|• Mayor||Kenichi Ichihara|
|• Total||284.07 km2 (109.68 sq mi)|
|Population (October 1, 2012)|
|• Density||765.00/km2 (1,981.3/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)|
|- Tree||Japanese zelkova|
|- Flower||Hoshizaki-yukinoshita (Saxifraga stolonifera Curtis f. aptera (Makino) H.Hara)|
|- Bird||Ural owl|
|Address||2530-2 Karima, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki
Tsukuba (つくば市 Tsukuba-shi ) is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. It is known as the location of the Tsukuba Science City (筑波研究学園都市 Tsukuba Kenkyū Gakuen Toshi ), a planned city developed in the 1960s.
Mount Tsukuba, particularly well known for its toad-shaped Shinto shrine, is located near the city. Tsukuba is a twin city of Irvine, California, Milpitas, California, and Cambridge, Massachusetts12 in the United States of America.
The Fudoki of Hitachi Province (常陸国風土記 Hitachi no kuni Fudoki ), a national geography completed in 721, says Tsukuba was named after a noble called Tsukuha no Mikoto (筑箪命).3 According to the book, Tsukuba was once called Ki Province (紀国 Ki no kuni ). Under the reign of Mimaki no Sumeramikoto (美麻貴天皇) (Emperor Sujin), Tsukuha no Mikoto from the Uneme clan (采女氏 uneme uji ) was appointed as its governor. He had a strong desire to leave his name in history, so he renamed the province to Tsukuha, which is now pronounced Tsukuba.3 This description may be unhistorical, since Emperor Sujin is now considered to be a legendary person, but at least it suggests the name Tsukuba has been used from ancient times.
Tsukuba Science City represents one of the world's largest coordinated attempts to accelerate the rate of and improve the quality of scientific discovery. The city was closely modeled on other planned cities and science developments, including Brasilia, Novosibirsk's Akademgorodok, Bethesda, and Palo Alto. The city was founded by the merger of Ōho, Sakura, Toyosato, and Yatabe.
Beginning in the 1960s, the area was designated for development. Construction of the city centre, the University of Tsukuba and 46 public basic scientific research laboratories began in the 1970s. The city became operational in the 1980s to stimulate scientific discovery. Its constituent municipalities were administratively united in 1987. By the year 2000, the city's 60 national research institutes and two universities had been grouped into five zones: higher education and training, construction research, physical science and engineering research, biological and agricultural research, and common (public) facilities. These zones were surrounded by more than 240 private research facilities. Among the most prominent institutions are the University of Tsukuba (1973; formerly Tokyo University of Education); the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK); the Electrotechnical Laboratory; the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory; and the National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research. The city has an international flair, with about 3,000 foreign students and researchers from as many as 90 countries living in Tsukuba at any one time.
Over the past several decades, nearly half of Japan's public research and development budget has been spent in Tsukuba. Important scientific breakthroughs by its researchers include the identification and specification of the molecular structure of superconducting materials, the development of organic optical films that alter their electrical conductivity in response to changing light, and the creation of extreme high-pressure vacuum chambers. Tsukuba has become one of the world's key sites for government-industry collaborations in basic research. Earthquake safety, environmental degradation, studies of roadways, fermentation science, microbiology, and plant genetics are some of the broad research topics having close public-private partnerships.
Tsukuba hosted the Expo '85 world's fair in 1985, which is commemorated by a full-scale, working rocket in the city park. Attractions at the event included the 85-metre (279 ft) Technocosmos, which at that time was the world's tallest Ferris wheel.4
During the Fukushima I nuclear accidents in 2011, evacuees from the accident zone reported that municipal officials in Tsukuba refused to allow them access to shelters in the city unless they presented certificates from the Fukushima government declaring that the evacuees were "radiation free".5
On May 6, 2012, Tsukuba was struck by a tornado which caused heavy damage to numerous structures and approximately twenty thousand residents were left without electricity. The storm injured forty-five people and a fourteen year-old boy was killed. The tornado was rated an F-3 by the Japan Meteorological Agency, making it the most powerful tornado to ever hit Japan. Some spots had F-4 damage.6
On August 24, 2005, a rail service called the Tsukuba Express, or simply "TX", opened. Operated by the Metropolitan Intercity Railway Company, it provides Tsukuba with a rapid connection to Akihabara Station in Tokyo. It takes 45 minutes to travel between Tsukuba Station and Akihabara Station.
The bus station, in the same area as the TX, offers intracity transport as well as travel to stations in nearby towns and to major stations throughout Kantō.
The closest major airport is Narita International Airport, connected to Tsukuba with a regular bus service (the travel time is approximately 1 hour 40 minutes). Haneda Airport is accessible from the city via a bus that carries people daily from the airport to the city's center. A new domestic airport has been built in nearby Omitama, Ibaraki which connects with Sapporo, Hokkaido, Naha, Okinawa, Osaka, and Fukuoka.
- Geographical Survey Institute
- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
- National Food and Research Institute (NFRI)
- National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
- National Institute for Environmental Studies
- National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)
- RIKEN Bioresource center Tsukuba Institue (RIKEN BRC)
- National Institute for Rural Engineering
- Tsukuba Botanical Garden
- University of Tsukuba
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2013)|
- Leo Esaki, Nobel Prize winner 7
- Hayato, kickboxer
- Susumu Hirasawa, progressive-electronic musician has a studio in Tsukuba8
- Mitsuhiro Ishida, mixed martial artist
- Yasuaki Kurata, actor
- Hideki Shirakawa, Nobel Prize winner 9
- Haruka Sunada, volleyball player
- Minanogawa Tōzō, sumo wrestler
- Hiroki Yamada, baseball player
Tsukuba is twinned with:
- "A Message from the Peace Commission: Information on Cambridge's Sister Cities," February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Richard Thompson. "Looking to strengthen family ties with 'sister cities'," Boston Globe, October 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Takeda, Yukichi, ed. (1937), Fudoki (in Japanese), Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten (岩波書店), p. 49, ISBN 4-00-300031-5
- James W. Dearing (1995). Growing a Japanese Science City: Communication in Scientific Research. London: Routledge.
- Jiji Press, "Tsukuba asked evacuees for radiation papers", Japan Times, 20 April 2011, p. 2.
- "Tornado in Tsukuba rated as strongest ever : National : DAILY YOMIURI ONLINE (The Daily Yomiuri)". Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- "University of Tsukuba Prospectus Leo Esaki". Retrieved 2013-02-28.
- "「補償金もDRMも必要ない」――音楽家 平沢進氏の提言 (1/4)" (in Japanese). ITmedia. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "University of Tsukuba Prospectus Hideki Shirakawa". Retrieved 2013-02-28.
- 友好城市 (Friendly cities), 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 2008-03-22. (Translation by Google Translate.)
- 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List), 2011-01-20. (Translation by Google Translate.)
- 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges), 2011-09-13. (Translation by Google Translate.)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tsukuba, Ibaraki.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tsukuba.|