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Transcendental Meditation (TM) refers to a specific form of mantra meditation called the Transcendental Meditation technique,1 and can also refer to the organizations within the Transcendental Meditation movement and to the movement itself.12 The TM technique and TM movement were introduced in India in the mid-1950s by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1918–2008).
The Maharishi taught thousands of people during a series of world tours from 1958 to 1965, expressing his teachings in spiritual and religious terms.34 TM became more popular in the 1960s and 1970s, as the Maharishi shifted to a more technical presentation and his meditation technique was practiced by celebrities. At this time, he began training TM teachers and created specialized organizations to present TM to specific segments of the population such as business people and students. By the late 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of people, and the worldwide TM organization had grown to include educational programs, health products, and related services.
The TM technique involves the use of a sound or mantra and is practiced for 15–20 minutes twice per day. It is taught by certified teachers through a standard course of instruction, which costs a fee that varies by country. According to the Transcendental Meditation movement, it is a method for relaxation, stress reduction and self-development. The technique has been described as both religious and as non-religious by sociologists, scholars, and a New Jersey court case.456 Governmental agencies have both criticized and supported the Transcendental Meditation program depending on the time period and country.
The Transcendental Meditation (TM) program and the Transcendental Meditation movement originated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of the organization, and continued beyond his death (2008). In 1955,101112 "the Maharishi began publicly teaching a traditional meditation technique"13 learned from his master Brahmananda Saraswati that he called Transcendental Deep Meditation14 and later renamed Transcendental Meditation.15 The Maharishi initiated thousands of people, then developed a TM teacher training program as a way to accelerate the rate of bringing the technique to more people.1516 He also inaugurated a series of world tours which promoted Transcendental Meditation.17 These factors, coupled with endorsements by celebrities who practiced TM and claims that scientific research had validated the technique, helped to popularize TM in the 1960s and 1970s. By the late 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of individuals and the Maharishi was overseeing a large multinational movement.18 Despite organizational changes and the addition of advanced meditative techniques in the 1970s,19 the Transcendental Meditation technique has remained relatively unchanged.
Among the first organizations to promote TM were the Spiritual Regeneration Movement and the International Meditation Society. In modern times, the movement has grown to encompass schools and universities that teach the practice,20 and includes many associated programs based on the Maharishi's interpretation of the Vedic traditions. In the U.S., non-profit organizations included the Students International Meditation Society,21 AFSCI,22 World Plan Executive Council, Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation, Global Country of World Peace and Maharishi Foundation.23 The successor to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and leader of the Global Country of World Peace, is Tony Nader.2425
The meditation practice involves the use of a mantra and is practiced for 15–20 minutes twice per day while sitting with one's eyes closed.2627 It is reported to be one of the most widely practiced,2829 and among the most widely researched, meditation techniques,78930 with over 340 peer-reviewed studies published.3132 The technique is made available worldwide by certified TM teachers in a seven-step course,33 and fees vary from country to country.3435 Beginning in 1965, the Transcendental Meditation technique has been incorporated into selected schools, universities, corporations, and prison programs in the U.S.A., Latin America, Europe, and India. In 1977 a U.S. district court ruled that a curriculum in TM and the Science of Creative Intelligence (SCI) being taught in some New Jersey schools was religious in nature and in violation of the First Amendment.56 The technique has since been included in a number of educational and social programs around the world.36
The Transcendental Meditation technique has been described as both religious and non religious, as an aspect of a new religious movement, as rooted in Hinduism,3738 and as a non-religious practice for self-development.394041 The public presentation of the TM technique over its 50-year history has been praised for its high visibility in the mass media and effective global propagation, and criticized for using celebrity and scientific endorsements as a marketing tool. Advanced courses supplement the TM technique and include an advanced meditation called the TM-Sidhi program. In 1970, the Science of Creative Intelligence became the theoretical basis for the Transcendental Meditation technique, although skeptics questioned its scientific nature.42 Proponents have postulated that 1 percent of a population (such as a city or country) practicing the TM technique daily, may have an impact on the quality of life for that population group. This has been termed the Maharishi Effect.
The Transcendental Meditation movement refers to the programs and organizations connected with the Transcendental Meditation technique and founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Transcendental Meditation was first taught in the 1950s in India and has continued since the Maharishi's death in 2008. The organization was estimated to have 900,000 participants worldwide in 1977,43 a million by the 1980s,444546 and 5 million in more recent years,47484950515253 including many notable practitioners.
Programs include the Transcendental Meditation technique, an advanced meditation practice called the TM-Sidhi program ("Yogic Flying"), an alternative health care program called Maharishi Ayurveda,54 and a system of building and architecture called Maharishi Sthapatya Ved.5556 The TM movement's past and present media endeavors include a publishing company (MUM Press), a television station (KSCI), a radio station (KHOE), and a satellite television channel (Maharishi Channel). During its 50-year history, its products and services have been offered through a variety of organizations, which are primarily nonprofit and educational. These include the Spiritual Regeneration Movement, the International Mediation Society, World Plan Executive Council, Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation, the Global Country of World Peace, and the David Lynch Foundation.
The TM movement also operates a worldwide network of Transcendental Mediation teaching centers, schools, universities, health centers, and herbal supplement, solar panel, and home financing companies, plus several TM-centered communities. The global organization is reported to have an estimated net worth of USD 3.5 billion.5758 The TM movement has been characterized in a variety of ways and has been called a spiritual movement, a new religious movement,5960 a millenarian movement, a world affirming movement,61 a new social movement,62 a guru-centered movement,63 a religion, and a cult.606465need quotation to verify Additional sources contend that TM and its movement are not a cult.66676869 Some state that participation in TM programs does not require a belief system and is practiced by people from a diverse group of religious affiliations including atheists and agnostics.70717273 The organization has also been criticized as well as praised for its public presentation and marketing techniques throughout its 50-year history.
It is presently not possible to say whether meditation has any effect on health, as the research to date has been of poor quality,747576 including a high risk for bias due to the connection of researchers to the TM organization and the selection of subjects with a favorable opinion of TM.777879 Independent systematic reviews have not found health benefits for TM exceeding those of relaxation and health education.748081 A 2013 statement from the American Heart Association described the evidence supporting TM as a treatment for hypertension as Level IIB, meaning that TM "may be considered" but that its effectiveness is "unknown/unclear/uncertain or not well-established".82
There has been ongoing research into Transcendental Meditation since the first studies were conducted at UCLA and Harvard University and published in Science and the American Journal of Physiology in 1970 and 1971.83 By 2004 the US government had given more than $20 million to Maharishi University to study the effect of meditation on health.84
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- Russell, Peter (1977). The TM Technique: An Introduction to Transcendental Meditation and the Teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. London: Routledge. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-7100-8539-9.
- Needleman, Jacob (1970). "Transcendental Meditation". The New Religions ([1st ed.]. ed.). Garden City N.Y.: Doubleday. p. 144.
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- Oates, Robert M. (1976). Celebrating the Dawn: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the TM technique. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-399-11815-9.
- Irwin, T. K. (October 8, 1972). "What's New in Science: Transcendental Meditation: Medical Miracle or 'Another Kooky Fad'". Sarasota Herald Tribune Family Weekly. pp. 8–9.
- Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Cassell. pp. 293–296. ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6.
- "Behavior: The TM Craze: 40 Minutes to Bliss". Time. October 13, 1975. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved November 15, 2009.
- Press Release by Maharishi Foundation (July 15, 2013). "Australian Food Store Offers Transcendental Meditation to Employees". The Herald (South Carolina, USA). Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- Mizroch, Amir (July 23, 2006). "Forget the F-16s, Israel needs more Yogic Flyers to beat Hizbullah: 30-strong TM group, sole guests at Nof Ginnosar Hotel, say they need another 235 colleagues to make the country safe". Jerusalem Post. p. 4.
- "Maharishi's ashes immersed in Sangam". The Hindustan Times (New Delhi). Indo-Asian News Service. February 12, 2008.
- "The Transcendental Meditation Program". Tm.org. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Lansky, Ephraim; St Louis, Erik (November 2006). "Transcendental meditation: a double-edged sword in epilepsy?". Epilepsy & Behavior 9 (3): 394–400. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2006.04.019. PMID 16931164.
- Cotton, Dorothy H. G. (1990). Stress management: An integrated approach to therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. p. 138. ISBN 0-87630-557-5.
- Schneider, Robert; Fields, Jeremy (2006). Total Heart Health: How to Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease with the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications. pp. 148–149. ISBN 1458799247.
- Bushell, William (2009). "Longevity Potential Life Span and Health Span Enhancement through Practice of the Basic Yoga Meditation Regimen". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1172: 46. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04538.x. ISBN 9781573316774. "Transcendental Meditation (TM), a concentrative technique ... has been the most extensively studied meditation technique."
- Rosenthal, Norman (2011). Transcendence: Healing and Transformation through Transcendental Meditation. New York: Tarcher/Penguin. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-58542-873-1. "By my latest count, there have been 340 per-reviewed articles published on TM, many of which have appeared in highly respected journals."
- Freeman, Lyn (2008). Mosby's Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Research-Based Approach (3 ed.). St Louis: Mosby Elsevier. p. 163. ISBN ISBN 978-0-323-05346-4|ISBN 0-323-05346-7 | ISBN 978-0-323-05346-4 Check
- "How To Learn". Tm.org. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "TM Course Fee". TM.org. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- "Transcendental Meditation Fees and Course Details". Transcendental Meditation: Official website for the UK. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- Humes, C.A. (2005). "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Beyond the T.M. Technique". In Forsthoefel, Thomas A.; Humes, Cynthia Ann. Gurus in America. SUNY Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-7914-6573-X. "This lawsuit was the most significant setback for TM in the United States ... Since then TM has made a comeback of sorts with some governmental sponsorship"
- Bainbridge, William Sims (1997). The Sociology of Religious Movements. New York: Routledge. p. 188. ISBN 0-415-91202-4.
- Aghiorgoussis, Maximos (Spring 1999). "The challenge of metaphysical experiences outside Orthodoxy and the Orthodox response". Greek Orthodox Theological Review (Brookline) 44 (1–4): 21, 34.
- Chryssides, George D. (2001). Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 301–303. ISBN 0-8264-5959-5, 9780826459596 Check
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|dq=ignored (help)"Although one can identify the Maharishi's philosophical tradition, its teachings are in no way binding on TM practitioners. There is no public worship, no code of ethics, no scriptures to be studied, and no rites of passage that are observed, such as dietary laws, giving to the poor, or pilgrimages. In particular, there is no real TM community: practitioners do not characteristically meet together for public worship, but simply recite the mantra, as they have been taught it, not as religious obligation, but simply as a technique to benefit themselves, their surroundings and the wider world."
- Partridge, Christopher (200). New Religions: A Guide To New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 184. "It is understood in terms of the reduction of stress and the charging of one's mental and physical batteries."
- Rosenthal, Norman E. (2011). Transcendence: Healing and Transformation Through Transcendental Meditation. Tarcher Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58542-873-1.
- "Science of Creative Intelligence Reserve Collection". SCI collection. Maharishi University of Management. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- Stark, Rodney; Bainbridge, William, Sims (1986). The Future Of Religion. University of California Press,. p. 287. ISBN ISBN 0520057317 ISBN 978-0520057319 Check
|isbn=value (help). "Time magazine in 1975 estimated that the U.S. total had risen to 600,000 augmented by half that number elsewhere" =[900,000 world wide] "Annual Growth in TM Initiations in the U.S. [chart] Cumulative total at the End of Each Year: 1977, 919,300"
- Peterson, William (1982). Those Curious New Cults in the 80s. New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing. p. 123. ISBN 0879833173, 9780879833176 Check
|isbn=value (help). claims "more than a million" in the USA and Europe.
- Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); p 66, citing "close to a million" in the USA.
- Bainbridge, William Sims (1997) Routledge, The Sociology of Religious Movements, page 189 "the million people [Americans] who had been initiated"
- Analysis: Practice of requiring probationers to take lessons in transcendental meditation sparks religious controversy, NPR All Things Considered, February 1, 2002 | ROBERT SIEGEL “TM's five million adherents claim that it eliminates chronic health problems and reduces stress.”
- Martin Hodgson, The Guardian (5 February 2008) "He [Maharishi] transformed his interpretations of ancient scripture into a multimillion-dollar global empire with more than 5m followers worldwide”
- Stephanie van den Berg, Sydney Morning Herald, Beatles guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi dies, (February 7, 2008) “the TM movement, which has some five million followers worldwide”
- Meditation a magic bullet for high blood pressure – study, Sunday Tribune (South Africa), (January 27, 2008) “More than five million people have learned the technique worldwide, including 60,000 in South Africa."
- Maharishi Mahesh Yogi - Transcendental Meditation founder's grand plan for peace, The Columbian (Vancouver, WA), February 19, 2006 | ARTHUR MAX Associated Press writer "transcendental meditation, a movement that claims 6 million practitioners since it was introduced."
- Bickerton, Ian (February 8, 2003). "Bank makes an issue of mystic's mint". Financial Times (London (UK)). p. 09. the movement claims to have five million followers,
- Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Spiritual Leader Dies, New York Times, By LILY KOPPEL, Published: February 6, 2008 "Since the technique’s inception in 1955, the organization says, it has been used to train more than 40,000 teachers, taught more than five million people"
- Sharma & Clark 1998, Preface
- Welvaert, Brandy, Vedic homes seek better living through architecture", Rock Island Argus, (August 5, 2005)
- Spivack, Miranda (September 12, 2008). "Bricks Mortar and Serenity". Washington Post.
- "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi". The Times (London (UK)). February 7, 2008.
- "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
- For new religious movement see:
Beckford, James A. (1985). Cult controversies: the societal response to new religious movements. Tavistock Publications. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-422-79630-9.
Parsons, Gerald (1994). The Growth of Religious Diversity: Traditions. The Open University/Methuen. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-415-08326-3.
For neo-Hindu, see:
Alper, Harvey P. (December 1991). Understanding mantras. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 442. ISBN 978-81-208-0746-4.
Raj, Selva J.; William P. Harman (2007). Dealing With Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia. SUNY Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-7914-6708-4.
- Persinger, Michael A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Suess, Lynn A. (1980). TM and cult mania. North Quincy, Mass.: Christopher Pub. House. ISBN 0-8158-0392-3.
- Dawson, Lorne L. (2003) Blackwell Publishing, Cults and New Religious Movements, Chapter 3: Three Types of New Religious Movement by Roy Wallis (1984), page 44-48
- Christian Blatter, Donald McCown, Diane Reibel, Marc S. Micozzi, (2010) Springer Science+Business Media, Teaching Mindfulness, Page 47
- Olson, Carl (2007) Rutgers University Press, The Many Colors of Hinduism, page 345
- Bainbridge, Sims; Stark, Rodney; Bainbridge, William Sims (1985). The future of religion: secularization, revival, and cult formation. Berkeley, Calif: Univ. of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05731-7.
- Sagan, Carl (1997). The demon-haunted world: science as a candle in the dark. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 16. ISBN 0-345-40946-9.
- Harrison, Shirley (1990). Cults: The Battle for God. Kent: Christopher Helm. pp. 93–103 "none of the other 'cultic qualities' defined by cult watchers can be fairly attributed to TM."
- Rowson, Jonathan (April 23, 2007) Meditation: for old hippies or a better way of life? Sunday Herald (Scotland) " the TM movement is not a cult", accessed Feb 2, 2013
- Hannaford, Alex (December 27, 2010). "Mantra with a mission; Feature Om or ominous? The maverick film director David Lynch wants to bring Transcendental Meditation to our classrooms, and believes in 'yogic flying'. Can he get it off the ground?". The Sunday Times (London).
- Lyster, Samantha (October 21, 2000) Samantha Lyster finds herself in holistic heaven with new-found happiness and tranquillity after learning the art of transcendental meditation, The Birmingham Post (England), “TM is not a religion, a cult or a philosophy”
- Liebler, Nancy and Moss, Nancy (2009) Healing Depression the Mind-Body Way: Creating Happiness with Meditation ["the TM technique does not require adherence to any belief system—there is no dogma or philosophy attached to it, and it does not demand any lifestyle changes other than the practice of it."]  accessed May 25, 2013
- "Its proponents say it is not a religion or a philosophy."The Guardian March 28, 2009 
- "It's used in prisons, large corporations and schools, and it is not considered a religion.”  Concord Monitor
- Chryssides George D. Defining the New Spirituality http://www.cesnur.org/conferences/riga2000/chryssides.htm One possible suggestion is that religion demands exclusive allegiance: this would ipso facto exclude Scientology, TM and the Soka Gakkai simply on the grounds that they claim compatibility with whatever other religion the practitioner has been following. For example, TM is simply – as they state – a technique. Although it enables one to cope with life, it offers no goal beyond human existence (such as moksha), nor does it offer rites or passage or an ethic. Unlike certain other Hindu-derived movements, TM does not prescribe a dharma to its followers – that is to say a set of spiritual obligations deriving from one’s essential nature.
- Krisanaprakornkit, T.; Krisanaprakornkit, W.; Piyavhatkul, N.; Laopaiboon, M. (2006). "Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders". In Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004998. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004998.pub2. PMID 16437509. "The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety"
- Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 1–263. PMID 17764203. "Scientific research on meditation practices does not appear to have a common theoretical perspective and is characterized by poor methodological quality. Firm conclusions on the effects of meditation practices in healthcare cannot be drawn based on the available evidence."
- Edzard Ernst, Chapter 51 in Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Peter Libby, et al, eds, Saunders Elsevier, 2011. ISBN 978-1437727081 Quotation: "A systematic review of six RCTs of transcendental meditation failed to generate convincing evidence that meditation is an effective treatment for hypertension.15 “ (references the same 2004 systematic review by Canter and Ernst on TM and hypertension that is separately referenced in this article)
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2004). "Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Journal of Hypertension 22 (11): 2049–54. doi:10.1097/00004872-200411000-00002. PMID 15480084. "All the randomized clinical trials of TM for the control of blood pressure published to date have important methodological weaknesses and are potentially biased by the affiliation of authors to the TM organization."
- Krisanaprakornkit T, Ngamjarus C, Witoonchart C, Piyavhatkul N (2010). "Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". In Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6 (6): CD006507. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2. PMID 20556767. "As a result of the limited number of included studies, the small sample sizes and the high risk of bias"
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2003). "The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function--a systematic review of randomised controlled trials". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 115 (21–22): 758–66. doi:10.1007/BF03040500. PMID 14743579. "All 4 positive trials recruited subjects from among people favourably predisposed towards TM, and used passive control procedures … The association observed between positive outcome, subject selection procedure and control procedure suggests that the large positive effects reported in 4 trials result from an expectation effect. The claim that TM has a specific and cumulative effect on cognitive function is not supported by the evidence from randomized controlled trials."
- Ospina, MB.; Bond, K.; Karkhaneh, M.; Tjosvold, L.; Vandermeer, B.; Liang, Y.; Bialy, L.; Hooton, N. et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 1–263 . PMID 17764203. "A few studies of overall poor methodological quality were available for each comparison in the meta-analyses, most of which reported nonsignificant results. TM had no advantage over health education to improve measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, heart rate, stress, anger, self-efficacy, cholesterol, dietary intake, and level of physical activity in hypertensive patients"
- Krisanaprakornkit, T.; Ngamjarus, C.; Witoonchart, C.; Piyavhatkul, N. (2010). "Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". In Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6 (6): CD006507. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2. PMID 20556767. "As a result of the limited number of included studies, the small sample sizes and the high risk of bias, we are unable to draw any conclusions regarding the effectiveness of meditation therapy for ADHD."
- Brook,, Robert D; Lawrence J. Appel, Melvyn Rubenfire, Gbenga Ogedegbe, John D. Bisognano, William J. Elliott, Flavio D. Fuchs, Joel W. Hughes, Daniel T. Lackland, Beth A. Staffileno, Raymond R. Townsend and Sanjay Rajagopalan (April 22 2013). "Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure : A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association". Hypertension. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f.
- Lyn Freeman, Mosby’s Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Research-Based Approach, Mosby Elsevier, 2009, p. 163
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