Trawniki concentration camp

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Original German map of the Trawniki camp as of June 21, 1942. Left side: slave labor camp for condemned prisoners. Centre-left: supply road with two gates, north and south. On the right side: training compound for the Hiwi shooters around the military training plaza (1) located to the north of former sugar refinery (hand-coloured in brown, with kitchen). German SS quarters (with infirmary and storeroom) hand-coloured in red (east). Comandant's house lower down.
From the German legend:
1 & 2. Unterkünfte der Ukrainer des Ausbildungslagers (Accommodations for Ukrainians at training compound)
3. Garage (Squad deployment vehicles)
4. Unterkünfte der Esten und Letten des Ausbildungslagers (Accommodations for Estonians and Latvians)
11. Ställe in Steingebäuden (Livestock for Hiwi food supply)

The Trawniki concentration camp, set up by Nazi Germany in the village of Trawniki about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Lublin during the occupation of Poland in World War II, had a dual function throughout its existence. It was organized into at least two distinct zones, on the grounds of the former Polish sugar refinery of the Central Industrial Region.1

The camp first opened after the outbreak of war with the USSR, intended to hold Russian POWs, with rail lines in all major directions in the General Government territory. Between 1941 and 1944, it was a SS training camp for collaborationists auxiliary police, mainly Ukrainian.2 And in 1942, it became the forced-labor camp for thousands of Jews within the KL Lublin system of subcamps as well.3 It provided slave labourers for the nearby industrial plants of SS Ostindustrie to work in appalling conditions with little food.1 The Jews were all massacred during the Operation Harvest Festival on November 3, 1943. The Trawniki camp was commanded initially by Hermann Hoefle, and later by Karl Streibel.145

Camp operation

The Nazi German camp in Trawniki was established in July 1941 to hold Soviet civilians and prisoners of war captured in the Soviet occupied eastern Poland after the implementation of Operation Barbarossa.1 From June 1942 to May 1944 it served also as a forced labor camp for Jews deported from the Warsaw Ghetto as well as selected transit ghettos across Europe (Germany, Austria, Slovakia), initially under Operation Reinhard, and from September 1943 as part of the Majdanek concentration camp system of subcamps such as the Poniatowa concentration camp and several others.3

Company of Hiwis in winter coats at the camp training plaza (some still wearing their Soviet Budionovkas), inspected by Karl Streibel (with potbelly, smiling) in front of the former sugar refinery in Trawniki

From September 1941 until July 1944,3 the expanded camp was also utilized for the training of auxiliary police recruited directly from other POW camps. They were known as "Hiwi" (German abbreviation for 'Hilfswilligen', lit. "those willing to help"), for service with Nazi Germany in the General Government. In 1941 Himmler instructed Globocnik to start recruiting non-­Polish auxiliaries in the border regions as soon as they were conquered by the Wehrmacht. Globocnik had selected Karl Streibel from Operation Reinhard as the key person for that role. Streibel visited all new Soviet POW camps in the vicinity with the assistance of his officers and recruited Ukrainian, Latvian and Lithuanian "volunteers" as ordered.36

The German SS and police inducted, processed, and trained 2,500 auxiliary police guards (Wachmänner, also known as Trawniki men) at Trawniki training camp between September 1941 and September 1942; for the total of 5,082 men before the end of 1944,3 organized into two Sonderdienst battalions. The number may as well have been much greater, if it hadn't been for mass desertions among conscripts. Some 1,000 Hiwis are known to have run away during field operations. One Polish farm boy was lashed nearly to death in public, when he refused to serve after learning about the purpose of the training. He perished at Majdanek three months later.7:366 Although the majority of Trawniki men or Hiwi came from among the prisoners of war, there were also Volksdeutsche from Eastern Europe among them,89 valued because of their ability to speak Ukrainian, Russian, Polish and other languages of the occupied territories. All the officers at Trawniki were ethnic Germans, and most of the squad commanders were Volksdeutsche.10 The conscripted civilians and former Soviet POWs included Ukrainians, Russians, Belarusians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Tartars, Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis.11 The "Trawnikis" took part in Aktion Reinhard, the Nazi plan to exterminate Polish Jews. They also served at extermination camps and played an important role in the annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (see the Stroop Report).

"Trawniki" men during the pacification of Warsaw. Photo from Jürgen Stroop Report, May 1943

Key role of Trawniki men in the Final Solution

The "Trawniki men" (German: Trawnikimänner) were deployed at all major killing sites of the "Final Solution" – it was their primary purpose of training. They took an active role in the executions of Jews at Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka II, Warsaw (three times), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lvov, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek as well as Auschwitz, not to mention Trawniki itself.13

Between 70 and 120 Trawniki Hiwi men (wrote Kudryashov) were selected to act as the guard unit at each of the Reinhard death camps and came under the jurisdiction of the relevant camp commandant. Almost all of the Trawniki guards were involved in shooting and beating Jews at some point in their careers.11 The Russian historian Sergei Kudryashov, who made a study of the Trawniki guards, claimed that there was little sign of any attraction to National Socialism or anti-Semitism with the Trawniki men.11 Most of them volunteered in order to leave the POW camps and/or because of self-interest.11 This statement however, is contradicted by information provided by Holocaust historian Christopher R. Browning (Ordinary Men) who wrote that Hiwis "were screened on the basis of their anti-Communist (and hence almost invariably anti-Semitic) sentiments."12 Despite the generally apathetic views of the Trawniki guards, the vast majority faithfully carried out the SS's expectations of how to treat Jews, and that mistreatment of Jews was "systematic and without any particular cause".11 Many, though not all of the Trawniki men as part of their training executed Jews.11 Following the lead of the American historian Christopher Browning in his 1992 book Ordinary Men, Kudryashov argued that the Trawniki men were examples of how ordinary people could become willing killers.11

The Hiwi shooters were assigned to the worst of the "on-the-spot dirty work" by Karl Streibel (wrote Browning),12 so the Germans from the parallel Reserve Police Battalion 101 "would not go crazy" from the horror of hands-on killing for hours or days on end. Trawnikis used to arrive in squads numbering around 50 at the killing site, and start by sitting down to a sandwich and bottles of vodka from their knapsacks behaving like guests,12 while the Germans dealt with unruly crowds of thousands of ghetto inhabitants: as in Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations.12

Trawnikis shot so fast and so wildly that the German policemen "frequently had to take cover to avoid being hit."13 They were seen as indispensable. In Łomazy, the Germans were "overjoyed" to see them coming after the messy Józefów massacre. The killing in Międzyrzec was conducted by a Trawniki unit of about 350 to 400 men, the same as in Parczew.14 Some Nazi Ordnungspolizei felt uneasy about killing non-Jewish Poles. Their unit shot 4,600 Jews by September 1942, but only 78 Poles (a grossly disproportionate number). In contrast, the Hiwis who were indoctrinated in Russia, saw Poles as equal opportunity offenders. When they got too drunk to show up in Aleksandrów, Major Wilhelm Trapp ordered the release of prisoners rounded up for mass execution.15

Later careers of Trawniki personnel

The Trawniki training camp was dismantled in July 1944 because of the approaching frontline.3 The last 1,000 Hiwis forming the SS Battalion Streibel led by Karl Streibel himself,16 were transported west to continue their dirty deeds at the still functioning death camps.3 The Jews of the adjacent labor camp were long-dead and incinerated by a Sonderkommando from Milejów and executed on site upon the completion of their task by the end of 1943. The Soviets entered the completely empty facility on July 23, 1944.3 After the war, they captured and prosecuted hundreds, possibly as many as one thousand Hiwis who returned home to USSR.3 Most were sentenced to a Gulag, and released under the Khrushchev amnesty of 1955.17

The number of Hiwis tried in the West was very small by comparison. Six defendants were acquitted on all charges and set free by a West German court in Hamburg in 1976 including commandant Streibel.1618 The main difference between them and the Trawnikis apprehended in Russia was that the former claimed lack of awareness and left no live witnesses who could testify against them,19 while the latter were charged with treason and therefore were doomed from the start. In the U.S. some 16 former Hiwi guards were denaturalized.3

In 1984 Feodor Fedorenko was extradited to the USSR where he was sentenced to death and executed in short order. Another former Hiwi, Vladas Zajančkauskas deployed to help with the annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto, had his U.S. citizenship revoked in 2005 at the age of ninety-five.20 Trawniki guard, Jaroslaw Bilaniuk, a friend of Palij, was placed into denaturalization proceedings, but it is not clear if those proceedings had concluded or if he was still a U.S. citizen at the time of his death in 2007. In March 2009 Josias Kumpf a Yugoslav who served as a guard in Trawniki, was deported from the U.S. to Austria. In May 2009 John Demjanjuk was deported from the U.S. to Germany. Demjanuk was convicted of being a guard at Sobibor and sentenced in May 2011. Demjanjuk was released pending an appeal. He died in March 2012 before his appeal could be heard.212223 In July 2010 a former Soviet POW, Samuel Kunz, was charged with being a Belzec guard who had been trained at Trawniki.24 Kunz died in November 2010 before his trial.25 Jakiw Palij, another Hiwi guard, was stripped of his United States citizenship for having "made material misrepresentations in his application for a visa to immigrate to the United States".2627

Known names of Trawnikis serving at death camps

The notoriety of crimes committed by selected "Trawniki men" at extermination camps in Belzec Be, Sobibor So, and Treblinka Tr during Operation Reinhard, have led to many specific names being publicized in postwar literature and by Holocaust museums, based on Jewish and Polish survivor-testimonies and archives. The long list of names of camp guards mentioned mostly in English and Polish translation (or transliteration from Cyrillic), include the following in alphabetical order.2829

Peter Aleksejev Be Bullet blue.png Andreyev Tr construction of gas chambers in autumn 1942, supervised Jankiel Wiernik Bullet blue.png Wasil Antonov So Bullet blue.png Ilya Badin So Bullet blue.png Iwan Bartels Be, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Sabit Barandtimov So Bullet blue.png Aglam Batarinov So Bullet blue.png Michali Belyi So Bullet blue.png Ivan Bender Be Bullet blue.png Wasil Bialakow Be Bullet blue.png Jan Bialowas So Bullet blue.png Ivan Bilik So Bullet blue.png Bodessa So, took part in the final executions of about 30 Jewish workers on 23 November 1943 in Camp III Bullet blue.png Dimitri Bogunow So Bullet blue.png Mikolaj Bondarenko Tr Bullet blue.png Peter Bondave (Bondare)29 Tr Bullet blue.png Dimitriy Borodin Tr Bullet blue.png Felix Brandecki So Bullet blue.png Wasyl Bulji Be Bullet blue.png Achmed Chaibulin So Bullet blue.png Volodymr Cherniavshy Tr Bullet blue.png Chariton Chromenko So Bullet blue.png Heinrich Dalke Be So, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Ignat Danylchenko So, served with Demjanjuk from March 1943, later at Flossenbürg Bullet blue.png Ivan Demjanjuk, testimony of Ignat Danylchenko, emigrated to the United States with his wife Vera, extradited to Israel in 1986, found guilty, appeal commenced in 1990 Bullet blue.png Vasilii Deptyarev So Bullet blue.png Konstantin Dimida So Bullet blue.png Piotr Dmitrenko Tr Bullet blue.png Jakub Domeratzki So Bullet blue.png Wladimieraz Duda So Bullet blue.png Michail Dudko So Bullet blue.png Fiodor Duszenko Tr Bullet blue.png Karl Dzirkal So, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Jakow Engelhard So, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Fedor Federenko (Fedorenko)29 Tr, Soviet POW recruited from Stalag 319 at Chełm, guard at Jewish ghetto in Lublin, sent to Warsaw and to Treblinka in September 1942, settled in the U.S., extradited to Russia in December 1984, trial and execution pronounced in July 1986 Bullet blue.png Ivan Federenko So Bullet blue.png Miron Flunt So Bullet blue.png Gennardi Frolov So Bullet blue.png Anatoli Goncharenko So Bullet blue.png Nikolai Goncharenko So Bullet blue.png Efim Goncharov So Bullet blue.png Pyoter Goncharov Tr Bullet blue.png Mikolaj Gonzural Tr Bullet blue.png Nikolai Gordienko So Bullet blue.png Fedor Gorlov So Bullet blue.png Pavel Stepanovich Grigorchuk Tr Bullet blue.png Wasyl Gruzin Be Bullet blue.png Wasil Hetmaniec So Bullet blue.png Jan Hotowrowiecz So Bullet blue.png Michal Huber Be, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Vasyl Huleyt Be Bullet blue.png Wasyl Hutyt Be Bullet blue.png Iwan Huzij Be, photographed in Belzec village Bullet blue.png Ivan Indyukov So Bullet blue.png Alexsai Isaenko So Bullet blue.png Ivan Ivchenko So Bullet blue.png Piotr Iwashenko So Bullet blue.png Stefan Jadziol Be, photographed with Boris Kotychin and in the Trawniki bar Bullet blue.png Diner Jakovevits Be Bullet blue.png Ivan Jaryniuk So Bullet blue.png Iosof Jechal So Bullet blue.png Wasili Jefimov So Bullet blue.png Sasha Jeger29 Tr Bullet blue.png Wasil Jelentschuk Tr Bullet blue.png Ivan Jermoldayev So Bullet blue.png Adolf Jeschke Be, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Nikolai Judin So Bullet blue.png Nurgail Kabroiv So Bullet blue.png Alexander Kaiser So, Volksdeutscher, photographed in Italy with Gomerski and Hodl Bullet blue.png Ivan Kakorach So Bullet blue.png Pavel Karas So Bullet blue.png Fetich Karimov So Bullet blue.png Alexander Karpenko So Bullet blue.png Viktor Kisilew So Bullet blue.png Ivan Klatt So, Volksdeutscher, Ukrainian guard leader killed in the revolt on 14 October 1943 Bullet blue.png Boris Kolisyn Be Bullet blue.png Kolashnikov29 Tr Bullet blue.png Adolf Kolenko Be Bullet blue.png Piotr Koschekuk So Bullet blue.png Jakow Koschemykin So Bullet blue.png Volodia Koshewadzki So, deserted with stash of money taken from Jews Bullet blue.png Kostenko Tr, remembered by Wiernik as the older one Bullet blue.png Emil Kostenko So Bullet blue.png Kyril Kostenko Be Bullet blue.png Boris Kotychin Be, photographed with Stefan Jadziol Bullet blue.png Piotr Kozaczuk So Bullet blue.png Mikolay Kozende Be Bullet blue.png Ivan Kozlowski Be Bullet blue.png Filip Krawchenko So Bullet blue.png Nikolaii Krupinewich So Bullet blue.png Iwan Kuczercha Be Bullet blue.png Pavel Kudin So Bullet blue.png Nikolai Kulak Tr Bullet blue.png Wasyl Kulychin Be Bullet blue.png Samuel Kunz Be, Volksdeutscher, photographed at the camp entrance in Belzec holding a mandolin Bullet blue.png Leonard Kurckov So Bullet blue.png Ivan Kurinnoy Tr Bullet blue.png Michali Kusevanov So Bullet blue.png Ananiy Grigoryevich Kuzminski Tr Bullet blue.png Nikolay Lebedenko Tr Bullet blue.png Pavel Vladimirovich Leleko Tr Bullet blue.png Filip Levchishin Tr Bullet blue.png Peto Litus Be Bullet blue.png Friedrich Lorenz So, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Gregoril Lyachov So Bullet blue.png Nikolay Makoda Tr Bullet blue.png Nikolay Petrovich Malagon Tr, b. 1919 in the Red Army since 1941, POW camps in Zhitomir, Rovno and Chełm in Poland, in 1942 sent to Zamosc, returned to Trawniki, posted to Warsaw and to Treblinka, in February 1943 transferred to Belzec, in March/April 1943 transferred to Auschwitz, also at Buchenwald Bullet blue.png Ivan Ivanovych Marchenko Tr b. 1911, in the Red Army since 1941, POW camp in Chełm before Trawniki, guard at Jewish ghetto in Lublin and in Treblinka along with Nikolay Shalayev herding Jews to gas chambers, the “motorists” cranking up the gas engine when asked to “turn on the water”, called by Jews “Ivan the Terrible” (Ivan Grozny), exhibited special savagery during the killing process, photographed with Ivan Tkachuk in Treblinka, in 1943 transferred to Trieste, in 1944 fled to Yugoslavia, fate unknown, never tried Bullet blue.png Pawel Markarenko So Bullet blue.png Moisei Martoszenko Tr Bullet blue.png Nikolai Martynov So Bullet blue.png Terentij Martynov So Bullet blue.png Andrei Mashenko So Bullet blue.png Nikolay Matwijenko Be Bullet blue.png Nikolai Medvedev So Bullet blue.png Theodozy Melnik Tr Bullet blue.png Pavel Mordwinichev So Bullet blue.png Bari Nabiyew So Bullet blue.png Andrej Nagornyi So Bullet blue.png Mikolaj Nidosrelow Tr Bullet blue.png Ivan Nikoforov Be So Bullet blue.png Wasily Nijko So Bullet blue.png Anatoli Olexenko So Bullet blue.png Daniel Onoprijenko Tr Bullet blue.png Vasilij Orlovski Be Bullet blue.png Peter Oster Be, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Mikolaj Osyczanski Tr Bullet blue.png Franz Pamin Be, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Ivan Panashuk So Bullet blue.png Anatoli Pankov So Bullet blue.png Aleksander Paraschenko Tr Bullet blue.png Yevdokim Parfinyuk Tr Bullet blue.png Nikolai Pavli Be Bullet blue.png Nikolay Payevshchik Tr Bullet blue.png Gygori Peczenyt Be Bullet blue.png Dimitrii Pickerov So Bullet blue.png Alexey Pietka Be Bullet blue.png Pinneman Tr, Volksdeutscher photographed with August Hengst Bullet blue.png Genrikh Pitnowij Be, photographed in the Trawniki bar Bullet blue.png Michal Pocholenko Be Bullet blue.png Wasyl Podienko Be Bullet blue.png Wasyl Podionak Be Bullet blue.png Leon Polakow Tr Bullet blue.png Michal Polenko Be Bullet blue.png Gregor Preczony Be Bullet blue.png Samuil Martinovich Prits ( Prishch) Tr Bullet blue.png Wasyl Prochenko Be Bullet blue.png Dimitri Prochin Be Bullet blue.png Alexander Prus Be, a Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Michali Reschetnikov So Bullet blue.png Igor Rezverchy So Bullet blue.png Alexander Rittich Tr Bullet blue.png Robertus Tr, an Oberwachman cut on the neck in Totenlager by Jew from work commando resulting in liquidation of the unit on orders of Kurt Franz Bullet blue.png Heinrich Rohle Be, a Volksdeutsher Bullet blue.png Boris Rogoza Be Tr, head of Ukrainian guards particularly brutal as remembered by Willenberg and Glazar Bullet blue.png Rosenholz Be, Volksdeutscher photographed with other guards at the main gate at Belzec Bullet blue.png Arnold Rosenko Be Bullet blue.png Grigorij Rubez Tr Bullet blue.png Piotr Rudenko So Bullet blue.png Wasyl Rudenko Tr Bullet blue.png Fyodor Ryabeka Tr called Rebeka in Malgon’s statement, guarded Lazaret, boasted that the barrel of his gun gets red-hot from killing Jews "unfit" to enter gas chambers Bullet blue.png Prokofiy Ryabtsev Tr Bullet blue.png Vasilii Ryschkov So Bullet blue.png Viktor Sabat Be Bullet blue.png Chares Sabirov So Bullet blue.png Samuel Be, Volksdeutscher photographed at the main gate at Belzec with other Volksdeutscher guards Bullet blue.png Petro Sbesnikov So Bullet blue.png Mikolay Scheffer [T], Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Dimitrii Schevchenko So Bullet blue.png Pavel Shicavin So Bullet blue.png Wasil Schischajew [T] Bullet blue.png Kamil Schirpev So Bullet blue.png Iwan Schmidkin (Schwidkin)29 Tr Bullet blue.png Heinz Schmidt Be, Volksdeutscher from Latvia in charge of Sonderkommando, personally shot its 30–40 members daily, later in Italy, committed suicide Bullet blue.png Klaus Schreiber So, Volksdeutscher, killed in the revolt on 14 October 1943 Bullet blue.png Aleksander Schultz Tr, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Emanuel Genrikhov Schultz Tr So, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Ernst Schumacher So, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Mikolaii Seleznev So Bullet blue.png Nikolay Senik Tr Bullet blue.png Mikolay Senykow Tr Bullet blue.png Gregorij Sergienko So Bullet blue.png Dimitriy Serik So Bullet blue.png Nikolay Shalayev b. 1921 Tr, from September 1942 on with Marchenko cranking up engine feeding fumes to gas chambers Bullet blue.png Ivan Shevchenko Tr Bullet blue.png Ivan Shukow So Bullet blue.png Ivan Danilovich Shvidkoy Tr Bullet blue.png Maxim Sirenko So Bullet blue.png Vladimir Sirotenko So Bullet blue.png Nikolay Skakodub Tr Bullet blue.png Grigoriy Skydan Tr Bullet blue.png Semion Sokorev So Bullet blue.png Kuzma Sokur So Bullet blue.png Jakub Systola Be Bullet blue.png Wasyl Szacholij Be Bullet blue.png Oswald Strebel Tr, Volksdeutscher, settled in its farmhouse after the camp was dismantled Bullet blue.png Dimitri Szpak Be Bullet blue.png Profiry Szpak Be Bullet blue.png Heinrich Szpliny So Bullet blue.png Alexander Szwab Be Bullet blue.png Ivan Terekhov Tr Bullet blue.png Fiodor Tichonowski So Bullet blue.png Iwan Tichonowski Be Bullet blue.png Ivan Tischenko So Bullet blue.png Ivan Tkachuk Tr, photographed with Ivan Marchenko Bullet blue.png Wilhelm Trautwein Be, Volksdeutscher photographed at main entrance to Belzec with other Volksdeutscher guards Bullet blue.png Wasyl Tribenko Be Bullet blue.png Wladimir Tscherniewskij Tr Bullet blue.png Alexander Twerdochlib Be Bullet blue.png Jakub Urnan (Unrau)29 So Bullet blue.png Ivan Ustinnokov So Bullet blue.png Ivan Vakutenko So Bullet blue.png Sergey Vasilenko Tr Bullet blue.png Kuzma Vaskin So Bullet blue.png Aleksander Voleshenko Tr Bullet blue.png Efim Volynieytz So Bullet blue.png Yakob Wasem So Bullet blue.png Iwan Wasilenko Tr Bullet blue.png Fiodor Wedenko So Bullet blue.png Fiodor Wedryhan Be Bullet blue.png Petro Wedryhan Be Bullet blue.png Ivan Werdenik Be Bullet blue.png Edward Wlasiuk Be, gassing mechanic, first assistant of Hackenholt in the chambers photographed a number of times Bullet blue.png Wasyl Woloszyn Be Tr Bullet blue.png Michal Wonk Be Bullet blue.png Vasily Woronkow Tr, remembered by Wiernik as brutal, maimed and killed Jews building gas chambers in autumn 1942 Bullet blue.png Jakub Wysota Be Bullet blue.png Aleksander Yasko So Bullet blue.png Alexander Ivanovich Yeger Tr, b. 25 June 1918, Zugwachmann, Volksdeutscher Bullet blue.png Vasily Yelenchuk Tr Bullet blue.png Konstantin Zabertnev So Bullet blue.png Iwan Zajczew So Be Bullet blue.png Trofim Zavidenko Tr Bullet blue.png Emil Zischer  So Bullet blue.png Ivan Zuk Be.

— Trawniki Staff Page. Aktion Reinhard by Holocaust Research Project.28


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  13. ^ Browning 1992; 1998, p. 95.
  14. ^ Browning 1992; 1998, p. 93.
  15. ^ Browning 1992; 1998, p. 77.
  16. ^ a b Ralph Hartmann (2010). "Der Alibiprozeß". Den Aufsatz kommentieren. Ossietzky 9/2010. Retrieved 2013-06-01. 
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  20. ^ Circuit Judge (July 13, 2010). "Vladas Zajanckauskas". Petitioner. United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  21. ^ "Nazi camp guard Demjanjuk dies". BBC News. March 17, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
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  23. ^ Semotiuk, Andrij A. Article in Kyiv Post dated Mar 21, 2012. "In Memory of John Demjanjuk." Downloaded on Apr 24, 2012.
  24. ^ BBC July 29, 2010
  25. ^ BBC November 22, 2010
  26. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (November 1, 2003). "Accused Nazi Guard Speaks Out, Denying He Had Role in Atrocities". New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2010. 
  27. ^ Report on Palij (in Ukrainian) "Яків Палій." Україна Молода, June 17, 2004. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
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  • Browning, Christopher R. (1992; 1998), "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete), Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (Penguin Books): 1–298, retrieved May 1, 2013, "also: PDF cache archived by WebCite." 
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  • Steinhart, Eric C., "The Chameleon of Trawniki: Jack Reimer, Soviet Volksdeutsche, and the Holocaust," Holocaust & Genocide Studies, 23,2 (2009), pp. 239-262.

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Coordinates: 51°08′21″N 22°59′35″E / 51.139267°N 22.993140°E / 51.139267; 22.993140

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