Tropical and subtropical moist forests (TSMF) as shown within the
Holdridge Life Zones
classification scheme, and includes moist forests, wet forests, and rainforests.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome.
The biome includes several types of forests:
Lowland equatorial evergreen rain forests, commonly known as , are forests which receive high rainfall (more than 2000 mm, or 80 inches, annually) throughout the year. These forests occur in a belt around the equator, with the largest areas in the tropical rainforests Amazon basin of South America, the Congo basin of central Africa, Indonesia, and New Guinea.
Moist deciduous and , receive high overall rainfall with a warm summer semi-evergreen seasonal forests wet season and a cooler winter dry season. Some trees in these forests drop some or all of their leaves during the winter dry season. These forests are found in parts of South America, in Central America and around the Caribbean, in coastal West Africa, parts of the Indian subcontinent, and across much of Indochina.
Montane rain forests, are found in cooler-climate mountainous areas. Those with elevations high enough to regularly encounter low-level cloud cover are known as cloud forests.
Flooded forests, including freshwater swamp forests and peat swamp forests.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests are common in several terrestrial
ecozones, including parts of the (equatorial Afrotropic Africa), (parts of the Indomalaya Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), the (northern Neotropic South America and Central America), (eastern Australasia Indonesia, New Guinea, northern and eastern Australia), and (the tropical islands of the Oceania Pacific Ocean). About half of the world's tropical rainforests are in the South American countries of Brazil and Peru. Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests.
In contrast to TSMF, tropical forest regions with lower levels of rainfall are home to
tropical dry broadleaf forests and tropical coniferous forests. Temperate rain forests also occur in certain humid temperate coastal regions.
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