Trawniki concentration camp
The Trawniki concentration camp, set up by Nazi Germany in the village of Trawniki about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Lublin during the occupation of Poland in World War II, had a dual function throughout its existence. It was organized into at least two distinct zones, on the grounds of the former Polish sugar refinery of the Central Industrial Region.1
The camp first opened after the outbreak of war with the USSR, intended to hold Russian POWs, with rail lines in all major directions in the General Government territory. Between 1941 and 1944, it was a SS training camp for collaborationists auxiliary police, mainly Ukrainian.2 And in 1942, it became the forced-labor camp for thousands of Jews within the KL Lublin system of subcamps as well.3 It provided slave labourers for the nearby industrial plants of SS Ostindustrie to work in appalling conditions with little food.1 The Jews were all massacred during the Operation Harvest Festival on November 3, 1943. The Trawniki camp was commanded initially by Hermann Hoefle, and later by Karl Streibel.145
The Nazi German camp in Trawniki was established in July 1941 to hold Soviet civilians and prisoners of war captured in the Soviet occupied eastern Poland after the implementation of Operation Barbarossa.1 From June 1942 to May 1944 it served also as a forced labor camp for Jews deported from the Warsaw Ghetto as well as selected transit ghettos across Europe (Germany, Austria, Slovakia), initially under Operation Reinhard, and from September 1943 as part of the Majdanek concentration camp system of subcamps such as the Poniatowa concentration camp and several others.3
From September 1941 until July 1944,3 the expanded camp was also utilized for the training of auxiliary police recruited directly from other POW camps. They were known as "Hiwi" (German abbreviation for 'Hilfswilligen', lit. "those willing to help"), for service with Nazi Germany in the General Government. In 1941 Himmler instructed Globocnik to start recruiting non-Polish auxiliaries in the border regions as soon as they were conquered by the Wehrmacht. Globocnik had selected Karl Streibel from Operation Reinhard as the key person for that role. Streibel visited all new Soviet POW camps in the vicinity with the assistance of his officers and recruited Ukrainian, Latvian and Lithuanian "volunteers" as ordered.36
The German SS and police inducted, processed, and trained 2,500 auxiliary police guards (Wachmänner, also known as Trawniki men) at Trawniki training camp between September 1941 and September 1942; for the total of 5,082 men before the end of 1944,3 organized into two Sonderdienst battalions. The number may as well have been much greater, if it hadn't been for mass desertions among conscripts. Some 1,000 Hiwis are known to have run away during field operations. One Polish farm boy was lashed nearly to death in public, when he refused to serve after learning about the purpose of the training. He perished at Majdanek three months later.7:366 Although the majority of Trawniki men or Hiwi came from among the prisoners of war, there were also Volksdeutsche from Eastern Europe among them,89 valued because of their ability to speak Ukrainian, Russian, Polish and other languages of the occupied territories. All the officers at Trawniki were ethnic Germans, and most of the squad commanders were Volksdeutsche.10 The conscripted civilians and former Soviet POWs included Ukrainians, Russians, Belarusians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Tartars, Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis.11 The "Trawnikis" took part in Aktion Reinhard, the Nazi plan to exterminate Polish Jews. They also served at extermination camps and played an important role in the annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (see the Stroop Report).
The "Trawniki men" (German: Trawnikimänner) were deployed at all major killing sites of the "Final Solution" – it was their primary purpose of training. They took an active role in the executions of Jews at Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka II, Warsaw (three times), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lvov, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek as well as Auschwitz, not to mention Trawniki itself.13
Between 70 and 120 Trawniki Hiwi men (wrote Kudryashov) were selected to act as the guard unit at each of the Reinhard death camps and came under the jurisdiction of the relevant camp commandant. Almost all of the Trawniki guards were involved in shooting and beating Jews at some point in their careers.11 The Russian historian Sergei Kudryashov, who made a study of the Trawniki guards, claimed that there was little sign of any attraction to National Socialism or anti-Semitism with the Trawniki men.11 Most of them volunteered in order to leave the POW camps and/or because of self-interest.11 This statement however, is contradicted by information provided by Holocaust historian Christopher R. Browning (Ordinary Men) who wrote that Hiwis "were screened on the basis of their anti-Communist (and hence almost invariably anti-Semitic) sentiments."12 Despite the generally apathetic views of the Trawniki guards, the vast majority faithfully carried out the SS's expectations of how to treat Jews, and that mistreatment of Jews was "systematic and without any particular cause".11 Many, though not all of the Trawniki men as part of their training executed Jews.11 Following the lead of the American historian Christopher Browning in his 1992 book Ordinary Men, Kudryashov argued that the Trawniki men were examples of how ordinary people could become willing killers.11
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The Hiwi shooters were assigned to the worst of the "on-the-spot dirty work" by Karl Streibel (wrote Browning),12 so the Germans from the parallel Reserve Police Battalion 101 "would not go crazy" from the horror of hands-on killing for hours or days on end. Trawnikis used to arrive in squads numbering around 50 at the killing site, and start by sitting down to a sandwich and bottles of vodka from their knapsacks behaving like guests,12 while the Germans dealt with unruly crowds of thousands of ghetto inhabitants: as in Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations.12
Trawnikis shot so fast and so wildly that the German policemen "frequently had to take cover to avoid being hit."13 They were seen as indispensable. In Łomazy, the Germans were "overjoyed" to see them coming after the messy Józefów massacre. The killing in Międzyrzec was conducted by a Trawniki unit of about 350 to 400 men, the same as in Parczew.14 Some Nazi Ordnungspolizei felt uneasy about killing non-Jewish Poles. Their unit shot 4,600 Jews by September 1942, but only 78 Poles (a grossly disproportionate number). In contrast, the Hiwis who were indoctrinated in Russia, saw Poles as equal opportunity offenders. When they got too drunk to show up in Aleksandrów, Major Wilhelm Trapp ordered the release of prisoners rounded up for mass execution.15
The Trawniki training camp was dismantled in July 1944 because of the approaching frontline.3 The last 1,000 Hiwis forming the SS Battalion Streibel led by Karl Streibel himself,16 were transported west to continue their dirty deeds at the still functioning death camps.3 The Jews of the adjacent labor camp were long-dead and incinerated by a Sonderkommando from Milejów and executed on site upon the completion of their task by the end of 1943. The Soviets entered the completely empty facility on July 23, 1944.3 After the war, they captured and prosecuted hundreds, possibly as many as one thousand Hiwis who returned home to USSR.3 Most were sentenced to a Gulag, and released under the Khrushchev amnesty of 1955.17
The number of Hiwis tried in the West was very small by comparison. Six defendants were acquitted on all charges and set free by a West German court in Hamburg in 1976 including commandant Streibel.1618 The main difference between them and the Trawnikis apprehended in Russia was that the former claimed lack of awareness and left no live witnesses who could testify against them,19 while the latter were charged with treason and therefore were doomed from the start. In the U.S. some 16 former Hiwi guards were denaturalized.3
In 1984 Feodor Fedorenko was extradited to the USSR where he was sentenced to death and executed in short order. Another former Hiwi, Vladas Zajančkauskas deployed to help with the annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto, had his U.S. citizenship revoked in 2005 at the age of ninety-five.20 Trawniki guard, Jaroslaw Bilaniuk, a friend of Palij, was placed into denaturalization proceedings, but it is not clear if those proceedings had concluded or if he was still a U.S. citizen at the time of his death in 2007. In March 2009 Josias Kumpf a Yugoslav who served as a guard in Trawniki, was deported from the U.S. to Austria. In May 2009 John Demjanjuk was deported from the U.S. to Germany. Demjanuk was convicted of being a guard at Sobibor and sentenced in May 2011. Demjanjuk was released pending an appeal. He died in March 2012 before his appeal could be heard.212223 In July 2010 a former Soviet POW, Samuel Kunz, was charged with being a Belzec guard who had been trained at Trawniki.24 Kunz died in November 2010 before his trial.25 Jakiw Palij, another Hiwi guard, was stripped of his United States citizenship for having "made material misrepresentations in his application for a visa to immigrate to the United States".2627
The notoriety of crimes committed by selected "Trawniki men" at extermination camps in Belzec Be, Sobibor So, and Treblinka Tr during Operation Reinhard, have led to many specific names being publicized in postwar literature and by Holocaust museums, based on Jewish and Polish survivor-testimonies and archives. The long list of names of camp guards mentioned mostly in English and Polish translation (or transliteration from Cyrillic), include the following in alphabetical order.2829
Peter Aleksejev Be Andreyev Tr construction of gas chambers in autumn 1942, supervised Jankiel Wiernik Wasil Antonov So Ilya Badin So Iwan Bartels Be, Volksdeutscher Sabit Barandtimov So Aglam Batarinov So Michali Belyi So Ivan Bender Be Wasil Bialakow Be Jan Bialowas So Ivan Bilik So Bodessa So, took part in the final executions of about 30 Jewish workers on 23 November 1943 in Camp III Dimitri Bogunow So Mikolaj Bondarenko Tr Peter Bondave (Bondare)29 Tr Dimitriy Borodin Tr Felix Brandecki So Wasyl Bulji Be Achmed Chaibulin So Volodymr Cherniavshy Tr Chariton Chromenko So Heinrich Dalke Be So, Volksdeutscher Ignat Danylchenko So, served with Demjanjuk from March 1943, later at Flossenbürg Ivan Demjanjuk, testimony of Ignat Danylchenko, emigrated to the United States with his wife Vera, extradited to Israel in 1986, found guilty, appeal commenced in 1990 Vasilii Deptyarev So Konstantin Dimida So Piotr Dmitrenko Tr Jakub Domeratzki So Wladimieraz Duda So Michail Dudko So Fiodor Duszenko Tr Karl Dzirkal So, Volksdeutscher Jakow Engelhard So, Volksdeutscher Fedor Federenko (Fedorenko)29 Tr, Soviet POW recruited from Stalag 319 at Chełm, guard at Jewish ghetto in Lublin, sent to Warsaw and to Treblinka in September 1942, settled in the U.S., extradited to Russia in December 1984, trial and execution pronounced in July 1986 Ivan Federenko So Miron Flunt So Gennardi Frolov So Anatoli Goncharenko So Nikolai Goncharenko So Efim Goncharov So Pyoter Goncharov Tr Mikolaj Gonzural Tr Nikolai Gordienko So Fedor Gorlov So Pavel Stepanovich Grigorchuk Tr Wasyl Gruzin Be Wasil Hetmaniec So Jan Hotowrowiecz So Michal Huber Be, Volksdeutscher Vasyl Huleyt Be Wasyl Hutyt Be Iwan Huzij Be, photographed in Belzec village Ivan Indyukov So Alexsai Isaenko So Ivan Ivchenko So Piotr Iwashenko So Stefan Jadziol Be, photographed with Boris Kotychin and in the Trawniki bar Diner Jakovevits Be Ivan Jaryniuk So Iosof Jechal So Wasili Jefimov So Sasha Jeger29 Tr Wasil Jelentschuk Tr Ivan Jermoldayev So Adolf Jeschke Be, Volksdeutscher Nikolai Judin So Nurgail Kabroiv So Alexander Kaiser So, Volksdeutscher, photographed in Italy with Gomerski and Hodl Ivan Kakorach So Pavel Karas So Fetich Karimov So Alexander Karpenko So Viktor Kisilew So Ivan Klatt So, Volksdeutscher, Ukrainian guard leader killed in the revolt on 14 October 1943 Boris Kolisyn Be Kolashnikov29 Tr Adolf Kolenko Be Piotr Koschekuk So Jakow Koschemykin So Volodia Koshewadzki So, deserted with stash of money taken from Jews Kostenko Tr, remembered by Wiernik as the older one Emil Kostenko So Kyril Kostenko Be Boris Kotychin Be, photographed with Stefan Jadziol Piotr Kozaczuk So Mikolay Kozende Be Ivan Kozlowski Be Filip Krawchenko So Nikolaii Krupinewich So Iwan Kuczercha Be Pavel Kudin So Nikolai Kulak Tr Wasyl Kulychin Be Samuel Kunz Be, Volksdeutscher, photographed at the camp entrance in Belzec holding a mandolin Leonard Kurckov So Ivan Kurinnoy Tr Michali Kusevanov So Ananiy Grigoryevich Kuzminski Tr Nikolay Lebedenko Tr Pavel Vladimirovich Leleko Tr Filip Levchishin Tr Peto Litus Be Friedrich Lorenz So, Volksdeutscher Gregoril Lyachov So Nikolay Makoda Tr Nikolay Petrovich Malagon Tr, b. 1919 in the Red Army since 1941, POW camps in Zhitomir, Rovno and Chełm in Poland, in 1942 sent to Zamosc, returned to Trawniki, posted to Warsaw and to Treblinka, in February 1943 transferred to Belzec, in March/April 1943 transferred to Auschwitz, also at Buchenwald Ivan Ivanovych Marchenko Tr b. 1911, in the Red Army since 1941, POW camp in Chełm before Trawniki, guard at Jewish ghetto in Lublin and in Treblinka along with Nikolay Shalayev herding Jews to gas chambers, the “motorists” cranking up the gas engine when asked to “turn on the water”, called by Jews “Ivan the Terrible” (Ivan Grozny), exhibited special savagery during the killing process, photographed with Ivan Tkachuk in Treblinka, in 1943 transferred to Trieste, in 1944 fled to Yugoslavia, fate unknown, never tried Pawel Markarenko So Moisei Martoszenko Tr Nikolai Martynov So Terentij Martynov So Andrei Mashenko So Nikolay Matwijenko Be Nikolai Medvedev So Theodozy Melnik Tr Pavel Mordwinichev So Bari Nabiyew So Andrej Nagornyi So Mikolaj Nidosrelow Tr Ivan Nikoforov Be So Wasily Nijko So Anatoli Olexenko So Daniel Onoprijenko Tr Vasilij Orlovski Be Peter Oster Be, Volksdeutscher Mikolaj Osyczanski Tr Franz Pamin Be, Volksdeutscher Ivan Panashuk So Anatoli Pankov So Aleksander Paraschenko Tr Yevdokim Parfinyuk Tr Nikolai Pavli Be Nikolay Payevshchik Tr Gygori Peczenyt Be Dimitrii Pickerov So Alexey Pietka Be Pinneman Tr, Volksdeutscher photographed with August Hengst Genrikh Pitnowij Be, photographed in the Trawniki bar Michal Pocholenko Be Wasyl Podienko Be Wasyl Podionak Be Leon Polakow Tr Michal Polenko Be Gregor Preczony Be Samuil Martinovich Prits ( Prishch) Tr Wasyl Prochenko Be Dimitri Prochin Be Alexander Prus Be, a Volksdeutscher Michali Reschetnikov So Igor Rezverchy So Alexander Rittich Tr Robertus Tr, an Oberwachman cut on the neck in Totenlager by Jew from work commando resulting in liquidation of the unit on orders of Kurt Franz Heinrich Rohle Be, a Volksdeutsher Boris Rogoza Be Tr, head of Ukrainian guards particularly brutal as remembered by Willenberg and Glazar Rosenholz Be, Volksdeutscher photographed with other guards at the main gate at Belzec Arnold Rosenko Be Grigorij Rubez Tr Piotr Rudenko So Wasyl Rudenko Tr Fyodor Ryabeka Tr called Rebeka in Malgon’s statement, guarded Lazaret, boasted that the barrel of his gun gets red-hot from killing Jews "unfit" to enter gas chambers Prokofiy Ryabtsev Tr Vasilii Ryschkov So Viktor Sabat Be Chares Sabirov So Samuel Be, Volksdeutscher photographed at the main gate at Belzec with other Volksdeutscher guards Petro Sbesnikov So Mikolay Scheffer [T], Volksdeutscher Dimitrii Schevchenko So Pavel Shicavin So Wasil Schischajew [T] Kamil Schirpev So Iwan Schmidkin (Schwidkin)29 Tr Heinz Schmidt Be, Volksdeutscher from Latvia in charge of Sonderkommando, personally shot its 30–40 members daily, later in Italy, committed suicide Klaus Schreiber So, Volksdeutscher, killed in the revolt on 14 October 1943 Aleksander Schultz Tr, Volksdeutscher Emanuel Genrikhov Schultz Tr So, Volksdeutscher Ernst Schumacher So, Volksdeutscher Mikolaii Seleznev So Nikolay Senik Tr Mikolay Senykow Tr Gregorij Sergienko So Dimitriy Serik So Nikolay Shalayev b. 1921 Tr, from September 1942 on with Marchenko cranking up engine feeding fumes to gas chambers Ivan Shevchenko Tr Ivan Shukow So Ivan Danilovich Shvidkoy Tr Maxim Sirenko So Vladimir Sirotenko So Nikolay Skakodub Tr Grigoriy Skydan Tr Semion Sokorev So Kuzma Sokur So Jakub Systola Be Wasyl Szacholij Be Oswald Strebel Tr, Volksdeutscher, settled in its farmhouse after the camp was dismantled Dimitri Szpak Be Profiry Szpak Be Heinrich Szpliny So Alexander Szwab Be Ivan Terekhov Tr Fiodor Tichonowski So Iwan Tichonowski Be Ivan Tischenko So Ivan Tkachuk Tr, photographed with Ivan Marchenko Wilhelm Trautwein Be, Volksdeutscher photographed at main entrance to Belzec with other Volksdeutscher guards Wasyl Tribenko Be Wladimir Tscherniewskij Tr Alexander Twerdochlib Be Jakub Urnan (Unrau)29 So Ivan Ustinnokov So Ivan Vakutenko So Sergey Vasilenko Tr Kuzma Vaskin So Aleksander Voleshenko Tr Efim Volynieytz So Yakob Wasem So Iwan Wasilenko Tr Fiodor Wedenko So Fiodor Wedryhan Be Petro Wedryhan Be Ivan Werdenik Be Edward Wlasiuk Be, gassing mechanic, first assistant of Hackenholt in the chambers photographed a number of times Wasyl Woloszyn Be Tr Michal Wonk Be Vasily Woronkow Tr, remembered by Wiernik as brutal, maimed and killed Jews building gas chambers in autumn 1942 Jakub Wysota Be Aleksander Yasko So Alexander Ivanovich Yeger Tr, b. 25 June 1918, Zugwachmann, Volksdeutscher Vasily Yelenchuk Tr Konstantin Zabertnev So Iwan Zajczew So Be Trofim Zavidenko Tr Emil Zischer So Ivan Zuk Be.— Trawniki Staff Page. Aktion Reinhard by Holocaust Research Project.28
- Mgr Stanisław Jabłoński (1927–2002). "Hitlerowski obóz w Trawnikach". The camp history (in Polish). Trawniki official website. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Tadeusz Piotrowski (2006). "Ukrainian Collaboration". Poland's Holocaust. McFarland. p. 217. ISBN 0786429135. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Trawniki" (permission granted to be reused, in whole or in part, on Wikipedia; OTRS ticket no. 2007071910012533). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved July 21, 2011. "Text from USHMM has been released under the GFDL."
- Jack R. Fischel (Jul 17, 2010). "Trawniki labor camp". Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust. Scarecrow Press. pp. 264–265. ISBN 0810874857. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- Donald L. Niewyk, Francis R. Nicosia (2012). "Trawniki. A labor camp". The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0231528787. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Browning 1992; 1998, p. 52.
- David Bankir, ed (2006). "Police Auxiliaries for Operation Reinhard by Peter R. Black" (Google Books). Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust. Enigma Books. pp. 331–348. ISBN 192963160X. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- Gregory Procknow, Recruiting and Training Genocidal Soldiers, Francis & Bernard Publishing, 2011, ISBN 0986837407 (page 35).
- Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps by Yitzhak Arad, Indiana University Press, 1987, ISBN 0253342937 (page 21)
- Arad, Yitzak (1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps by Yitzhak Arad, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0253342937, p 22
- Sergei Kudryashov, “Ordinary Collaborators: The Case of the Travniki Guards” (in) Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy Essays in Honour of John Erickson edited by Mark and Ljubica Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004; pages 226-227 & 234-235.
- Browning, Christopher R. (1992; 1998). "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 52, 77, 79, 80. Retrieved May 1, 2013. "Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite."
- Browning 1992; 1998, p. 95.
- Browning 1992; 1998, p. 93.
- Browning 1992; 1998, p. 77.
- Ralph Hartmann (2010). "Der Alibiprozeß". Den Aufsatz kommentieren. Ossietzky 9/2010. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Trawniki" (ibidem). USHMM. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- USHMM (May 11, 2012). "Trawniki: Chronology". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Georg Bönisch, Jan Friedmann and Cordula Meyer (July 10, 2009). "A Very Ordinary Henchman". Germany > The Holocaust. Spiegel International. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- Circuit Judge (July 13, 2010). "Vladas Zajanckauskas". Petitioner. United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- "Nazi camp guard Demjanjuk dies". BBC News. March 17, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
- Aderet, Ofer. article in Haaretz (Mar 23, 2012), "Convicted Nazi criminal Demjanjuk deemed innocent in Germany over technicality."
- Semotiuk, Andrij A. Article in Kyiv Post dated Mar 21, 2012. "In Memory of John Demjanjuk." Downloaded on Apr 24, 2012.
- BBC July 29, 2010
- BBC November 22, 2010
- Kilgannon, Corey (November 1, 2003). "Accused Nazi Guard Speaks Out, Denying He Had Role in Atrocities". New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- Report on Palij (in Ukrainian) "Яків Палій." Україна Молода, June 17, 2004. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- S.J. (2007). "Trawniki Staff Page. Alphabetical Listing". Aktion Reinhard. H.E.A.R.T. Retrieved 8 August 2013. "Source: Yitzhak Arad, Thomas (Toivi) Blatt, Alexander Donat, Rudolf Reder, Tom Teicholz, Samuel Willenberg, Richard Glazar; museums and private collections."
- Edward Kopówka, Paweł Rytel-Andrianik (2011). "Treblinka. Załoga obozu" [Treblinka concentration camp staff] (PDF file, direct download 15.1 MB). Dam im imię na wieki 'Iz 56,5' (Will give them names for ever). Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe. Kuria Diecezjalna w Drohiczynie. p. 87. ISBN 978-83-7257-496-1. Retrieved 25 August 2013. "Archiwum Państwowe w Siedlcach (APS), Akta Gminy Prostyń (AGP), t. 104, "Budowa i odbudowa, 1946–1947"."
- Browning, Christopher R. (1992; 1998), "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete), Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (Penguin Books): 1–298, retrieved May 1, 2013, "also: PDF cache archived by WebCite."
- Kudryashov, Sergei, "Ordinary Collaborators: The Case of the Travniki Guards," in Mark and Ljubica Erickson (eds), Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy Essays in Honour of John Erickson (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004), 226-239.
- Steinhart, Eric C., "The Chameleon of Trawniki: Jack Reimer, Soviet Volksdeutsche, and the Holocaust," Holocaust & Genocide Studies, 23,2 (2009), pp. 239-262.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Trawniki
- In depth overview of the Trawniki Camp, Trawniki Staff, Photos. - All about Trawniki
- Belzec: Stepping Stone to Genocide, Sources of Manpower