Model years 1983–1986
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door liftback
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L I4 gasoline (1S-L,-LU)
1.8 L I4 gasoline (1S-iLU)
2.0 L I4 gasoline (2S-EL,-ELC,-ELU)
2.0 L I4 gasoline (3S-GELU)
1.8 L I4 diesel turbo (1C-TL,-TLC)
2.0 L I4 diesel turbo (2C-TL,-TLC)
Transmission 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (102.4 in)
Length 4,400–4,435 mm (173.2–174.6 in) (sedan)
4,435 mm (174.6 in) (liftback)
Width 1,690 mm (66.5 in)
Height 1,395 mm (54.9 in) (sedan)
1,370 mm (53.9 in) (liftback)
Curb weight 990–1,130 kg (2,180–2,490 lb)

Toyota started production of the first generation V10 series Camry in March 1982 at the Tsutsumi plant.9 Released to the Japanese market on 24 March 1982, Toyota issued the V10 series as a four-door notchback sedan retailing at the Toyota Corolla Store dealerships.14 At the same time, a twinned model—the Toyota Vista—launched as a high-level derivative and sold at separate Toyota Vista Store locations.15 Five-door liftback versions of the Vista came to the market in August 1982,16 although outside of export markets the Camry remained exclusively a sedan. These cars served above the comparably sized Toyota Carina and Corona in the Toyota hierarchy. Unlike the preceding Celica Camry, exports were achieved with the first generation Camry to Australia, Europe, and North America.17

Camry ZX sedan (Japan; pre-facelift)
Camry ZX sedan (Japan; pre-facelift)
Camry liftback (Europe; pre-facelift)
Camry LE liftback (Canada; pre-facelift)
Vista liftback (Japan; facelift)
Vista VF-II sedan (Japan; facelift)

Development of the V10 series Camry and Vista began in August 1977 following the 1973 oil crisis and would later cover the 1979 crisis.1718 Automobile manufacturers were making the inexorable move to downsized, lighter, more fuel efficient cars with better aerodynamic performance.1920 The industry also began wide-scale switching from the rear-wheel-drive layout to the lighter and more compact front-wheel-drive in the interest of increased fuel economy.2122 With a development focus on exports, particularly to the US,17 Toyota designed Camry to replace the Corona T130 in many overseas markets.23 It needed to compete with the compact, front-drive Honda Accord sedan from Japan.24 Via one-upmanship, Camry exceeded the Accord's wheelbase by 150 millimeters (5.9 in) and offered larger engines.24 The design brief also established the compact front-wheel-drive X platform vehicles by General Motors in the US as competitors.1725 In light of this competition—and a first for Toyota—the V10 adopted front-wheel drive with the engine transversely mounted.26 Between this layout that reduced the size of the engine compartment, the notchback sedan and liftback bodies with rear quarter windows, and the longer wheelbase of 2,600 millimeters (102.4 in)—the V10 series was considered spacious for its time and class.1727 Furthermore, by situating the fuel tank underneath the back seat, luggage space is increased.28 The styling of the V10 followed the box-shaped trends characteristic of the early 1980s.25 Wind tunnel testing led to the fitment of drag-reducing flush pillars, a flat roofline to reduce wind buffeting, and one-piece front bumper with air dam to direct air flow.29 Drag coefficient is quoted at Cd=0.38 for the sedan and Cd=0.36 for the liftback.29

Coil spring independent suspension features by way of a MacPherson strut type with stabilizer and strut bar up front, and a MacPherson rear setup with parallel lower arms.28 Steering uses a rack and pinion design; braking hardware is made up of front ventilated discs and rear drums with a double proportioning valve to suppress lock-up.28 Innovatively, a sensor is fitted to detect worn-out brake pads, alerted by use of an audible chime.28

Powertrain design was reassessed for front-wheel-drive and this generated a foundation for which other models were developed.17 The transaxle is connected inline with the engine, and to create a simple and compact structure, a single rail system that replaces the three shafts normally used for each gear range with a single shaft, was adopted. In addition, automatic transmission fluid was used for the lubricating oil in order to reduce friction.17 Existing gasoline S- and diesel C-series engines were converted for use in transverse applications.17 Initially, the V10 featured the 1.8-liter 1S-LU engine good for 100 PS (74 kW) and a five-speed manual transmission.1627 From July 1982, four-speed automatic with overdrive became available after starting manufacture the previous month.162730 The 2.0-liter 2S-ELU engine with 120 PS (88 kW) and four-speed automatic followed in August.1627 August 1983 saw the 1.8-liter 1C-TL turbocharged diesel offered (80 PS or 59 kW)1627 exclusive to Japanese dealerships called Toyota Diesel Store.31 June 1984 introduced the twin-cam 2.0-liter 3S-GELU engine offered on higher trims with 140 or 160 PS (100 or 120 kW) depending on the version.16273233 For lower trims, the 85 PS (63 kW) "Ci" 1.8-liter 1S-iLU arrived.34 The diesel was upgraded to the 2.0-liter 2C-TL specification in August 1985 (88 PS or 65 kW).1627

Japanese trims levels initially comprised LT, XT, SE, and ZX for Camry sedan.3435 Lumiere and XE grades came to the market in June 1984, and the GLi TwinCam in May 1985.35 Vista sedan and liftback specification levels were at first VC (sedan only), VL, VE, and VX.34 The VF arrived in August 1982, and VR and VS models in June 1984 at the expense of the departing VE.34 Special edition models comprised: VE Extra (December 1982), VL Extra (January 1983), VL Super Extra (January 1985), VF-II (April 1985 and April 1986), and VL Grand Extra (December 1985 and April 1986).36 Wing mirrors became door-mounted as opposed to fender-mounted in May 1983.36 Facelifted models arrived in June 198435 featuring a new grille, redesigned bumpers,37 revised tail-lamps, updated dashboard, enlarged glovebox, and general trim alterations.38

The shift to smaller cars amid the oil crises doubled Japanese automobile market share from 10 to 20 percent in the United States between 1970 and 1980; thus, causing economic tensions between the two nations.1839 Toyota then began investigating the option of building a US production facility, following the announcements in January and April 1980 by Honda and Nissan, respectively, to manufacture automobiles locally.18 As investigations proceeded, Toyota proposed entering a joint venture with Ford in May 1980 to produce a compact car.18 Toyota advocated that its Camry be manufactured at a Ford factory and sold through the sales channels of both brands, but Ford deemed Camry to be in competition with a model it was developing, leading to an impasse and then the cessation of negotiations in July 1981.18 Increasing Japan–United States unease culminated with the Japanese government, at the urging of its US counterpart, imposing a voluntary cartel in May 1981 with a threshold for the export of motor vehicles to the US.40 Toyota would eventually pursue circumvention; firstly by entering into venture by forming NUMMI with General Motors in 1984 to manufacture the Toyota Corolla,41 and then by setting up its own facility at Georgetown, Kentucky in 1988 for the next generation Camry.42

Camry LE liftback (US; facelift)

Sales of the V10 Camry in the US began in March 1983 after exports commerced in January, and by 1985 it had sold 128,000 units.1743 Unlike other markets, federalized quad headlamps were fitted for the 1983 and 1984 model years. Buyers could specify sedan or liftback bodies with a five-speed manual transmission or extra-cost four-speed automatic paired to the 2.0-liter gasoline 2S-ELC motor rated at 92 hp (69 kW).44 Toyota then offered DX (deluxe) and LE (luxury edition) trim levels,45 the latter adding standard features such as body-colored bumpers, tachometer, tilt steering wheel, upgraded stereo, electric mirrors and variable intermittent windscreen wipers.46 Updates for the 1984 model year included an overdrive lockout switch for the automatic transmission.38 Also optional was the manual-only, 1.8-liter 1C-TLC turbo diesel for the DX with 73 hp (54 kW), a special gauge cluster, and quieter exhaust system.38 Changes for 1985 involved the facelift (now with one-piece headlamps), the transfer of the optional cruise control's switchgear from the dashboard to the wiper stalk, and wider LE-type tires for the DX trim (from 165 to 185 millimeters or 6.5 to 7.3 inches).46 1985 cars received gas-charged front shock absorbers and stiffer rear springs, an anti-theft alarm system was now optional on both grades, automatic became an option for the diesel, the DX added a standard tilt steering wheel, and the LE models offered an optional electronic instrument cluster.38 For 1986, a replacement diesel engine, the automatic-only 2.0-liter 2C-TLC arrived for the DX and LE (79 hp or 59 kW), and the gasoline model increased power by around 3 hp (2 kW).38 Other revisions for this model year were a revised powered brake system and new cloth seat and door trim for LEs.38

For Australia, the Camry range—based on the Vista front styling—was limited to a single-grade GLi liftback variant between April 1983 and April 1987.3747 Sold as an upmarket alternative to the locally produced Corona T140, the sole powertrain offered was the gasoline 2.0-liter 2S-EL engine with 77 kW (103 hp) coupled with the five-speed manual or four-speed automatic transmission.37 Optional extras included powering steering, air conditioning, electric moonroof, power doors and windows, plus an upgraded stereo.28 Facelifted models with more standard appointments arrived in August 1984, and the unleaded version from early 1986 reduced power output by 2 kW (3 hp).37

Europe and the United Kingdom received both body variants when released there in mid 1984—these were available in the gasoline GLi trim (1.8- 1S-L and 2.0-liter 2S-EL) or the GLD turbo diesel (1.8- 1C-TL in early models; later models upgraded to the 2.0-liter 2C-TL).

V20 (1986–1990)

V20
1987-1990 Toyota Camry LE sedan 01.jpg
Camry LE sedan (Canada; pre-facelift)
Overview
Also called Toyota Vista
Lexus ES 250
Holden Apollo (JK/JL)
Production August 1986 – June 1990 (Japan)
February 1987–1992 (Australia)
May 1988–1991 (US)
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi plant)
Australia: Port Melbourne, Victoria
United States: Georgetown, Kentucky
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop sedan
5-door station wagon
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Transverse front-engine, four-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L I4 gasoline (1S-i)
1.8 L I4 gasoline (4S-Fi)
2.0 L I4 gasoline (3S-FC)
2.0 L I4 gasoline (3S-FE)
2.0 L I4 gasoline (3S-GE)
2.0 L V6 gasoline (1VZ-FE)
2.5 L V6 gasoline (2VZ-FE)
2.0 L I4 diesel turbo (2C-T)
Transmission 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (102.4 in)
Length 4,500–4,520 mm (177.2–178.0 in) (sedan)
4,525 mm (178.1 in) (wagon)
Width 1,710 mm (67.3 in)
Height 1,385–1,395 mm (54.5–54.9 in) (sedan)
1,440 mm (56.7 in) (wagon)
Curb weight 1,080–1,295 kg (2,381–2,855 lb)

The second generation, V20 series Camry went on sale during August 1986 in Japan.48 As with the previous series, there was again a parallel Vista model for the home market that Toyota released simultaneously.49 V20 Camry and Vista sedans continued with the four-door sedan configuration.48 For overseas markets, Toyota issued a station wagon for the first time.50 The Vista also launched with a four-door pillared hardtop sedan with unique body panels all-round in lieu of the liftback offered with the previous car—a body extended to the Camry in August 1988.4849 To attain a sportier appearance with lower and wider proportions, Toyota reduced the height of the hardtop by 25 millimeters (1 in) over the sedan.49 Not intended for export, this hardtop body with few changes would later form the basis of the upscale but hastily conceived Lexus ES 250 sold in North America515253 from 198954 through to 1991.55 Toyota rushed the ES 250 as a stopgap measure to flesh out the fledgling Lexus lineup so not to launch the flagship LS 400 as a stand-alone model.55

Camry Prominent hardtop (Japan)
Camry ZX sedan (Japan; pre-facelift)
Camry CS sedan (Australia; pre-facelift)
Camry LE V6 sedan (US; pre-facelift)
Camry LE V6 sedan (US; facelift)
Camry Spirit wagon (Australia; facelift)
Camry Ultima sedan (Australia; facelift)

V20 originated from a time at Toyota when considerable cost and attention to detail was engineered into its cars such as high materials and build quality to transcend the competition.56575859 This corporate strategy is analogous to that employed by Mercedes-Benz around the same time, who like Toyota, were known for reliable, over-engineered automobiles of unadulterated quality. As a result, commentators likened the V20 to a cheaper, Japanese facsimile of a Mercedes.56 Sedans retained the V10's rear quarter glass; however, the styling is less angular than before.486061 To appease export customers, styling lost some of its Japanese legacy in its transition to a more Americanized design, with a softer and sleeker silhouette that references the Audi 100.6263 The Audi's influence also extends to aerodynamic performance, now at Cd=0.34 for the sedan.63 V20 also features headlamps and a grille that are sculptured into a gently curved hood that partially conceal the windscreen wipers, wind splitters up the ends of the windscreen, near-flush glass, and a third door seal to close the gap between the body and window frames.6364 Body dimensions were largely unchanged from the previous model, including an identical wheelbase,61 although length increases 100 millimeters (3.9 in).49 Basic sub-skin hardware is also closely related, including the platform and the fully independent suspension with a strut and a coil spring at each corner and an anti-roll bar at each end.576365 Noise isolation is improved by mounting the rear suspension on a subframe akin to the Toyota Celica (T160) that had now switched to Camry-based mechanicals.636667 As before, the braking package encompasses ventilated discs up front, conventional drums in the rear, upgraded to rear discs in some cars.6368 The braking system has a tandem-type booster and diagonally divided hydraulic circuits.68 Wagons receive a load-sensing proportioning valve that grants greater braking pressure when laden and prevents wheel lockup under light payloads.69 Entry-level V20 wheel size increases from 13 to 14 inches.61

All engines now use fuel injection exclusively and were common to Camry and Vista. Entry-level customers were offered the carry-over "Ci" 1.8-liter 1S-i (designated 1S-iLU in the V10) inline-four with five-speed manual or an automatic with four gears.7071 Stepping up from this were the new 3S-FE and GT high-performance 3S-GE (designated 3S-GELU for V10s) 2.0-liter twin-cam four-cylinder cars.4849 Turbo-diesel models were again limited to the 2C-T motor displacing 2.0 liters (labeled 2C-TL for V10s).7071 Transmission were either a five-speed manual or an electronically controlled automatic with four gears.4849 When launched in Japan, the V20 series Camry (sedan only) offered the following trim levels: LT, XT, XT Saloon, ZE, ZT, ZX, and GT.70 For the Vista sedan, Toyota offered: VC, VL, VE, VR, and VX. Hardtop versions comprised: VE, VR, VX, and GT.71 Flagship models of the Japanese specification Camry sedan, the Camry Prominent and Prominent G arrived in April 1987 with the 2.0-liter 1VZ-FE V6 engine, a protruding chrome grille, larger North American-type bumpers, wood grain interior highlights, an electric seat function, plus electronic instrument cluster.4870 Full-time four-wheel-drive became an option in October 1987 with select 3S-FE manual variants (VL Extra, VR); automatics equipped with an electronic front- and rear-wheel torque distribution optimizer followed in August 1988.707172 The Vista was not available with the V6, but in April 1987, the special edition Vista VL Extra sedan and hardtop arrived, followed by the Etoile in August and again in January 1989; limited edition Etoile V cars were offered in September 1989 and January 1990.7173 Toyota discontinued the Vista VC in December 1989 and released a special edition VX Limited in May 1989 and then again for January 1990.7273 When the Camry Prominent hardtop variant arrived in August 1988,74 it offered base, G, and E-Type levels of trim alongside a new sedan-only Camry Lumière.72 Also in August 1988 a diesel version of the Vista hardtop made its debut, and the 1.8-liter gasoline engine was upgraded to the twin-cam 4S-Fi specification.7071 Special editions for the Camry comprised: Lumière S sedan (January 1989), Prominent X hardtop (May 1989), Lumière G sedan (June 1989), and XT Saloon Special sedan (January 1990).72

North American market V20 series Camry sedan and wagons came to the market in late 1986 for the 1987 model year.5075 Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, the first wholly owned Toyota plant in the US, began producing the Camry in May 1988.43 The country of manufacture can be found by looking at the first character of the VIN; a Camry manufactured in Japan has a VIN starting with "J", a model made in the US starts with "4" and a model made in Australia starts with "6". Three trim levels of the V20 Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. In 1991, anti-lock brakes became optional on the V6, LE, and station wagon models. The four-wheel-drive system dubbed All-Trac was introduced for 1988 and a 2.5-liter V6 engine was added as an option. The V6 was fuel-injected with 24 valves, and dual overhead camshafts.

Toyota Australia released the second generation Camry in April 1987.47 Local manufacture of the V20 had began earlier in February at its recently acquired Australian Motor Industries facility at Port Melbourne, Victoria as a replacement for the Corona T140 and the Camry before it. Four-cylinder engine production and panel-stamping was undertaken at Toyota's Altona, Victoria plant, all part of a model localization and factory upgrades investment totalling A$115 million.677677 In fact, it was the first Camry made outside of Japan, and is notable for being the most localized Toyota Australia product thus far with a lead time of less than six months, the shortest yet between start of Japanese and Australian manufacture.78 Higher levels of specification were fitted with the locally built 2.0-liter 3S-FE motor,67 but the imported 1.8-liter 1S-i unit distinguished base SE and CS cars.79 Both sedans and wagons were offered and either engine offered standard five-speed manual transmission, upgradeable to the four-speed automatic.80 Features standard at the base level SE comprised: AM/FM radio, centre console storage compartment, remote fuel filler release, intermittent windscreen wipers, digital clock and trip computer. CS cars added a tilt steering column to which the CS-X adds a key lock warning system. The CS driver’s seat has front height adjustment; the CS-X’s front and rear height adjustment. The CS gets a two speaker AM/FM radio cassette player; the CS-X a four-speaker system and automatic electric antenna, plus central locking, variable intermittent wipers and center rear arm rest. The sedan-only Ultima grade gains power windows, cruise control, automatic transmission as standard, velour trim, and a nine-stage graphic equalizer for the audio system.6781 A fleet-focused Executive pack based on the SE arrived in May 1988, adding automatic transmission, power steering, and air conditioning.6782 In June 1988, the 2.5-liter V6 was introduced, being an imported fully optioned model from Japan sold in limited numbers and distinguished from local four-cylinder cars by its unique bumpers and trim.6783 Coinciding with the an August 1989 facelift,47 the 2.0-liter 3S-FC engine with carburetor superseded the imported 1.8.84 The updates brought minor adjustments inside and out, including improved suspension, steering, and headlights.84 In May 1991, Toyota made the fuel-injected 3S-FE version standard upon the carburetored engine's deletion, and the CS trim level became CSi.8485 Coinciding with this change, power steering became standard fitment and Toyota Australia refreshed badging, including the attachment of the new corporate logo consisting of three overlapping ellipses to form the letter "T".84 Towards the end of the series, special editions were released, starting with the Spirit of February 1991.84 Then in September 1992, value-added CSi Limited and Olympic Spirit cars came onto the scene.84 The Used Car Safety Ratings, published in 2008 by the Monash University Accident Research Centre, found that V20 Camry models provide an "average" (3/5 stars) level of occupant safety protection in the event of an accident.86

Holden Apollo (JK) SLE sedan
Holden Apollo (JK) SL sedan

The badge engineered Holden Apollo retailed in Australia alongside the facelifted Camry from August 1989.8788 This model sharing occurred due to the United Australian Automobile Industries (UAAI) joint venture between Toyota Australia and General Motors-Holden's starting in 1987 that resulted in model sharing between both automakers from August 1989.89 Known as the JK series, the Apollo differentiated itself by way of a redesigned grille, rehashed tail lamps and other minor trim items.90 This badge engineering scheme was the result of the Button car plan, introduced in May 1984 to rationalise and make the Australian automotive industry more competitive on a global scale by means of reducing import tariffs.91 Offered in sedan and wagon guises, Apollo replaced the Camira.88 Powertrains were verbatim of the Camry, with the 3S-FC for the entry-level SL, and higher-end SLX and SLE models graced with the 3S-FE engine.8892 An SLX option pack, known as the Executive was also available.93 The SL opened up the Apollo range with remote exterior mirrors, intermittent windscreen wipers, heated rear screen demister, remote trunk release for sedans and fuel filler door, a two-speaker radio cassette player and tinted side and rear glass.94 SLX variants were distinguished by their full wheel covers, as opposed to the SL model's steel wheels with centre caps.95 The Executive variant was not a stand alone model, but an option pack for the SLX, adding power steering and automatic transmission.93 SLE equipment included the four-wheel disc brakes, variable intermittent windscreen wipers, a four-speaker stereo, body-coloured bumpers, dual odometers, automatic headlamp cut-off system, velour seat upholstery, centre back-seat armrest, power antenna, central locking with illuminated driver's door lock and front map lamps.9496 In August 1991 there was a small Apollo facelift, given the designation JL, with an altered model range.8797 The SL and SLX continued, with the SLE now available only as a sedan. The Executive pack was now no longer offered, and a sports version, dubbed GS was introduced in both body variants. Equipment levels mostly mirrored the previous JK, although the SLX was now similar in specification to the discontinued Executive and the GS to the JK SLE, albeit without standard automatic transmission.98 Appearance-wise, the JK and JL are very similar, with the JL's grille treated with bolder chrome highlighting and slightly altered tail lamps on sedans.99 The XV10 Camry-based JM Apollo replaced the JL in March 1993.87

Camry CS-X sedan (Australia; pre-facelift)
Camry Lumière sedan (Japan; facelift)
Camry LE V6 sedan (US; facelift)
Camry Spirit wagon (Australia; facelift)

V30 (1990–1994)

V30
Toyota Camry (third generation, V30) (front), Serdang.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Vista (V30)
Production July 1990 – June 1994
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi plant)
Designer Osamu Shikado (1988)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop sedan
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Transverse front-engine, four-wheel-drive
Related Toyota Camry (XV10)
Toyota Windom (XV10)
Lexus ES 300 (XV10)
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L I4 gasoline (4S-FE)
2.0 L I4 gasoline (3S-FE)
2.0 L I4 gasoline (3S-GE)
2.0 L V6 gasoline (1VZ-FE)
2.5 L V6 gasoline (4VZ-FE)
2.0 L I4 diesel turbo (2C-T)
Transmission 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,600 mm (102.4 in)
Length 4,600 mm (181.1 in) (sedan)
4,630–4,670 mm (182.3–183.9 in) (hardtop)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,395 mm (54.9 in) (sedan)
1,380 mm (54.3 in) (hardtop)
Curb weight 1,180–1,360 kg (2,600–3,000 lb)

Introduced exclusively to Japan in July 1990, the Camry V30 carried forward the four-door sedan and a differently styled hardtop sedan.100 Like before, either shape could be had in a Vista branded variety with revised styling.100 Both bodies would also form the basis of enlarged wide-body XV10 versions from September 1991, aimed primarily at international markets.101102 The V30 remained smaller than the XV10 to offer buyers a vehicle within the "5-number" registration category concerning exterior dimensions and engine displacement for Japanese vehicle size regulations.103 The rules required a body width under 1.7 meters (5.6 ft), length under 4.7 meters (15.4 ft), and engines at or below 2000 cc.104 Sedans in the wide-body format would sell overseas as the Camry XV10—identical to the smaller V30 in most respects except for the front- and rear-end styling grafted to an otherwise unchanged body and interior. Hardtop sedans would engender the luxury Lexus ES 300 (XV10), which again would couple the existing side profile with rehashed front, rear, and interior designs. The export-oriented ES 300 would sell as the Toyota Windom in Japan.

Dimensions grew slightly with sedan body length extended to 4,600 millimeters (181.1 in), and for the Vista and Camry hardtops to 4,630 and 4,370 millimeters (182.3 and 172.0 in), respectively.105106 Penned by Osamu Shikado,107 the V30's design is much rounder when compared to the V20 series.100 Sedans purge the V20's six-window greenhouse for a four-part setup with integrated window sashes.105 Up front, the sedan's curved headlamps converge with a slimline grille insert; hardtops get a thinner front assembly with narrower lights, and the C-pillar is raked more sharply.100 Base cars gain full body-colour coding of peripheral exterior components.105

After 1991, a four-wheel steering version of the V30 Camry was sold with a 2.0-liter V6 engine, with the name Camry V6 Prominent 4WS.

An updated model appeared in July 1992. The scope of changes ranged from a new, larger grille and a revised air conditioning unit. At the same time the ZX touring package appeared in place of GT.

Toyota Vista

Introduced July 1990. The engines available were the 1.8-liter 4S and 2.0-liter 3S. The diesel engines used the 2C-T and all engines came with DOHC. Four-wheel steering was also available on vehicles with the 2.0-liter gasoline engine. The VX trim level was available in May 1991 with leather interior. July 1992 saw the removal of the 3S-GE engine on upper trim level vehicles.

1990–1992 Toyota Camry sedan 
1992–1994 Toyota Camry sedan 
Toyota Vista hardtop 

V40 (1994–1998)

V40
1996-1998 Toyota Camry (V40) sedan (2008-06-07).jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Vista (V40)
Production 1994–1998 (JDM)
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
4-door hardtop sedan (Vista only)
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Transverse front-engine, four-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L I4
2.0 L I4
2.2 L I4 (turbodiesel)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,650 mm (104.3 in)
Length 4,625 mm (182.1 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,410–1,435 mm (55.5–56.5 in)

The Camry V40 appeared in July 1994 exclusively for the Japanese market. The Toyota Vista twin continued on, although the Camry Prominent hardtop was no longer offered; only the Vista was available as a hardtop. As before in previous generations, the Camry was exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store, while the Vista was only available at Toyota Vista Store locations.

V40 continued to be built around the 4,700 mm (185.0 in) x 1,700 mm (66.9 in) length-width bracket, legacy of a Japanese taxation law. The car is 100 mm (3.9 in) taller than its predecessor.

Engines for the V40 were a 1.8-liter (4S-FE type) and 2.0-liter (3S-FE type), and a 2.2-liter turbodiesel (3C-T type). At launch only the 2.0-liter model was available in all-wheel drive mode, although afterwards the 2.2-liter turbodiesel could be optioned with this system.

Toyota updated the V40 in June 1996. In the update anti-lock brakes and dual air bags became standard equipment. After 1998, the Japanese market Camry and international Camry became in-line with each other, with the Vista taking over the V30 and V40 Camry roles.

1994–1998 Toyota Camry sedan 
1996–1998 Toyota Camry 2.0 Lumière G 
1996–1998 Toyota Vista hardtop 
1994–1996 Toyota Vista hardtop 

V50 (1998–2003)

V50
V50 Toyota Vista.jpg
Overview
Production 1998–2003
Assembly Japan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi plant)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Transverse front-engine, four-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine 1.8 L I4
2.0 L I4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (110 in)
Length 4,670 mm (184 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,505 mm (59.3 in)–1,515 mm (59.6 in)
Curb weight 1,310 kg (2,890 lb)

The V50 generation was not available as a Camry—only as a Vista—as a sedan, plus a station wagon called Vista Ardeo. 1.8 L and 2.0 L engines were available. The interior features a center instrument panel/navigation display.

Vista V50 is significant because it's one of the first fruits of Toyota's company-wide platform renewal efforts. Studies for new front-wheel drive (FWD) platform and packaging layout began in 1993 and appeared on market in February 1997 in the Toyota Prius, but the Vista is the first mass-production, FWD Toyota with a new platform. Toyota claims this is the first true redesign and re-think of its FWD platforms since the 1982 Camry/Vista. With this platform, Toyota trades rear MacPherson Struts for a torsion beam axle setup. A double-wishbone setup is available for all-wheel drive. Toyota also fliped the engine orientation so that the intake manifold is in front, improving space efficiency.

Production for the Vista halted in July 2003, as Toyota prepared to rename the Vista dealers as the Netz dealership network. The move to simplify Toyota's dealership came in light of the pending Lexus launch in Japan, planned for August 2005. In April 2005 the process was complete and all Vista dealers became Netz dealers.

1998–2000 Toyota Vista sedan 
2000–2003 Toyota Vista sedan 
2000–2003 Toyota Vista Ardeo wagon 

Wide-body

XV10 (1991–1996)

XV10
1992-1994 Toyota Camry Sedan.jpg
Overview
Also called Holden Apollo
Toyota Scepter
Toyota Vienta
Production 1991–1996
1993–1997 (Australia)
Model years 1992–1996
Designer Osamu Shikado (1989)
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupé
4-door sedan
5-door station wagon

Toyota replaced the compact V20 Camry with the Japanese market-only V30 series in 1990. However, international markets such as Australia and North America received a widened version of the V30, known as the XV10 series. While marginally larger than the V20, the V30 had to comply with Japanese tax legislation which restricted the car's width to 1,700 millimeters (67 in) and length to 4,700 millimeters (190 in). Particularly in the United States, this narrower model was seen as compromised, thus limiting its sales potential.108 As a result, the "wide-body" mid-size Camry (XV10) released to North America in 1991 was developed from 1989 and the final design frozen that same year.109 It was with the XV10 that Toyota upgraded the Camry's status to its second "world car" after the Corolla, with exports starting from Australia to Southeast Asia.102 Japan also received the wider XV10 model, although it was sold under the Toyota Scepter name there.110111 Toyota chose the name "Scepter" as a reference to the Camry/Crown naming tradition, as a "scepter" is a symbolic ornamental staff held by a ruling monarch, a prominent item of royal regalia.

Toyota Camry Vienta CSX sedan (Australia; pre-facelift)
Toyota Camry LE wagon (US; pre-facelift)

The smaller V30 Camry varied in other areas besides the size. Although the underpinnings, doors and fenders, and overall basic design cues were common between the two cars, the smaller Camry sported harder, more angular front- and rear-end styling treatment, with the wide-body model presenting a more curvaceous silhouette. This was a departure from the V20 generation Camry which, although had many more rounded panels than the V10 series, was nevertheless generally slab-sided in shape. A two-door Camry coupé was added to compete with the Honda Accord coupé. However, the Camry Coupé was never popular and was dropped in 1996. A two-door Camry would not be reintroduced until 1999, with the Toyota Camry Solara.

The Japanese V30 model was replaced by the Camry V40 in 1994, however, this was also a Japan-only model. International markets instead retained the wider XV10 until it was replaced by the XV20 in 1996. The V40 and XV20 models were sold alongside one another in the Japanese market until 1998. At this time, the Vista V50 took the place of the V40, ending the period of separate Camrys for the Japanese and international markets.

The XV10, at its most basic level, offered a 2.2-liter 5S-FE four-cylinder engine, up from 2.0 liters in the V20 and V30 Camrys. This unit produced 97 kilowatts (130 hp) of power and 197 newton metres (145 lb·ft) of torque, although the exact figures varied slightly depending on the market Power and displacement increases were also received for the V6 engine. The 3.0-liter 3VZ-FE unit was rated at 138 kilowatts (185 hp) and 264 newton metres (195 lb·ft). An all-new aluminium 1MZ-FE V6 debuted in North American models from 1994, with other markets retaining the 3VZ-FE V6. Power and torque rose to 140 kilowatts (190 hp) and 275 newton metres (203 lb·ft), respectively.112

In Australia, the V6 engine Camry was badged "Camry Vienta" when launched in 1993, later becoming the Toyota Vienta in 1995.113 In South Africa, the XV10 Camry was manufactured by Toyota SA in Durban from 1992 to 2002,citation needed offering both the 2.2-liter and 3.0-liter engines, as well as a 2.0-liter engine derived from the Celica. Only a sedan configuration was available. These were also marketed and sold into Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

A variant of the UK market V6 model - detuned to run on 91 rather than 95 octane unleaded petrol - was launched in New Zealand in 1991. These Japanese-built models were replaced with an Australian-made line, with unique New Zealand specification, in 1993 at which point the 2.2-liter I4 was offered as well.

Toyota Camry coupe (US; pre-facelift) 
Toyota Camry sedan (US; facelift) 

XV20 (1996–2001)

XV20
1997-2000 Toyota Vienta (MCV20R) Grande sedan (2011-06-15) 01.jpg
Overview
Also called Daihatsu Altis
Toyota Vienta
Production 1996–2001
1997–2002 (Australia)
Model years 1997–2001
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon

In late 1991, development on the XV20 commenced, design work was completed in 1994 and later launched in the United States in September 1996 and Japan in December 1996. It continued as a sedan and station wagon (called the Camry Gracia in Japan), though the latter model was not sold in the United States. This generation was launched in the US for the 1997 model year.

In August 1999 for the 2000 model year, the sedan models received a mid-model upgrade to the front and rear fascias, but remained otherwise similar to the 1997 to 1999 models.

In the United States, the Camry SE was dropped and the base model was renamed the CE for the 1997 model year. Both the LE and the XLE trims were carried over from the previous series. All trim levels were available with either the 2.2-liter I4 or the 3.0-liter V6 engine except the Solara SLE, which was only available with the V6. TRD offered a supercharger kit for 1997 through to 2000 V6 models raising power to 247 horsepower (184 kW) and 242 pound-feet (328 N·m) of torque. A coupe was added in 1999, and then a convertible form in 2000. In contrast to the coupe from the XV10 generation Camrys, the new two-door cars were given a separate nameplate Camry Solara, or simply Solara. They were also a significant styling departure from the sedan. The Solara was available in SE and SLE trims, corresponding roughly to the sedan's LE and XLE trims.

Power was increased slightly to 133 hp (99 kW) SAE for the 5S-FE 2.2 L I4 and 192 hp (143 kW) SAE for the 1MZ-FE V6. Manual transmissions (model: S51) were only available on the CE trim level, LE V6, and any Solara model. Camrys and Solaras equipped with the 5S-FE 4 cylinder engine and appropriate trim package received the S51 manual transmission, while those equipped with the 1MZ-FE 6 cylinder engine received the E153 manual transmission.114

Toyota Camry CSX sedan (Australia; pre-facelift) 
Toyota Camry CSi sedan (Australia; facelift) 
Toyota Camry Conquest wagon (Australia; facelift) 

XV30 (2001–2006)

XV30
2002-2004 Toyota Camry 2.jpg
Overview
Also called Daihatsu Altis
Production 2001–2006
2002–2006 (Australia)
Model years 2002–2006
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan

In September 2001, the 2002 model year Toyota Camry was released as a larger sedan (taking styling cues from the successful Vitz, Corolla, and Camry Solara), but without a station wagon for the first time. Due to station wagons losing popularity to minivan and crossover SUVs, the Camry wagon was replaced by the Highlander SUV, which utilizes the Camry's platform.

Until the 2003 model year, the Camry Solara remained on the XV20 series chassis, and received only minor styling upgrades to the front and rear ends. However, the Solara did receive the same 2.4-liter 2AZ-FE I4 engine that was available on the Camry sedan. The US received three engine options, a 115 kW (154 hp) 2.4-liter inline-four, a 142 kW (190 hp) 3.0-liter V6, and a 157 kW (210 hp) 3.3-liter version of the same. The 3.3-liter was only available for the Camry's sportier "SE" model.

Starting from this generation, the Camry had two different distinctive designs, an American version with a more conservative design (styled by Hiroyuki Metsugi) and an Asian version with more chrome, larger head lamps and tail lamps and a general greater emphasis on its width. Later generation Camry will see greater differentiation, with the Asian Camry adopting a more luxurious design, while the American Camry pursued a more mass-appeal approach.

2002–2004 Toyota Camry Sportivo (Australia) 
2002–2004 Toyota Camry (Asia) 
2002–2004 Toyota Camry (Asia) 

XV40 (2006–2011)

XV40
Toyota Camry LE.jpg
Overview
Also called Daihatsu Altis
Production 2006–2011
Model years 2007–2011
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
Related Toyota Aurion (XV40)

This generation of Camry saw even greater differentiation between American market (and Japanese domestic market) Camry, and the Asian market Camry. The Asian Camry has a larger body size targeted at a higher end market, priced just below entry-level German luxury models.citation needed The same Asian Camry is also sold as the Toyota Aurion in Australia, fitted with a 3.5-liter V6 to compete against large Australian sedans like the Ford Falcon and Holden Commodore. The standard Camry (similar to American / Japanese market models), fitted with smaller four-cylinder engines continue to be sold alongside the Aurion in selected markets. Between 2006 and 2010, the Daihatsu-badged Altis model sold alongside the Camry in Japan. The Daihatsu differed only in badging, with no cosmetic changes.

The XV40 Camry was introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show alongside a hybrid version and went on sale in March 2006 for the 2007 model year.

Power comes from a choice of four and six-cylinder engines. For 2010, power was increased to 169 horsepower, versus the 158 from 2007 to 2009. Power locks, stability control, and traction control were also made standard for 2010. The 2.4-liter 2AZ-FE I4 engine was carried over and produced 158 horsepower (118 kW). It came with a five-speed manual or five-speed automatic transmission. The 3.5-liter 2GR-FE V6 in contrast came with a new six-speed automatic and produced 268 horsepower (200 kW).115 The Camry was facelifted in 2009 for the 2010 model year with a redesigned fascia, taillights, and an all-new 2.5-liter 2AR-FE four-cylinder engine with a new six-speed automatic transmission. The 2.5-liter engine produces 169 horsepower (126 kW) for the base, LE, XLE models, and 179 horsepower (133 kW) for the SE.

The XV40 series Camry is the first in which the Camry has been available as a gasoline/electric hybrid. The Camry Hybrid utilizes Toyota’s second-generation Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) and a 2AZ-FXE four-cylinder with 110 kilowatts (150 hp) in conjunction with a 30 kilowatts (40 hp) electric motor for a combined output of 140 kilowatts (190 hp).116

2006–2009 Toyota Camry Altise (Australia) 
2010–2011 Toyota Camry LE (US) 
2010 Toyota Hybrid Camry (Australia) 
2006–2009 Toyota Camry (Asia) 
2006–2009 Toyota Camry 2.0 G (Asia) 

XV50 (2011–present)

XV50
2012 Toyota Camry LE -- 10-19-2011.jpg
Overview
Also called Daihatsu Altis (2012–present)
Production September 2011–present
Model years 2012–present
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan

The new Camry was introduced on August 23, 2011, and began U.S. sales in September 2011.117 The interior received a major restyling, while the exterior received all-new sheet metal and more angular styling.

In this generation, the Camry line-up for the Japanese domestic market was reduced to being just a single variant (hybrid only). The Japanese market will now share the same Camry model as the Asian market Camry. (Prior to this, Japanese market Camry were similar to American market models).118119

The US Camry carried over 3 different engine choices from the previous model. Starting with a 2.5-liter 4-cylinder hybrid model rated at 150 kW (200 hp), a 2.5-liter 4-cylinder gasoline engine rated at 133 kW (178 hp) and 230 N·m (170 lb·ft), and a 3.5-liter V6 rated at 200 kW (268 hp) and 336 N·m (248 lb·ft). Power output has been increased mostly by switching to electro-hydraulic power steering. The trim levels include the L, LE, SE, XLE, SE V6, XLE V6, Hybrid LE, and Hybrid XLE. All models are standard with 6-speed automatic transmissions. No manual transmissions are offered. The SE model gets paddle shifters, and a stiffer suspension. The new model has increased fuel economy due to lighter weight, a sleeker body, and low rolling-resistance tires.

Facelift

Toyota issued a substantial update to the Camry XV50 at the 2014 New York International Auto Show in April 2014. The changes, applicable to the 2015 model year lineup and dubbed the “big minor change” (not a new generation) consist of the alteration of all of the exterior panels except the roof turret, while maintaining the powertrain and frame of the older car. The interior changes are less radical, more closely resembling the pre-facelift version.120

Toyota Camry SE V6 (US) 
Toyota Camry Hybrid (Japan) 
Toyota Camry (Russia) 

Sales

Country 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
United States 52,651 93,725 128,143 151,767 186,623 225,322 255,252
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
United States 283,042 262,531 284,751 297,836 319,718 326,632 357,359 394,397 427,308 445,696
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Canada 15,524121
United States 422,961122 388,512 434,145123 413,296 426,990124 431,703 448,445125 473,108 436,617126 356,824127
2010 2011 2012 2013
Australia 25,014128 19,169128 27,230129 24,860130
Canada 12,251 12,334131 14,765132 15,113133
United States 327,804134 308,510135 404,886136 408,484137

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  55. ^ a b Dawson, Chester (2011). Lexus: The Relentless Pursuit (eBook) (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-47082-807-6. "In September 1991, the [...] ES 250, which had been assembled from the Toyota Camry parts bin, finally bowed out. [...] From the start, Toyota Motor had viewed the first generation ES 250 [...] mostly as a place holder to make the brand seem bigger than just the flagship LS 400." 
  56. ^ a b Niedermeyer, Paul (24 August 2013). "Curbside Classic Review: 1990 Toyota Camry LE V6 – Dripping With Fat". Curbside Classics. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
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  58. ^ Niedermeyer, Edward (28 January 2010). "Too Good To Be True: How Toyota’s Success Caused Killer Decontenting". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  59. ^ Taylor, Rich (May 1987). "Daily Drivers". Popular Mechanics (New York City) 164 (5): 74. "Like all Toyotas, construction quality of the Camry is perfect." 
  60. ^ Smith, Graham (29 January 2009). "Used car review Toyota Camry 1987–1993". Herald Sun. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
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  62. ^ Grey, Jim (16 March 2013). "CC Capsule: 1988 Toyota Camry DX – Somehow, Beige Is Appropriate". Curbside Classics. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  63. ^ a b c d e f St. Antoine, Arthur (June 1987). "1987 Toyota Camry". Car and Driver. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  64. ^ McCarthy (1987), p. 39. "The wagon shares with the sedan a very smooth nose which is remarkably rounded in plain view, and meritorious attention to detail including near-flush windows, wind splitters up the ends of the windscreen and an extra (third) door seal to close the gap between the body and window frames."
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  66. ^ McCarthy (1987), p. 40. "The decision to use the Celica's strut rear suspension in the Camry needs no justification on the grounds of excellent rear-end roadholding and ride."
  67. ^ a b c d e f "Toyota Camry (SV21 Camry)". GoAuto. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  68. ^ a b McCarthy (1987), p. 40. "The brake system has a tandem type booster and diagonally divided hydraulic circuits. Front discs are standard on all models but the SE and CS only have rear drums whereas the CS-X and Ultima get rear discs with an integral drum handbrake."
  69. ^ McCarthy (1987), p. 40. "Toyota gets a merit mark for including a load-sensing proportioning valve on all Camry wagons. [...] When the body and suspension move apart (with light load) the LSPV lever tips down and the valves inside the device restrict the hydraulic pressure available to the rear brakes, so reducing tendency to wheel lockup. Conversely, when the wagon is heavily laden and the distance between floor and suspension is decreased, the lever moves up and the internal valves open to admit more pressure to the rear brakes."
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  71. ^ a b c d e f "1987 Toyota Vista brochure (Japan)" (in Japanese). Toyota Motor Corporation. 1986. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
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  73. ^ a b "2代目ビスタ" [Second generation Vista] (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
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  75. ^ Taylor, Rich (December 1986). "Wonder Wagons". Popular Mechanics (New York City) 163 (12): 61. 
  76. ^ McCarthy (1987), p. 37–38. "the new Camry [...] replaces not only the old Camry but the Corona as well [... and] began taking shape four years ago. The Australian Camry's development program accounted for a total investment of $115 million, easily a record for a locally made Toyota. Part of the investment went to a major upgrading of AMI Toyota's manufacturing and assembly plant in Port Melbourne, and to re-tooling of the Altona panel-stamping and engine-building facility."
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  78. ^ McCarthy (1987), p. 38. "The Australian engineering and product planning team was involved with the new Camry from the start of the clay model stage through to the public release. So the locals had more say and more influence on the Camry than any Toyota ever launched here. The launch itself was significant because local production started less than six months behind the car's release in Japan. That's the shortest ever lead time for a locally made Toyota. It has also meant that Australia is the first country outside Japan to produce what Toyota describes as its latest world car."
  79. ^ McCarthy (1987), p. 39–40. "The 1.8-litre engine available in the SE and CS [... is the] fully imported "1S-Ci" engine [... that] claims 64 kW [...] and 145 Nm".
  80. ^ Morely, David (6 March 2006). "Toyota Camry SV21". Drive. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  81. ^ McCarthy (1987), p. 40. "The basic Camry line-up comprises seven models: four sedans (SE, CS, CSX and Ultima), three wagons (SE, CS, CSX). [… The SE] features include […] AM/FM radio, centre console, remote fuel filler release, intermittent and mist wiper functions, digital clock and a trip meter. […] The CS […] has tilt steering column to which the CSX adds a key lock warning system. The CS driver’s cushion has front height adjustment; the CSX’s front and rear height adjustment. The CS gets a two speaker AM/FM radio cassette; the CSX a four-speaker system and automatic electric antenna. Not to forget other goodies, including central locking, variable intermittent wiper and centre rear arm rest. The Ultima goes all-out luxury with a list that extends to power windows, cruise control, automatic transmission as standard, velour trim, and a nine-stage graphics equaliser for the audio system.
  82. ^ Scott, Phil, ed. (March 1988). "Toyota". Wheels (Sydney): 93. "An Executive version of the Camry will be unveiled at the Melbourne motor show this month. Power steering and air conditioning will be standard" .
  83. ^ Stahl, Michael (July 1988). "Camry's Suprise Package". Wheels (Sydney): 12. ""Toyota's new V6-engined Camry: It's fully imported [... and] will be available in fairly limited numbers"." 
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  85. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 127. "The EFI version of the two-litre twin-cam engine was made standard across the board, with the carburettored unit being deleted. (This actually occurred in May 1991, late in the JK Apollo's production run.)"
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  89. ^ Tuckey, Bill (1999). Commodore Lion King: Celebrating 21 Years. Middle Park, Victoria: Quil Visual Communications. p. 168. ISBN 0-646-38231-4. "On Friday 11 December 1987 at 2.30 pm came the announcement: "Holden's Motor Company Ltd, AMI Toyota Ltd and Toyota Manufacturing Australia Ltd, are joining forces to create Australia's largest automotive group." [...] The press statement outlined plans to co-ordinate design, engineering and product sharing strategies while keeping marketing operations and dealer networks totally separate, and the decision was described as consistent with the Government's 'Button Plan' for forced rationalisation of the industry. [...] The join venture organisation was to be called United Australian Automobile Industries or UAAI." 
  90. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 125. "Holden's joint venture operation with Toyota began in 1987 and produced several shared models. The first of these was released in August 1989 as the Holden JK Apollo. Replacing the Camira, it was a rebadged Toyota Camry (SV21/22) with some minor differences in styling, mainly in grille and tail-light areas."
  91. ^ Wright, John (1998). Heart of the Lion: The 50 Year History of Australia's Holden. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. pp. 277–278. ISBN 1-86448-744-5. "In May of 1984, the Minister for Industry in the Hawke Labor Government, Senator John Button, unveiled the federal government's new plan for the industry. It quickly became known as the 'Button Plan'. This blueprint was [...] to make the local industry more internationally competitive. [...] But its major thrusts were to lower tariffs and to reduce the number of different models manufactured locally from thirteen to six, shared between three production groups." 
  92. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 125–126 "The Apollo [had a ...] multi-valve two-litre engine and five-speed manual transmission (or optional four-speed overdrive automatic). The engine had a two-barrel carburettor standard for all models except SLE, and an EFI system for the SLE only."
  93. ^ a b Bebbington (1998), p. 125. "The JK Apollo model lineup was [...] a four-door sedan and a wagon available in SL, SLX, SLE trim levels, with Executive variants of the SLX also offered. Power steering and automatic transmission were standard fitment on Executives and SLEs."
  94. ^ a b Bebbington (1998), p. 125. "Minor features: remote exterior mirrors (electric on SLE), intermittent windscreen wipers (variable on SLE), heated rear screen demister, remote boot release (sedans), [...] remote fuel filler door release, AM/FM electronic tuner/cassette (with four speakers on SLE), tinted side and rear window glass."
  95. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 127. "All models had specific wheel covers except for SLs, which had small centre caps."
  96. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 125–126. "SLE additional equipment included: electronic fuel injection, four-wheel disc brakes, body-coloured bumpers, twin trip meters in speedo, headlight auto cut off system, velour trim, rear seat centre armrest, power antenna, power door locks (central locking), front map lights, illuminated driver's door locks."
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  98. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 127–128. "The model range consisted of the SL, SLX and GS, all available in sedan or wagon guise, and the top-of-the-line SLE, in sedan form only. The Executive variants had gone and the GS models were introduced to give the Apollo a sporty flavour to its lineup. [...] equipment levels were similar to those of the previous JK series. The SLX's equipment levels were similar to that of the JK Executive, while the new GS's was close to JK SLE specification, without the automatic transmission. [...] Power steering was now fitted as standard equipment to all models except the SL."
  99. ^ Bebbington (1998), p. 127. "External changes were kept to a minimum but additional chrome finish to the grille helped to distinguish it from the JK, and the tail-lights on sedans had the red tail/stop light lens now above the orange blinker lens."
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Toyota camry updated

Bibliography

  • McCarthy, Mike (May 1987). "Camry: quietly classy". Wheels (Sydney). 
  • Scott, Phil, ed. (August 1990). "New Camry, minus width". Wheels (Sydney). 

External links








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